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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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NSP16 (1)

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ORF1ab (1)


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    Delayed rise of oral fluid antibodies, elevated BMI, and absence of early fever MESHD correlate with longer time to SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in an longitudinally sampled cohort of COVID-19 MESHD outpatients

    Authors: Annukka A. R. Antar; Tong Yu; Nora Pisnic; Razvan Azamfirei; Jeffrey A Tornheim; Diane M. Brown; Kate Kruczynski; Justin P. Hardick; Thelio Sewell; Minyoung Jang; Taylor Church; Samantha N. Walch; Carolyn Reuland; Vismaya S. Bachu; Kirsten Littlefield; Han-Sol Park; Rebecca L. Ursin; Abhinaya Ganesan; Oyinkansola Kusemiju; Brittany Barnaba; Curtisha Charles; Michelle Prizzi; Jaylynn R. Johnstone; Christine Payton; Weiwei Dai; Joelle Fuchs; Guido Massaccesi; Derek T. Armstrong; Jennifer L. Townsend; Sara C. Keller; Zoe O Demko; Chen Hu; Mei-Cheng Wang; Lauren M. Sauer; Heba H. Mostafa; Jeanne C. Keruly; Shruti H. Mehta; Sabra L. Klein; Andrea L. Cox; Andrew Pekosz; Christopher D. Heaney; David L. Thomas; Paul W. Blair; Yukari C. Manabe

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.02.21252420 Date: 2021-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background Viral and immune kinetics in mild to moderate COVID-19 MESHD are understudied because of challenges inherent in longitudinal sampling of people who are infectious to others, feeling ill, yet are not hospitalized. In particular, sustained molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT) in mild to moderate COVID-19 MESHD is common and confounds surveillance efforts in the community. We sought to identify host and immune determinants of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection via longitudinal viral RNA, virus culture, and plasma and oral fluid antibody sampling in a prospective observational cohort study of adult outpatients with COVID-19 MESHD. Methods and Findings Samples from 95 non-hospitalized participants [≥] 30 years old with recent COVID-19 MESHD diagnosis and known symptom onset date were analyzed. Participants self-collected mid-turbinate nasal, oropharyngeal (OP), and gingival crevicular fluid (oral fluid) samples at home and in a research clinic a median of 6 times over 1-3 months. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR performed on 507 URT samples revealed a median time to viral RNA clearance of the URT of 33.5 days. Sixteen nasal-OP samples collected 2-11 days post-symptom onset were virus culture positive out of 183 RT-PCR positive samples tested. All participants but one with positive virus culture were negative for concomitant oral fluid anti- SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN-receptor binding domain (S-RBD) antibodies. The kinetics of oral fluid anti-SARS-Cov-2 antibodies were measured using a multiplex immunoassay. The mean time to first detection of oral fluid anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 8-13 days post-symptom onset. Associations of symptoms, host demographics, comorbidities, and immune kinetics with time to SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. A longer time to first detection of oral fluid anti- SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD antibodies was independently associated with a longer time to SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA clearance (aHR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p=0.020). BMI [≥] 25kg/m2 was also independently associated with a longer time to viral RNA clearance (aHR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.78, p=0.009). Fever MESHD reported as one of first three COVID-19 MESHD symptoms was associated with shorter time to viral RNA clearance (aHR 2.06, 95% CI 1.02-4.18, p=0.044). Plasma titers of neutralizing antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD (S) antibodies, and S-receptor binding domain (S-RBD) antibodies were obtained at 1-4 months post-symptom onset. BMI was positively correlated with post-acute plasma SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibody titer and anti-S-RBD antibody titer. Conclusions In an intensively sampled cohort of 95 adult outpatients with COVID-19 MESHD, we demonstrate that longer time to first detection of oral fluid SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, elevated BMI, and absence of early fever MESHD are independently associated with longer time to viral RNA clearance. This work provides insights into the host and immune factors most important for viral clearance in mild to moderate COVID-19 MESHD.

