Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (24)

Cough (18)

Pneumonia (9)

Dyspnea (5)

Fatigue (4)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    IL-33 expression in response to SARS-CoV-2 correlates with seropositivity in COVID-19 convalescent individuals

    Authors: Michal A Stanczak; David E Sanin; Petya Apostolova; Gabriele Nerz; Dimitrios Lampaki; Maike Hofmann; Daniel Steinmann; Robert Thimme; Gerhard Mittler; Cornelius F Waller; Edward J Pearce; Erika L Pearce

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20148056 Date: 2020-07-10

    Our understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still developing. We investigated seroprevalence SERO and immune responses in subjects professionally exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and their family members TRANS (155 individuals; ages TRANS 5-79 years). Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein aligned with PCR results that confirmed previous infection MESHD. Anti-spike IgG titers remained high 60 days post- infection MESHD and did not associate with symptoms, but spike-specific IgM did associate with malaise and fever MESHD fever HP. We found limited household transmission TRANS, with children TRANS of infected individuals seldomly seropositive, highlighting professional exposure as the dominant route of infection MESHD in our cohort. We analyzed PBMCs from a subset of seropositive and seronegative adults TRANS. TLR7 agonist- activation revealed an increased population of IL-6+TNF-IL-1{beta}+ monocytes, while SARS-CoV-2 peptide stimulation elicited IL-33, IL-6, IFNa2, and IL-23 expression in seropositive individuals. IL-33 correlated with CD4+ T cell activation in PBMCs from convalescent subjects, and was likely due to T cell-mediated effects on IL-33- producing cells. IL-33 is associated with pulmonary infection MESHD infection and chronic HP and chronic diseases MESHD like asthma MESHD asthma HP and COPD, but its role in COVID-19 is unknown. Analysis of published scRNAseq data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with mild to severe COVID-19 revealed a population of IL-33-producing cells that increases with disease MESHD. Together these findings show that IL-33 production is linked to SARS-CoV- 2 infection MESHD and warrant further investigation of IL-33 in COVID-19 pathogenesis and immunity.

    Predictive model of COVID-19 incidence and socioeconomic description of municipalities in Brazil

    Authors: Isadora C Carneiro; Eloiza D Ferreira; Janaína C da Silva; Guilherme Soares; Daisy M Strottmann; Guilherme F Silveira

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.28.20141952 Date: 2020-06-29

    Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses that can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and neurological diseases MESHD. In December 2019, a new highly contagious coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China. SARS-CoV-2 causes a potentially lethal human respiratory infection MESHD, COVID-19, that is associated with fever MESHD fever HP and cough MESHD cough HP and can progress to pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP in severe cases. Since the virus emerged, it has spread rapidly, reaching all continents around the world. A previous study has shown that, despite being the best alternative in the current pandemic context, social distancing measures alone may not be sufficient to prevent COVID-19 spread, and the overall impact of the virus is of great concern. The present study aims to describe the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of 672 cities with cases of COVID-19, as well as to determine a predictive model for the number of cases. We analyzed data from cities with at least 1 reported case of COVID-19 until June 26, 2020. It was observed that cities with confirmed cases TRANS of the disease MESHD are present in all Brazilian states, affecting 36.5% of the municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State. The inhabitants in cities with reported cases of COVID-19 represent more than 73.1% of the Brazilian population. Stratifying the age groups TRANS of the inhabitants and accounting for the percentage of women and men does not affect COVID-19 incidence ( confirmed cases TRANS/100,000 inhabitants). The demographic density, the MHDI and the per capita income of the municipalities with cases of COVID-19 do not affect disease MESHD incidence. In addition, if conditions are maintained, our model predicts 2,358,703 (2,172,930 to 2,544,477) cumulative cases on July 25, 2020.

