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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (6)

ProteinN (2)

NSP16 (1)

NSP5 (1)

ORF1ab (1)


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Identifying COVID-19 MESHD cases in primary care settings

    Authors: Yinan Mao; Yi-Roe Tan; Tun-Linn Thein; Louis Chai; Alex Cook; Borame Dickens; Yii-Jen Lew; Fong Seng Lim; Jue Tao Lim; Yinxiaohe Sun; Meena Sundaram; Alexius Soh; Glorijoy Tan; Franco Wong; Barnaby Young; Kangwei Zeng; Mark Chen; Desmond Ong

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182204 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Case identification is an ongoing issue for the COVID-19 MESHD epidemic, in particular for outpatient care where physicians must decide which patients to prioritise for further testing. This paper reports tools to classify patients based on symptom profiles based on 236 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases and 564 controls, accounting for the time course of illness at point of assessment. Clinical differentiators of cases and controls were used to derive model-based risk scores. Significant symptoms included abdominal pain MESHD, cough, diarrhea MESHD, fever MESHD, headache MESHD, muscle ache MESHD, runny nose, sore throat, temperature between 37.5{degrees}C and 37.9{degrees}C, and temperature above 38{degrees}C, but their importance varied by day of illness at assessment. With a high percentile threshold for specificity at 0.95, the baseline model had reasonable sensitivity at 0.67. To further evaluate accuracy of model predictions, we firstly used leave-one-out cross-validation, which confirmed high classification accuracy with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.92. For the baseline model, sensitivity decreased to 0.56. Secondly, in a separate ongoing prospective study of 237 COVID-19 MESHD and 346 primary care patients presenting with symptoms of acute respiratory infection MESHD, the baseline model had a sensitivity of 0.57 and specificity of 0.89, and in retrospective notes review of 100 COVID-19 MESHD cases diagnosed in primary care, sensitivity was 0.56. A web-app based tool has been developed for easy implementation as an adjunct to laboratory testing to differentiate COVID-19 MESHD positive cases among patients presenting in outpatient settings.

    Age-dependent and Independent Symptoms and Comorbidities Predictive of COVID-19 MESHD Hospitalization

    Authors: Yingxiang Huang; Dina Radenkovic; Kevin Perez; Kari Nadeau; Eric Verdin; David Furman

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.14.20170365 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: medRxiv

    The coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD (SARS)-CoV-2, continues to burden medical institutions around the world by increasing total hospitalization and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions. A better understanding of symptoms, comorbidities and medication used for pre-existing conditions in patients with COVID-19 MESHD could help healthcare workers identify patients at increased risk of developing more severe disease. Here, we have used self-reported data (symptoms, medications and comorbidities) from more than 3 million users from the COVID-19 MESHD Symptom Tracker app12 to identify previously reported and novel features predictive of patients being admitted in a hospital setting. Despite previously reported association between age and more severe disease phenotypes, we found that patient's age, sex and ethnic group were minimally predictive when compared to patient's symptoms and comorbidities. The most important variables selected by our predictive algorithm were fever MESHD, the use of immunosuppressant medication, mobility aid, shortness of breath MESHD and fatigue MESHD. It is anticipated that early administration of preventative measures in COVID-19 MESHD positive patients (COVID+) who exhibit a high risk of hospitalization signature may prevent severe disease progression.

    Virion Structure and Mechanism of Propagation of Coronaviruses including SARS-CoV 2 (COVID -19 ) and some Meaningful Points for Drug or Vaccine Development

    Authors: Swapan Ghosh

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0312.v1 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: Preprints.org

    SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 MESHD, a new seventh human corona virus, has out-broken in Wuhan, China since 31st December 2019, and quickly escalated to take the form of pandemic which killed many human beings throughout almost all countries across continents. The rapidity of its transmission from human to human is far greater than all previous human corona viruses which came into existence like SARS-CoV MESHD, MERS-CoV, etc. The nucleotide sequence of SARS-CoV-2 (isolates Wuhan-Hu-1) is 29,875 bp in ss-RNA. Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infected pneumonia MESHD include from asymptomatic to high fever and/or respiratory illnesses. Coronavirus virion (spherical/round /elliptical in shape) consists of three parts- outer membrane or envelope, nucleocapsid and genome (RNA). SARS-CoV-2 was shown to use receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) for attachment to the cells through its surface spike (S) protein PROTEIN (S1), and the virion enters into the host cell through two routes- direct membrane fusion and endocytotic pathway. The RNA of SARS-CoV acts MESHD directly as mRNA and here minus(-) 1 programmed ribosomal frameshift (-1PRF) is being operated by slippery sequence and pseudoknot, so it translates 16 nonstructural proteins PROTEIN including RNA dependent RNA replicase. Then genomic RNA replicated continuously on – strand RNA template and subgenomic RNA transcribed discontinuously on –RNA template to sgmRNA. Subgenomic RNAs/sgmRNAs synthesize all structural proteins. This article takes into consideration the details of established theories of viral structure, viral attachment, mode of entry into human cells, different models of replication and transcription of virus genome proposed by eminent scientists over the years, and makes an in depth examination highlighting meaningful points or important target cites of viral propagation or synthesis, which are conserved, for prompt development of potent drugs or vaccine to counter COVID-19 MESHD for which human race is anxiously and eagerly waiting.