    A longitudinal study of healthcare workers' surveillance during the ongoing COVID-19 MESHD Epidemics in Italy: is SARS-CoV-2 still a threat for the Health-care System?

    Authors: Francesco Barbaro; Foscarina Della Rocca; Andrea Padoan; Ada Aita; Cianci Vito; Daniela Basso; Annamaria Cattelan; Daniele Donato; Mario Plebani; Luigi Dall'Olmo

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.23.21249481 Date: 2021-02-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: In spring 2020, Northern Italy was the first area outside China to be involved in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This observational study depicts SARS-CoV-2 prevalence and serological curves among first-line healthcare workers (HCWs) at Padua University Hospital (PdUH), North-East Italy. Method: 344 HCWs, working at the PdUH Emergency Department and Infectious Disease MESHD Unit, underwent a SARS-CoV-2 RNA nasopharyngeal swab with paired IgM and IgG antibody detection for 4 consecutive weeks. At every session, a questionnaire recorded symptoms, signs and recent contacts with SARS-CoV-2 patients. Positive cases were followed up for 5 months. Results: Twenty-seven HCWs (7.84%) had positive serology (Abs) with 12 positive swabs during the study period. Two additional HCWs were positive by swab but without Abs. Fourteen cases (4%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD before the beginning of the study. An HCW with autoimmune disease MESHD showed false Ab results. 46% of individuals with Abs reported no symptoms, in accordance with previous population studies. Fever MESHD, nasal congestion, diarrhoea MESHD and contacts with SARS-CoV-2 individuals correlated to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. 96% of Abs+ cases showed persistent positive antibodies 5 months later and none was re-infected. Discussion: Correct use of PPEs and separate paths for positive/negative patients in the hospital can result in a low percentage of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD among HCWs, even in high risk settings. Frequent testing for SARS-CoV-2 with nasopharyngeal swabs is worthwhile, irrespective of HCWs' symptoms, due to the lack of specificity together with the high percentage of asymptomatic cases. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neutralizing effect of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

    An update of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD): an essential brief for clinicians

    Authors: Afshin Zare; Seyyede Fateme Sadati-Seyyed-Mahalle; Amirhossein Mokhtari; Nima Pakdel; Zeinab Hamidi; Sahar Almasi-Turk; Neda Baghban; Arezoo Khoradmehr; Iraj Nabipour; Mohammad Amin Behzadi; Amin Tamadon

    id:10.20944/preprints202102.0530.v1 Date: 2021-02-23 Source: Preprints.org

    During 2019, the number of patients suffering from cough, fever MESHD and reduction of WBC’s count increased. At the beginning, this mysterious illness was called “ fever MESHD with unknown origin”. At the present time, the cause of this pneumonia MESHD is known as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 is one member of great family of coronaviruses. Coronaviruses can cause different kind of illnesses including respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and neurological diseases MESHD in animals like cat and bat. Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The SARS-CoV-2 has some particular structures for binding to host cells, reproducing itself in cells and damaging human cells. The SARS-CoV-2 can bind angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE‐2 HGNC) receptors and cause various difficulties for human. The SARS-CoV-2 can cause either not-serious issues like fever MESHD and cough MESHD or serious concerns such as multi-organ failure MESHD. Source(s) of SARS-CoV-2 is under debate. Malayan pangolin and bat are the most suspicious candidate for being sources of the SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by various ways such as transmitting from infected human to healthy human and can make severe pneumonia MESHD, which can lead to death. The SARS-CoV-2 can infect different kind of people with different ages, races, and social and economic levels. The SARS‐CoV‐2 infection MESHD can cause various sorts of clinical manifestations like cough and fever MESHD and intensity of signs and symptoms depends on sufferer conditions. Clinicians use all of available documents and tests like laboratory, histopathological and radiological findings for diagnosing new cases and curing patients with high accuracy. At the present time, there is no particular way for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD; neither antiviral drugs nor palliative agents. It seems that the best way for standing against the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is preventing from it by social distancing and vaccination. This review tries to prepare an essential brief update about SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD for clinicians.