    Seroprevalence SERO against COVID-19 and follow-up of suspected cases in primary TRANS health care in Spain

    Authors: Carlos Brotons; Jordi Serrano; Diana Fernandez; Carlos Garcia-Ramos; Begona Ichazo; Jeannine Lemaire; Patricia Montenegro; Irene Moral; Ricky Perez- Wienese; Marc Pitarch; Mireia Puig; Maria Teresa Vilella; Jaume Sellares

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.13.20130575 Date: 2020-06-16

    Background During the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic little information has been available about patients with mild or moderate symptoms attended and followed in the primary care setting, most of whom had an unknown status for the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD. Objectives We aim to measure the seroprevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in a community sample of asymptomatic TRANS individuals and among symptomatic patients (without confirmed diagnosis) followed in a primary care setting. As a secondary objective, we estimated the proportions of symptomatic patients seeing at an emergency MESHD department (ED), hospitalized or dying, and identified the most important clinical symptoms associated with a positive infection MESHD. Methods From April 21 to April 24 2020, we selected a random sample of 600 individuals stratified by age groups TRANS, from a total population of 19,899 individuals from a community area in Barcelona (study population 1). From April 29 to May 5 2020, we also invited all the patients that had been followed by general practitioners (GPs) (study population 2). We used for both populations COVID-19 Rapid lateral flow immunoassay SERO which qualitatively assesses the presence of patient-generated IgG and IgM in approximately 10-15 minutes. The prevalence SERO (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of infection MESHD (past and current) was defined as the proportion of individuals with antibody SERO seropositivity. Odds ratios (ORs) for a positive test result were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Three hundred and eleven asymptomatic TRANS individuals from the randomly selected sample accepted to participate in the study. The overall mean age TRANS was 43.7 years (SD 21.79, range 1-94) and 55% were women. Seventeen individuals were seropositive for IgM and/or IgG, resulting an overall prevalence SERO of 5,47% (95% CI, 3.44-8.58). Six-hundred and thirty-four symptomatic patients were followed by GPs. The overall mean age TRANS was 46.97 years (SD 20.05, range 0-92) and 57.73% were women. Of these, 244 patients (38.49%) were seropositive for IgM and/or IgG. During the follow-up period, 27.13% of symptomatic patients attended the ED, 11.83% were hospitalized and about 2% died. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the OR for a positive test was significantly increased in patients who had fever MESHD fever HP (>38{degrees}C), ageusia MESHD and contact with a patient diagnosed with COVID-19. Conclusions The seroprevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 among asymptomatic TRANS individuals in the general population was lower than expected. Approximately 40% of the symptomatic patients followed by GPs during the peak months of the pandemic in Barcelona, were positive. Fever MESHD Fever HP (>38{degrees}C), anosmia HP, ageusia MESHD and contact with a patient diagnosed with COVID-19 were associated with a positive test result.

    A COVID-19 outbreak in a rheumatology department upon the early days of the pandemic

    Authors: Vasco C. Romão; Filipa Oliveira-Ramos; Ana Rita Cruz-Machado; Patrícia Martins; Sofia Barreira; Joana Silva-Dinis; Luís Galaio; Helena Proença; José Melo Cristino; Ema Sacadura-Leite; Nikita Khmelinskii; José Carlos Romeu; João Eurico Fonseca; - CHULN Rheumatology Department

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.05.20107011 Date: 2020-06-08

    Objectives: To describe our experience with a coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak within a large rheumatology department, early in the pandemic. Methods: Symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS healthcare workers (HCWs) had a naso-oropharyngeal swab for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and were followed clinically. Reverse transcription polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) was repeated to document cure, and serological response was assessed. Patients with risk contacts within the department in the 14 days preceding the outbreak were screened for COVID-19 symptoms. Results: 14/34 HCWs (41%; 40{+/-}14 years, 71% female TRANS) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 11/34 (32%) developed symptoms but were RT-PCR-negative. Half of RT-PCR-positive HCWs did not report fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, or dyspnoea before testing, which were absent in 3/14 cases (21%). Mild disease MESHD prevailed (79%), but 3 HCWs had moderate disease MESHD requiring further assessment, which excluded severe complications. Nevertheless, symptom duration (28{+/-}18 days), viral shedding (31{+/-}10 days post- symptom onset TRANS, range 15-51) and work absence (29{+/-}28 days) were prolonged. 13/14 (93%) of RT-PCR-positive and none of the RT-PCR-negative HCWs had a positive humoral response, with higher IgG-index in individuals over 50 years (14.5{+/-}7.7 vs 5.0{+/-}4.4, p=0.012). Of 617 rheumatic patients, 8 (1.3%) developed COVID-19 symptoms (1/8 hospitalisation, 8/8 complete recovery), following a consultation/procedure with an asymptomatic TRANS (7/8) or mildly-symptomatic (1/8) HCW. Conclusions: A COVID-19 outbreak can occur among HCWs and rheumatic patients, swiftly spreading over the presymptomatic stage. Mild disease MESHD without typical symptoms should be recognised, and may evolve with delayed viral shedding, prolonged recovery, and adequate immune response in most individuals.

