Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1279)

Fever (759)

Cough (618)

Hypertension (438)

Anxiety (416)


Transmission

age categories (3407)

Transmission (3074)

gender (1564)

fomite (1290)

contact tracing (1125)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 16188
    records per page




    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in the Central Nervous System of a 1-Year-Old Infant Submitted to Complete Autopsy MESHD

    Authors: Ismael Carlos Gomes; Karina Karmirian; Julia Oliveira; Carolina Pedrosa; Fernando Colonna Rosman; Leila Chimelli; Stevens Rehen

    id:202009.0297/v2 Date: 2020-09-19 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially characterized as a respiratory illness MESHD. Neurological manifestations were reported mostly in severely affected patients. Routes for brain infection MESHD and the presence of virus particles in situ have not been well described, raising controversy about how the virus causes neurological symptoms. Here, we report the autopsy findings of a 1-year old infant with COVID-19. In addition to pneumonitis, meningitis MESHD meningitis HP and multiple organ damage related to thrombosis MESHD, a previous encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD may have contributed to additional cerebral damage MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD the choroid plexus, ventricles, and cerebral cortex. This is the first evidence of SARS-CoV-2 detection in an infant post-mortem brain.

    Who should be Prioritized for COVID-19 Vaccination in China? A Descriptive Study

    Authors: Juan Yang; Wen Zheng; Huilin Shi; Xuemei Yan; Kaige Dong; Qian You; Guangjie Zhong; Hui Gong; Zhiyuan Chen; Mark Jit; Cecile Viboud; Marco Ajelli; Hongjie Yu

    id:202009.0446/v1 Date: 2020-09-19 Source: Preprints.org

    All countries are facing decisions about which groups to prioritise for COVID-19 vaccination after the first vaccine product has been licensed, at which time supply shortages are inevitable. Here we define the key target populations and their size in China for a phased introduction of COVID-19 vaccination with evolving goals, accounting for the risk of illness and transmission TRANS. Essential workers (47.2 million) like healthcare workers could be prioritized for vaccination to maintain essential services. Subsequently, older adults TRANS, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (616.0 million) could be targeted to reduce severe COVID-19 outcomes. Then it could be further extended to target adults TRANS without underlying health conditions and children TRANS (738.7 million) to reduce symptomatic infections and/or to stop virus transmission TRANS. The proposed framework could assist Chinese policy-makers in the design of a vaccination program, and could be generalized to inform other national and regional COVID-19 vaccination strategies.

    False-Negative Molecular Diagnosis of SARS-Cov-2 in Samples with Amplification Inhibitors

    Authors: Marcelo Fruehwirth; Açucena Veleh Rivas; Andressa Faria Rahyn Fitz; Aline Cristiane Cechinel Assing Batista; Cleypson Vinicius Silveira; Robson Michael Delai

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0450.v1 Date: 2020-09-19 Source: Preprints.org

    Although rRT-PCR is the gold standard method for SARS-CoV-2 detection, some factors, such as amplification inhibitors presence, lead to false-negative results. Here we describe differences between rRT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in normal and diluted samples, simulating the need for dilution due to amplification inhibitors presence. Viral RNA extraction of nasopharyngeal swabs samples from 20 patients previously detected as 'Negative' and 21 patients detected as 'Positive' for SARS-CoV-2 was realized with the EasyExtract DNA-RNA (Interprise®) for extraction. rRT-PCR was realized with OneStep/COVID-19 (IBMP) kit with normal and diluted (80µl of H₂O RNAse free) samples, totaling 82 tests. The results indicate that there is an average variation (ɑ < 0.05) delaying Ct between the amplification results of internal control (IC), N Gene (NG), and ORF-1ab (OF) of 1.811Ct, 3.840Ct, and 3.842Ct, respectively. The extraction kit does not completely purify the inhibitor compounds, therefore non-amplification by inhibitors may occur. In this study, we obtained a 19.04% false-negative diagnosis after sample dilution, and this process reduces the efficiency of rRT-PCR to 29.8% for detecting SARS-CoV-2. Knowing the rRT-PCR standards of diluted samples can help in the identification of false-negative cases, and consequently avoid a wrong diagnosis.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infections - Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Data Mining, Pathway Enrichment Analysis, and Prediction of Repurposable Drugs/Compounds

    Authors: Srilakshmi Chaparala; Carrie L Iwema; Ansuman Chattopadhyay

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0459.v1 Date: 2020-09-19 Source: Preprints.org

    The COVID-19 global pandemic has created dire consequences with an alarming rate of morbidity and mortality. There are not yet vaccine or efficacious treatment options to combat the causative SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. This paper describes the identification of potentially repurposable drugs for COVID-19 treatment by conducting pathway enrichment analysis on publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus datasets. We first determined SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD-induced alterations of host gene expressions and pathways. We then identified drugs or compounds that target and counter virus-triggered cellular perturbations, suggesting their potential repurposing for COVID-19 treatment. The key findings are that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in host cells induces mitochondrial dysfunction MESHD, inhibits oxidative phosphorylation, and activates several immune response and pro-inflammatory pathways. Triptolide, the major bioactive component of a traditional Chinese medicine herb, may rescue mitochondrial dysfunction MESHD by activating oxidative phosphorylation. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to verify these results prior to clinical application.