    An Unusual Presentation of Pyelonephritis MESHD: Is it COVID-19 MESHD Related?

    Authors: Liseanne van 't Hof; Lucy Pellikaan; Darius Soonawala; Hossain Roshani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-219574/v1 Date: 2021-02-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    IntroductionIn severe cases of COVID-19 MESHD, late complications such as coagulopathy MESHD and organ injury are increasingly described. In milder cases of the disease, the exact time frame and causal path of late onset complications has not yet been determined. Although direct and indirect renal injury MESHD by SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed, hemorrhagic renal infection MESHD or coagulative problems in the urinary tract have not yet been described.Case PresentationThis case report describes a 35-year-old female without relevant medical history who, five days after having recovered from an infection with SARS-CoV-2, had an unusual course of acute pyelonephritis of the right kidney MESHD and persistent fever MESHD under targeted antibiotic treatment. A hemorrhagic ureteral obstruction MESHD and severe swollen renal parenchyma preceded the onset of fever MESHD and was related to the developing pyelonephritis MESHD. Sudden thrombotic vascular occlusion MESHD in the right eye appeared during admission. Symmetrical paresthesia in de limbs in combination of severe lower back pain MESHD and gastro-intestinal manifestation was documented and not been explained despite of intensive investigation.ConclusionWe present the unusual combination of culture confirmed bacterial hemorrhagic pyelonephritis MESHD with a blood clot in the proximal right ureter, complicated by a retinal venous thrombosis MESHD, in a patient who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2-infection MESHD five days before presentation. The case is suspect of a COVID-19 MESHD related etiology. 

    COVID-19 MESHD Associated Pancreatitis MESHD: A Review of 66 Cases

    Authors: Zahra Rahimian; Ali Ardekani; Afrooz Feili; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-154488/v1 Date: 2021-01-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has shown itself with different clinical manifestations. Besides respiratory distress, cough, and fever MESHD, which were the most common symptoms, pancreatitis MESHD has been reported as a rare presentation of this disease, but the knowledge on this association and its pathogenesis is sparse. Methods: Four databases, including Pub Med, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, were searched for the association of pancreatitis MESHD and SARS-CoV- 2 infection MESHD, and 29 relevant articles were extracted and reviewed. Results: We reviewed 29 studies provided 66 cases developed acute pancreatitis MESHD while they were infected with SARS-CoV-2. The mean age of patients was 49.94 ± 16.96. The female to male ratio was 1.06 (33 to 31). In 44% of cases, acute pancreatitis MESHD developed as the primary presentation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) and 9% of reported cases, expired.Conclusions: During this pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the patients presenting with acute pancreatitis MESHD. Although pancreatitis MESHD will respond to standard care, these patients need isolation and observation for later development of respiratory symptoms. 

    Neonatal COVID-19 MESHD in French Guiana, a Case-Control study.

    Authors: Narcisse Elenga; Wandji Marie-Josephine; Julie Siban; Mathieu Nacher; Magalie Demar