    CLINICAL PROPERTIES AND DIAGNOSTIC METHODS OF COVID-19 INFECTION MESHD IN PREGNANCIES: META-ANALYSIS

    Authors: Banu Uygun-Can; Bilge Acar-Bolat

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.06.20123901 Date: 2020-06-07

    We aimed to summarize reliable medical evidence by the meta-analysis of all published retrospective studies that examined data based on the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by clinical symptoms, molecular (RT-PCR) diagnosis and characteristic CT imaging features in pregnant women. MEDLINE PubMed, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science, Clinical Key, and CINAHL databases were used to select the studies. Then, 384 articles were received, including the studies until 01/MAY/2020. As a result of the full-text evaluation, 12 retrospective articles covering all the data related were selected. A total of 181 pregnant cases with SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD were included in the meta-analysis within the scope of these articles. According to the results, the incidence of fever MESHD fever HP was 38.1% (95% CI: 14.2-65%), and cough MESHD cough HP was 22% (95% CI: 10.8-35.2%) among all clinical features of pregnant cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. So, fever MESHD fever HP and cough MESHD cough HP are the most common symptoms in pregnant cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, and 91.8% (95% CI: 76.7-99.9%) of RT-PCR results are positive. Moreover, abnormal CT incidence is 97.9% (95% CI: 94.2-99.9%) positive. No case was death MESHD. However, as this virus spreads globally, it should not be overlooked that the incidence will increase in pregnant women and may be in the risky group. RT-PCR and CT can be used together in an accurate and safe diagnosis. In conclusion, these findings will provide important guidance for current studies regarding the clinical features and correct detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in pregnant women, as well as whether it will create emergency MESHD tables that will require the use of a viral drug.

    Olfactory transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 invasion as port of Central Nervous System entry in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Jenny Meinhardt; Josefine Radke; Carsten Dittmayer; Ronja Mothes; Jonas Franz; Michael Laue; Julia Schneider; Sebastian Bruenink; Olga Hassan; Werner Stenzel; Marc Windgassen,; Larissa Roessler; Hans-Hilmar Goebel; Hubert Martin; Andreas Nitsche; Walter Schulz-Schaeffer; Samy Hakroush; Martin S Winkler; Bjoern Tampe; Sefer Elezkurtaj; David Horst; Lars Oesterhelweg; Michael Tsokos; Barbara Ingold Heppner; Christine Stadelmann; Christian Drosten; Victor M Corman; Helena Radbruch; Frank L Heppner

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.135012 Date: 2020-06-04

    The newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a pandemic respiratory disease MESHD presenting with fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, and often pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Moreover, thromboembolic events throughout the body including the central nervous system (CNS) have been described. Given first indication for viral RNA presence in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid and in light of neurological symptoms in a large majority of COVID-19 patients, SARS-CoV-2-penetrance of the CNS is likely. By precisely investigating and anatomically mapping oro- and pharyngeal regions and brains of 32 patients dying from COVID-19, we not only describe CNS infarction due to cerebral MESHD thromboembolism MESHD thromboembolism HP, but also demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. SARS-CoV-2 enters the nervous system via trespassing the neuro-mucosal interface in the olfactory mucosa by exploiting the close vicinity of olfactory mucosal and nervous tissue including delicate olfactory and sensitive nerve endings. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 follows defined neuroanatomical structures, penetrating defined neuroanatomical areas, including the primary respiratory and cardiovascular control center in the medulla oblongata.