    Who should be Prioritized for COVID-19 Vaccination in China? A Descriptive Study

    Authors: Juan Yang; Wen Zheng; Huilin Shi; Xuemei Yan; Kaige Dong; Qian You; Guangjie Zhong; Hui Gong; Zhiyuan Chen; Mark Jit; Cecile Viboud; Marco Ajelli; Hongjie Yu

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0446.v1 Date: 2020-09-19 Source: Preprints.org

    All countries are facing decisions about which groups to prioritise for COVID-19 vaccination after the first vaccine product has been licensed, at which time supply shortages are inevitable. Here we define the key target populations and their size in China for a phased introduction of COVID-19 vaccination with evolving goals, accounting for the risk of illness and transmission TRANS. Essential workers (47.2 million) like healthcare workers could be prioritized for vaccination to maintain essential services. Subsequently, older adults TRANS, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (616.0 million) could be targeted to reduce severe COVID-19 outcomes. Then it could be further extended to target adults TRANS without underlying health conditions and children TRANS (738.7 million) to reduce symptomatic infections and/or to stop virus transmission TRANS. The proposed framework could assist Chinese policy-makers in the design of a vaccination program, and could be generalized to inform other national and regional COVID-19 vaccination strategies.

    SARS-CoV-2 S Protein Binding hACE2: Viral Entry, Pathogenesis, Prognosis, and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Authors: Lobna Al-Zaidan; Sarra Mestiri; Afsheen Raza; Maysaloun Merhi; Varghese Inchakalody; Queenie Fernandez; Nassiba Taib; Shahab Uddin; Said Dermime

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0420.v1 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: Preprints.org

    Pneumonia HP cases of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China, were reported to the WHO on 31st of December 2019. Later the pathogen was reported to be a novel coronavirus designated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) that causes Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is a novel pathogenic beta coronavirus that infects MESHD humans causing severe respiratory illness MESHD. However, multifarious factors can contribute to the susceptibility to COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality such as age TRANS, gender TRANS and underlying comorbidities. Importantly, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD entry into the host cells is mediated via ACE2 receptor. However, ACE2 receptor binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2 is 4 folds higher than that to SARS-CoV MESHD. Identification of different aspects such as binding affinity, differential antigenic profiles of spike glycoproteins, and ACE2 polymorphisms might influence the investigation of potential therapeutic strategies targeting SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 binding interface. Here we aim to elaborate on SARS-CoV-2 S1/ACE2 ligand that facilitates viral internalization as well as to highlight the differences between SARS-CoVs binding affinity to ACE2. We also discuss the possible immunogenic sequences of spike glycoprotein and the effect of ACE2 polymorphism on viral binding/infectivity and host susceptibility to disease. Furthermore, targeting of ACE2 will be discussed to understand its role in therapeutics.

    Introduction of two prolines and removal of the polybasic cleavage site leads to optimal efficacy of a recombinant spike based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in the mouse model

    Authors: Fatima Amanat; Shirin Strohmeier; Raveen Rathnasinghe; Michael Schotsaert; Lynda Coughlan; Adolfo García-Sastre; Florian Krammer

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.16.300970 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: bioRxiv

    The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the prime target for vaccine development. The spike protein mediates both binding to host cells and membrane fusion and is also so far the only known viral target of neutralizing antibodies SERO. Coronavirus spike proteins are large trimers that are relatively instable, a feature that might be enhanced by the presence of a polybasic cleavage site in the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Exchange of K986 and V987 to prolines has been shown to stabilize the trimers of SARS-CoV-1 and the Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus spikes MESHD. Here, we test multiple versions of a soluble spike protein for their immunogenicity and protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in a mouse model that transiently expresses human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 via adenovirus transduction. Variants tested include spike protein with a deleted polybasic cleavage site, the proline mutations, a combination thereof, as well as the wild type protein. While all versions of the protein were able to induce neutralizing antibodies SERO, only the antigen with both a deleted cleavage site and the PP mutations completely protected from challenge in this mouse model.