    The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 MESHD: A population-based cohort study in Iceland

    Authors: Elias Eythorsson; Dadi Helgason; Ragnar Freyr Ingvarsson; Helgi K Bjornsson; Lovisa Bjork Olafsdottir; Valgerdur Bjarnadottir; Hrafnhildur Linnet Runolfsdottir; Solveig Bjarnadottir; Arnar Snaer Agustsson; Kristin Oskarsdottir; Hrafn Hliddal Thorvaldsson; Gudrun Kristjansdottir; Brynja Armannsdottir; Agnar Bjarnason; Birgir Johannsson; Olafur Gudlaugsson; Magnus Gottfredsson; Martin I Sigurdsson; Olafur S Indridason; Runolfur Palsson

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.09.20171249 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Previous studies on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD have generally been limited to hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to describe the complete clinical spectrum of COVID-19 MESHD, based on a nationwide cohort with extensive diagnostic testing and a rigorous contact tracing approach. Methods: A population-based cohort study examining symptom progression using prospectively recorded data on all individuals with a positive test (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) who were enrolled in a telehealth monitoring service provided to all identified cases in Iceland. Symptoms were systematically monitored from diagnosis to recovery. Results: From January 31 to April 30, 2020, a total of 45,105 individuals (12% of the Icelandic population) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 1797 were positive, yielding a population incidence of 5 per 1000 individuals. The most common presenting symptoms were myalgia MESHD (55%), headache MESHD (51%), and non-productive cough (49%). At the time of diagnosis, 5.3% of cases reported no symptoms and 3.1% remained asymptomatic during follow-up. In addition, 216 patients (13.8%) and 349 patients (22.3%) did not meet the case definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, respectively. The majority (67.5%) of patients had mild symptoms throughout the course of the disease. Conclusion: In the setting of broad access to diagnostic testing, the majority of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were found to have mild symptoms. Fever MESHD and dyspnea MESHD were less common than previously reported. A substantial proportion of patients did not meet recommended case definitions at the time of diagnosis.

    Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic COVID-19 MESHD disease in a population sample from SE England

    Authors: Philippa M Wells; Katie M Doores; Simon Couvreur; Rocio Martin Martinez; Jeffrey Seow; Carl Graham; Sam Acors; Neophytos Kouphou; Stuart Neil; Richard Tedder; Pedro Matos; Kate Poulton; Maria Jose Lista; Ruth Dickenson; Helin Sertkaya; Thomas Maguire; Edward Scourfield; Ruth Bowyer; Deborah Hart; Aoife O'Byrne; Kathryn Steele; Oliver Hemmings; Carolina Rosadas; Myra McClure; Joan Capedevila-Pujol; Jonathan wolf; Sebastien Ourseilin; Matthew Brown; Michael Malim; Timothy Spector; Claire Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20162701 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding of the true asymptomatic rate of infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD is currently limited, as is understanding of the population-based seroprevalence after the first wave of COVID-19 MESHD within the UK. The majority of data thus far come from hospitalised patients, with little focus on general population cases, or their symptoms. Methods: We undertook enzyme linked immunosorbent assay characterisation of IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein PROTEIN of 431 unselected general-population participants of the TwinsUK cohort from South-East England, aged 19-86 (median age 48; 85% female). 382 participants completed prospective logging of 14 COVID-19 MESHD related symptoms via the COVID Symptom Study App, allowing consideration of serology alongside individual symptoms, and a predictive algorithm for estimated COVID-19 MESHD previously modelled on PCR positive individuals from a dataset of over 2 million. Findings: We demonstrated a seroprevalence of 12% (51participants of 431). Of 48 seropositive individuals with full symptom data, nine (19%) were fully asymptomatic, and 16 (27%) were asymptomatic for core COVID-19 MESHD symptoms: fever MESHD, cough MESHD or anosmia MESHD. Specificity of anosmia MESHD for seropositivity was 95%, compared to 88% for fever cough MESHD and anosmia MESHD combined. 34 individuals in the cohort were predicted to be Covid-19 MESHD positive using the App algorithm, and of those, 18 (52%) were seropositive. Interpretation: Seroprevalence amongst adults from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic throughout the study. Anosmia demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. Funding: NIHR BRC, CDRF, ZOE global LTD, RST-UKRI/MRC

    Fighting COVID-19 MESHD spread among nursing home residents even in absence of molecular diagnosis: a retrospective cohort study.