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-147493/v1 Date: 2021-01-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThis study aims to assess the risk of transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD ( SARS COV-2 MESHD) to newborns in the context of breastfeeding practice as part of routine care.MethodsIn this prospective study, we identified neonates born between May 14th and August 31st, 2020, to mothers who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the time of delivery. From the cohort of 974 deliveries, we performed a nested case-control study. ResultsDuring the study period, 133 (13.7%) were positive by RT‐PCR for SARS‐CoV‐2. Among the 35 pregnant women with symptomatic COVID-19 MESHD (26.3%), cough MESHD was the most common symptom, occurring in half of the cases. Among them, 3 developed fever MESHD as other symptoms during hospitalization and 4 have progressed to critical pneumonia MESHD requiring transfer to intensive care unit. Among the neonates born from mothers with positive RT‐PCR for SARS‐CoV‐2, 32 were tested for SARS-COV-2 at 48 hours-7 days. Of them, 3 asymptomatic neonates tested positive. There were no significant differences in fetal distress, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, preterm birth, and neonatal asphyxia MESHD between the two groups Most infants were breastfed at birth, regardless of their mothers' COVID-19 MESHD status. In COVID-19 MESHD-positive pregnant women admitted to intensive care unit, the proportion of preterm births ( OR=12.5 [1.7-90.5]), fetal death MESHD in utero (OR=25.9 [2.2-305]) and admission in neonatal intensive care unit admission (OR=13.4 [3.0-60]), appeared higher than the controls. No maternal deaths were recorded.ConclusionsOur data suggest that under breastfeeding conditions with rigorous hygiene precautions and parental education, the risk of vertical transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus is unlikely.

    Analysis of Management Approach to Newborn Care of Infants Delivered to COVID-19 MESHD Positive Mothers at Five Tertiary Care Centers in the UAE over a 7 Month Period 

    Authors: Monika Kaushal; Yamuna Tulasi; Ayush Kaushal; Aditya Rakhecha; Rafiq Memon; Karvendhan Ramasamy; Shoaib Khan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-144393/v1 Date: 2021-01-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    ObjectivesTo assess newborn care practices, clinical characters and risks of mother to child transmission during rooming in and breastfeeding in infants born to mothers with COVID-19 MESHD.DesignRetrospective observational study.Participants5 Tertiary care centers located in the UAE. Infants born to mothers diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD at the time of delivery, born between April 1st and October 30th 2020.MethodsIn this retrospective observational study, we analyzed the newborn care practices in various tertiary care hospitals and the rate of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to infant (vertical or horizontal) while rooming in, breastfeeding and post discharge. Results40 infants were born to mothers with COVID-19 MESHD at the time of delivery. One infant tested positive for S ARS-CoV-2 MESHDafter birth and had respiratory symptoms and f ever. MESHD 23 of the well infants were roomed in during their hospital stay and were breastfed. In 8 cases, the mother and baby were separated and isolated from the time of birth till discharge. 95% of the discharged infants were rooming in with mothers, 45% of the infants were exclusively breastfed and 55% were on mixed feeding (b reast milk MESHDand formula milk) at the follow-up. None of the infants developed significant health issues or symptoms attributable to SARS-CoV-2.ConclusionThe risk of mother to infant transmission of COVID-19 MESHD in the perinatal period is very low. Our study reaffirms the AAP guidelines that rooming in and breastfeeding of newborns born to COVID-19 MESHD positive mothers is safe without an increased risk of transmission by following mandated safety precautions. 

    Persistence and baseline determinants of seropositivity in health care workers up to nine months after COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Carlota Dobaño; Anna Ramirez; Selena Alonso; Josep Vidal-Alaball; Gemma Ruiz-Olalla; Marta Vidal; Rocio Rubio; Emma Cascant; Daniel Parras; Natalia Rodrigo Melero; Pau Serra; Carlo Carolis; Pere Santamaria; Anna Forcada; Jacobo Mendioroz; Ruth Aguilar; Gemma Moncunill; Anna Ruiz-Comellas

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-142984/v1 Date: 2021-01-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    We determined the duration and baseline determinants of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 up to nine months after COVID-19 MESHD symptoms onset in 173 primary health care worker patients from Spain. Seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN and RBD antigens was 92.49% (60.69% IgM, 76.3% IgA, 90.17% IgG), with four suspected reinfection cases. Antibody levels significantly correlated with fever MESHD, hospitalization, anosmia/hypogeusia MESHD, allergies MESHD, smoking and occupation, and persisted 149-270 days in this cohort of patients