    REMBRANDT: A high-throughput barcoded sequencing approach for COVID-19 screening.

    Authors: Dario Palmieri; Jalal K Siddiqui; Anne Gardner; Richard Fishel; Wayne Miles

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.16.099747 Date: 2020-05-17

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), is a highly infectious RNA virus. A still-debated percentage of patients develop coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) after infection MESHD, whose symptoms include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. Acute and life-threatening respiratory symptoms are experienced by 10-20% of symptomatic patients, particularly those with underlying medical conditions that includes diabetes, COPD and pregnancy. One of the main challenges in the containment of COVID-19 is the identification and isolation of asymptomatic TRANS/pre-symptomatic individuals. As communities re-open, large numbers of people will need to be tested and contact-tracing TRANS of positive patients will be required to prevent additional waves of infections MESHD and enable the continuous monitoring of the viral loads COVID-19 positive patients. A number of molecular assays are currently in clinical use to detect SARS-CoV-2. Many of them can accurately test hundreds or even thousands of patients every day. However, there are presently no testing platforms that enable more than 10,000 tests per day. Here, we describe the foundation for the REcombinase Mediated BaRcoding and AmplificatioN Diagnostic Tool (REMBRANDT), a high-throughput Next Generation Sequencing-based approach for the simultaneous screening of over 100,000 samples per day. The REMBRANDT protocol includes direct two-barcoded amplification of SARS-CoV-2 and control amplicons using an isothermal reaction, and the downstream library preparation for Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. This protocol represents a potentially powerful approach for community screening, a major bottleneck for testing samples from a large patient population for COVID-19.

    Impact of COVID-19 infection MESHD on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a review of 287 pregnancies

    Authors: Fatemeh Azarkish; Roksana Janghorban

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.09.20096842 Date: 2020-05-15

    Pregnant women are vulnerable group in viral outbreaks especially in the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The aim of this review was to identify maternal and neonatal outcomes in available articles on pregnancies affected by COVID-19. The articles that had assessed outcomes of pregnancy and perinatal of women with COVID-19 between Oct 2019 and Apr 30, 2020 without language limitation were considered. All kinds of studies such as case report, case series, retrospective cohort, case control were included. We searched databases, selected relevant studies and extracted data regarding maternal and neonatal outcomes from each article. Data of 287 pregnant women with COVID-19 of 6 countries were assessed from 28 articles between December 8, 2019 and April 6, 2020. Most pregnant women reported in their third trimester, 102 (35.5%) cases were symptomatic at the time of admission. Common onset symptoms TRANS, abnormal laboratory findings, and chest computed tomography pattern were fever MESHD fever HP (51.5%), lymphocytopenia (67.9%), and multiple ground-glass opacities (78.5%) respectively. 93% of all deliveries were done through cesarean section. No maternal mortality and 3 % ICU admission were reported. Vertical transmission TRANS was not reported but its possibility was suggested in three neonates. One neonatal death MESHD, one stillbirth MESHD, and one abortion were reported. All newborns were not breastfed. This review showed fewer adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 in comparison with previous coronavirus outbreak infection MESHD in pregnancy. Limited data are available regarding possibility of virus transmission TRANS in utero, during vaginal childbirth and breastfeeding. Effect of COVID-19 on first and second trimester and ongoing pregnancy outcomes in infected mothers is still questionable.

    On the Front (Phone) Lines: Results of a COVID-19 Hotline in Northeast Ohio

    Authors: David Margolius; Mary Hennekes; Jimmy Yaho; Douglas Einstadter; Douglas Gunzler; Nabil Chehade; Ashwini R Sehgal; Yasir Tarabichi; Adam T Perzynski

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.08.20095745 Date: 2020-05-13