    Authors: Alessio Strazzulla; Paul Tarteret; Maria Concetta Postorino; Marie Picque; Astrid de Pontfarcy; Nicolas Vignier; Catherine Chakvetadze; Coralie Noel; Cecile Drouin; Zine Eddine Benguerdi; Sylvain Diamantis

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51305/v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Access to molecular diagnosis was limited out-of-hospital in France during the 2020 coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) epidemic. This study describes the evolution of COVID-19 MESHD outbreak in a nursing home in absence of molecular diagnosis. Methods A monocentric prospective study was conducted in a French nursing home from March 17th, 2020 to June 11th, 2020. Because of lack of molecular tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-Cov2) infection MESHD, probable COVID-19 MESHD cases were early identified considering only respiratory and not-respiratory symptoms and therefore preventing measures and treatments were enforced. Once available, serology tests were performed at the end of the study.A chronologic description of new cases and deaths MESHD was made together with a description of COVID-19 MESHD symptoms. Data about personal characteristics and treatments were collected and the following comparisons were performed: i) probable COVID-19 MESHD cases vs asymptomatic residents; ii) SARS-Cov2 seropositive residents vs seronegative residents. Results Overall, 32/66 (48.5%) residents and 19/39 (48.7%) members of health-care personnel were classified as probable COVID-19 MESHD cases. A total of 34/61 (55.7%) tested residents resulted seropositive. Death occurred in 4/66 (6%) residents. Diagnosis according to symptoms had 65% of sensitivity, 78% of specificity, 79% of positive predictive value and 64% of negative predictive value.In resident population, the following symptoms were registered: 15/32 (46.8%) lymphopenia MESHD, 15/32 (46.8%) fever MESHD, 8/32 (25%) fatigue MESHD, 8/32 (25%) cough, 6/32 (18.8%) diarrhoea MESHD, 4/32 (12.5%) severe respiratory distress requiring oxygen therapy, 4/32 (12.5%) fall, 3/32 (9.4%) conjunctivitis MESHD, 2/32 (6.3%) abnormal pulmonary noise at chest examination and 2/32 (6,25%) abdominal pain MESHD. Probable COVID-19 MESHD cases were older (81.3 vs 74.9; p=0.007) and they had higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation MESHD (8/32, 25% vs 2/34, 12%; p=0.030); insulin treatment (4/34, 12% vs 0, 0%; p=0.033) and positive SARS-Cov2 serology (22/32, 69% vs 12/34, 35%; p=0.001) than asymptomatic residents. Seropositive residents had lower prevalence of diabetes MESHD (4/34, 12% vs 9/27, 33%; p=0.041) and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors’ intake (1/34, 1% vs 5/27, 19%; p=0.042). Conclusions During SARS-Cov2 epidemic, early detection of respiratory and not-respiratory symptoms allowed to enforce extraordinary measures. They achieved limiting contagion and deaths among nursing home residents, even in absence of molecular diagnosis.

    Clinical characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD): a systematic review

    Authors: Yuan Hu; Jing Xiong; Yuan Shi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50795/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study aimed to summarize the existing literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in newborns to clarify the clinical features and outcomes of neonates with COVID-19 MESHD. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and  VIP HGNC databases from January 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. The references of relevant studies were also searched. A descriptive summary was organized by aspects of clinical presentations (symptoms, laboratory examinations, and imaging) and outcomes. We identified 14 studies reporting 18 newborns with COVID-19 MESHD. The most common clinical manifestations were fever MESHD (62.5%), shortness of breath MESHD (50.0%), diarrhea MESHD/ vomiting MESHD/feeding intolerance(43.8%), cough (37.5%), dyspnea MESHD (25.0%), and nasal congestion/runny nose/sneeze(25.0%). Atypical symptoms included jaundice MESHD and convulsion MESHD. Lymphocyte numbers decreased in 5 cases, and radiographic findings were likely to show pneumonia MESHD. All newborns recovered and discharged from the hospital, and there was no death.Conclusion: Clinical symptoms of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are atypical, most of them are mild. Up to now, the prognosis of newborns is good, and there is no death. Intrauterine vertical transmission is possible, but confirmed evidence is still lacking. The Long-term follow-up of potential influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on neonates need further exploration.