    The Impact of Intervention to Routine Surveillance of Natural Focal Diseases During the Outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD in Jiangsu Province, China

    Authors: Jianli Hu; Xiaoqing Cheng; Li Luo; Zeyu Zhao; Nan Zhang; Mikah Ngwanguong Hannah; Jia Rui; Shengnan Lin; Xingchun Liu; Yuanzhao Zhu; Yao Wang; Meng Yang; Jingwen Xu; Tianlong Yang; Weikang Liu; Peihua Li; Bin Deng; Zhuoyang Li; Chan Liu; Jiefeng Huang; Cangjun Bao; Tianmu Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-135563/v1 Date: 2020-12-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: With the strength intervention of China, the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had a great control effect. The measures may influence the development and progression of others infectious diseases MESHD.Method: The data of daily coronavirus virus disease MESHD 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) confirmed cases from January 3, 2020 to April 30, 2020 and natural focal disease cases from January, 2005 to April, 2020 were collected from Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Jiangsu Provincial CDC). We describe and compare the data of natural focal diseases from January to April, 2020 with the same months from 2015 to 2019 in the four aspects: trend of incidence, regional, age and sex distribution. Nonparametric tests were used to analyzed to the difference between the duration from onset of illness to date of diagnosis of natural focal diseases and the same period of the previous year. Results: The incidence of malaria MESHD in February (0.9 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (0.1 per 10,000,000 people) 2020 less than the lower limit for range of February (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.8-3.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (1.0-2.9 per 10,000,000 people) from 2015 to 2019 respectively. The incidence of brucellosis MESHD in February was 0.9 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people). The incidence of hemorrhagic fever MESHD ( HF MESHD) in March was 1.0 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.4-2.6 per 10,000,000 people). However, the incidence of Severe Fever MESHD with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome MESHD ( SEFT MESHD) in March was 0.3 (per 10,000,000 people), higher than the upper limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (0.0-0.1 per 10,000,000 people). Furthermore, we respectively observed the incidence with various degree of reduction in male, 20-60 years old and both rural and urban areas. Conclusions: In Jiangsu province, the incidence of natural focal diseases decreased during the outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD in 2020, especially malaria MESHD, HF MESHD and SEFT. The impact of interventions were felt most by male individuals within the age group of 20-50 years. The interventions for COVID-19 MESHD may control the epidemics of natural focal diseases.

    Evolution of COVID-19 MESHD patients treated with ImmunoFormulation, a combination of nutraceuticals to reduce symptomatology and improve prognosis: a multi-centred, retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Mariana Hernández; Jully Urrea; Luciano Bascoy

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-133532/v2 Date: 2020-12-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Although a vast knowledge has already been gathered on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 MESHD, there are still limited, non-optimal treatment options. In this context, agents that can act on prophylaxis or as adjuvants to the therapies are of high value.Methods In this paper, we describe a multicentre, retrospective, observational study to describe the course of SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD in patients treated with ImmunoFormulation (IF), an add-on therapy developed to decrease duration of clinical symptoms. In parallel, a group of patients that did not receive IF was used for comparison (using standard of care treatment). A total of 39 patients were evaluated for their recovery rate, general symptoms and their severity, and adverse reactions.Results Throughout the observational period, 90% of patients recovered in the IF cohort and 47.4% in the Control cohort (p=0.0057). From the symptoms with statistically significant differences, the duration of symptoms (i.e., the time to recover from it) was shorter in the IF cohort than in control cohort (in days, average), especially for fever MESHD (2.25 x 21.78), dry cough MESHD (4.38 x 24.00), dyspnoea MESHD (3.67 x 20.00), headache MESHD (2.00 x 26.50), diarrhoea MESHD (5.25 x 25.25), and weakness MESHD (1.92 x 23.30).Conclusions This demonstrates a potential promising role of IF as adjuvant therapy on the evolution of symptomatology to COVID-19 MESHD patients.

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MeSH Disease
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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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