    ABSTRACT Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated coronavirus disease MESHD of 2019 (COVID-19) have presented immense challenges for health care systems. Many regions have struggled to adapt to disruptions to health care practice and employ systems that effectively manage the demand for services. Objective: To examine the effectiveness of the first five weeks of a 24/7 physician-staffed COVID-19 hotline. Design: Cohort study using electronic health records. Setting: A single large health care system in Northeast Ohio. Participants: During 5 weeks of operation, 10,112 patients called the hotline (callers) and were evaluated by a registered nurse (RN) using standardized protocols. Of these, 4,213 (42%) were referred for a physician telehealth visit (telehealth patients). The mean age TRANS of callers was 42 years. 67% were female TRANS, 51% white, and 46% were on Medicaid or uninsured. Intervention: Physician telehealth visits for COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: We describe clinical diagnosis, patient characteristics ( age TRANS, sex race/ethnicity, smoking status, insurance status), and visit disposition. We use logistic regression to evaluate associations between patient characteristics, visit disposition and subsequent emergency MESHD department use, hospitalization, and SARS-Cov-2 PCR testing. Results: Common caller concerns included cough MESHD cough HP, fever MESHD fever HP, and shortness of breath. Most telehealth patients (79%) were advised to self-isolate at home, 14% were determined to be unlikely to have COVID-19, 3% were advised to seek emergency MESHD care, and 4% had miscellaneous other dispositions. A total of 287 (7%) patients had a subsequent ED visit, and 44 (1%) were hospitalized with a COVID-19 diagnosis. Of the callers, 482 (5%) had a COVID-19 test reported with 69 (14%) testing positive. Among patients advised to stay at home, 83% had no further face-to-face visits. In multivariable results, only a physician recommendation to seek emergency MESHD care was associated with emergency MESHD room use (OR=4.73, 95%CI 1.37-16.39, p=.014). Only older age TRANS was associated with having a positive test result. Conclusions and Relevance: Robust, physician-directed telehealth services can meet a wide range of needs during the acute phase of a pandemic, conserving scarce resources such as personal protective equipment and testing supplies and preventing the spread of infections MESHD to patients and health care workers.

    Facemasks prevent influenza-like illness: implications for COVID-19

    Authors: Jie Wei; Michael Doherty; Monica S.M. Persson; Subhashisa Swain; Changfu Kuo; CHAO ZENG; guanghua Lei; Weiya Zhang

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.07.20094912 Date: 2020-05-12

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is causing a huge toll on individuals, families, communities and societies across the world. Currently, whether wearing facemasks in public should be a measure to prevent transmission TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains contraversial.1 This is largely because there have been no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for coronavirus to directly support this. However, lessons may be taken from published RCTs examining influenza-like illness (ILI).2,3 Recent studies suggested that SARS-CoV-2 shares similar transmission TRANS route with influenza virus,4 and the incidence of community transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with ILI is high.5 Therefore, we undertook this meta-analysis of RCTs examining the efficacy of wearing facemasks to prevent ILI in community settings, irrespective of confirmatory testing for the causative virus. We undertook a systematic literature search for RCTs related to facemasks and ILI between 1966 and April 2020 using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. RCTs undertaken in community (not hospital) settings comparing wearing and not wearing facemasks for ILI were included. Incidence of ILI (e.g., fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, headache MESHD headache HP, sore throat, aches or pains MESHD pains HP in muscles or joints) was estimated per group. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. We screened 899 related abstracts and eventually included 8 RCTs (Figure S1). Basic characteristics and quality of included RCTs are listed in Supplement. Participants wearing facemasks had a significantly lower risk of developing ILI than those not wearing facemasks (pooled RR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.95) and there was no heterogeneity (Figure 1). The decreased risk of ILI was more pronounced if everyone wore facemask irrespective of whether they were infected or not (RR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.91), compared to those wearing facemasks when infected (RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.58-1.56) or uninfected (RR=1.26, 95% CI: 0.69-2.31). This study shows that wearing facemasks, irrespective of infection MESHD status, is effective in preventing ILI spread in the community. This situation mirrors what is happening now in public settings where we do not know who has been infected and who has not. Although there are no RCTs of facemasks for SARS-CoV-2, as with other simple measures such as social distancing and handwashing, these data support the recommendation to wear facemasks in public to further reduce transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 and flatten the curve of this pandemic, especially when social distancing is impractical, such as shopping, or travelling TRANS with public transport for work that cannot be done from home.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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