    Death associated with coronavirus (COVID-19) infection MESHD in individuals with severe mental disorders MESHD in Sweden during the early months of the outbreak - a exploratory cross-sectional analysis of a population-based register study

    Authors: Martin Maripuu; Marie Bendix; Louise Öhlund; Micael Widerström; Ursula Werneke; Adolfo García-Sastre; Florian Krammer

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.14.20193987 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Individuals with severe mental disorder MESHD ( SMD MESHD) have a higher risk of somatic comorbidity and mortality than the rest of the population. We set up a population-based study to assess whether individuals with SMD MESHD had a higher risk of death MESHD associated with a COVID-19 infection (COVID-19 associated death MESHD) than individuals without SMD MESHD. Methods: Exploratory analysis with a cross-sectional design in the framework of a population-based register study covering the entire Swedish population. The Swedish Board for Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) provided anonymised tabulated summary data for further analysis. We compared numbers of COVID-19 associated death in individuals with SMD MESHD (cases) and without SMD MESHD (controls). We calculated the odds ratio (OR) for the whole sample and by age group TRANS and four potential risk factors, namely diabetes MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, chronic lung disease HP lung disease MESHD. Results: The sample comprised of 7,923,859 individuals, 103,999 with SMD MESHD and 7,819,860 controls. There were 130 (0.1%) COVID-19 associated deaths in the SMD group and 4945 (0.06%) in the control group, corresponding to an OR of 1.98 (CI 1.66-2.35; p < 0.001). The odds were fourfold in the age group TRANS between 60 and 79 years. Cardiovascular diseases MESHD increased the odds by 50%. Individuals with SMD MESHD without any of the risk factors under study had three-folds odds of COVID-19 associated death. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that individuals with SMD MESHD are a further group at increased risk of COVID-19 associated death. The factors contributing to this increased mortality risk require clarification.

    Genetically proxied inhibition of interleukin-6 signaling: opposing associations with susceptibility to COVID-19 and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD

    Authors: Susanna C Larsson; Stephen Burgess; Dipender C Gill; Micael Widerström; Ursula Werneke; Adolfo García-Sastre; Florian Krammer

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.15.20165886 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is pivotal for orchestrating the immune response. Inhibitors of IL-6 signaling are being investigated as treatments for severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a Mendelian randomization study investigating the effect of IL-6 signaling on susceptibility to COVID-19 and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Our results showed that genetically proxied inhibition of IL-6 signaling was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19, but also with increased risk of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Respiratory disease MESHD is a main feature of severe COVID-19, and the potential of IL-6 signaling inhibitors to increase risk of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD warrants vigilance and caution in their application to treat COVID-19.

    Strict lockdown versus flexible social distance strategy for COVID-19 disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    Authors: Ben W. Mol; Jonathan Karnon; Dipender C Gill; Micael Widerström; Ursula Werneke; Adolfo García-Sastre; Florian Krammer

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.14.20194605 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives To balance the costs and effects comparing a strict lockdown versus a flexible social distancing strategy for societies affected by Coronavirus-19 Disease MESHD (COVID-19). Design Cost-effectiveness analysis. Participants We used societal data and COVID-19 mortality rates from the public domain. Interventions The intervention was a strict lockdown strategy that has been followed by Denmark. Reference strategy was flexible social distancing policy as was applied by Sweden. We derived mortality rates from COVID-19 national statistics, assumed the expected life years lost from each COVID-19 death MESHD to be 11 years and calculated lost life years until 31st August 2020. Expected economic costs were derived from gross domestic productivity (GDP) statistics from each country's official statistics bureau and forecasted GDP. The incremental financial costs of the strict lockdown were calculated by comparing Sweden with Denmark using externally available market information. Calculations were projected per one million inhabitants. In sensitivity SERO analyses we varied the total cost of the lockdown (range -50% to +100%). Main outcome measure Financial costs per life years saved. Results In Sweden, the number of people who died with COVID-19 was 577 per million inhabitants, resulting in an estimated 6,350 life years lost per million inhabitants. In Denmark, where a strict lockdown strategy was installed for months, the number of people dying with COVID-19 was on average 111 per million, resulting in an estimated 1,216 life years per million inhabitants lost. The incremental costs of strict lockdown to save one life year was US$ 137,285, and higher in most of the sensitivity SERO analyses. Conclusions Comparisons of public health interventions for COVID-19 should take into account life years saved and not only lost lives. Strict lockdown costs more than US$ 130,000 per life year saved. As our all our assumptions were in favour of strict lockdown, a flexible social distancing policy in response to COVID19 is defendable.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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