    Molecular Basis of Kidney Defects in COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Smartya Pulai; Madhurima Basu; Chinmay Saha; Nitai P. Bhattacharyya; Arpita Ray Chaudhury; Sujoy Ghosh

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0452.v1 Date: 2020-07-20 Source: Preprints.org

    Background: Kidney damage MESHD is considered to be one of the risk factors for severity and mortality among COVID-19 MESHD patients. However, molecular nature of such observations remains unknown. Hypothesis: Altered gene expressions due to infection and in chronic kidney disease MESHD could explain severity in COVID-19 MESHD with kidney defects MESHD. Methods: We collected gene expression data from publicly available resources Gene Expression Omnibus CKD MESHD, Enrichr for deregulated genes in SARS-CoV infected MESHD cells in vitro, DisGeNET and others and carried out enrichment analysis using Enrichr. Result: Number of common genes altered in chronic kidney disease MESHD ( CKD MESHD) and SARS-CoV infected MESHD cells was 2834. Enrichment analysis revealed that biological processes related viral life cycle and growth, cytokines, immunity, interferon, inflammation MESHD, apoptosis, autophagy, oxidative stress and others were significantly enriched with common deregulated genes. Similarly, significantly enriched pathways related to viral and bacterial infections MESHD, immunity and inflammation MESHD, cell cycle, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, signaling pathways like Relaxin signaling pathway, mTOR HGNC signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway were enriched with the common deregulated genes. These processes and pathways are known to be related to kidney damage MESHD. DisGeNET terms enriched include and related to Dengue fever MESHD, chronic Hepatitis MESHD, measles, retroviridae infections MESHD, respiratory syncytial virus Infections MESHD and many others. Kidney dysfunction MESHD related terms ischemia of kidney, renal fibrosis MESHD and diabetic nephropathy MESHD. Conclusion: Common deregulated genes in SARS-CoV infected MESHD cells and chronic kidney disease MESHD, as well as their enrichment with molecular processes and pathways relevant for viral pathogenesis and renal dysfunctions MESHD, could explain the severity of COVID-19 MESHD with kidney disease MESHD. This observation not only provides molecular relation of severity in COVID-19 MESHD with renal dysfunctions MESHD but might also help in the management and treatment targets for these cases.

    Post lockdown COVID-19 MESHD seroprevalence and circulation at the time of delivery, France

    Authors: Jeremie Mattern; Christelle Vauloup-Fellous; Hoda Zakaria; Alexandra Benachi; Julie Carrara; Alexandra Letourneau; Nadege Bourgeois-Nicolaos; Daniele De Luca; Florence Doucet-Populaire; Alexandre J. Vivanti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20153304 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background To fight the COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic, lockdown has been decreed in many countries worldwide. The impact of pregnancy as a severity risk factor is still debated, but strict lockdown measures have been recommended for pregnant women. Objectives To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD and lockdown on the seroprevalence and circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in a maternity ward in an area that has been significantly affected by the virus. Study design Prospective study at the Antoine Beclere Hospital maternity ward (Paris area, France) from May 4 (one week before the end of lockdown) to May 31, 2020 (three weeks after the end of lockdown). All patients admitted to the delivery room during this period were offered a SARS-CoV-2 serology test as well concomitant SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on a nasopharyngeal sample. Results A total of 249 women were included. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 8%. The RT-PCR positive rate was 0.5%. 47.4% of the SARS-CoV-2-IgG-positive pregnant women never experienced any symptoms. A history of symptoms during the epidemic, such as fever MESHD, myalgia MESHD and anosmia MESHD, was suggestive of previous infection. Conclusions Three weeks after the end of lockdown, SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD were scarce in our region. A high proportion of SARS-CoV-2-IgG-negative pregnant women must be taken into consideration in the event of a resurgence of the pandemic in order to adapt public health measures to reduce exposure to the virus, such as social distancing and teleworking for this specific population.

    The Immunology of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children with COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Camila Rosat Consiglio; Nicola Cotugno; Fabian Sardh; Christian Pou; Donato Amodio; Sonia Zicari; Alessandra Ruggiero; Giuseppe Rubens Pascucci; Lucie Rodriguez; Veronica Santilli; Tessa Campbell; Yenan Bryceson; Ziyang Tan; Daniel Eriksson; Jun Wang; Tadepally Lakshmikanth; Alessandra Marchesi; Tadepally Lakshmikanth; Andrea Campana; Alberto Villani; Paolo Rossi; - the CACTUS study team; Nils Landegren; Paolo Palma; Petter Brodin

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.20148353 Date: 2020-07-10 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV2 infection MESHD is typically very mild and often asymptomatic in children. A complication is the rare Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD in Children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 MESHD, presenting 4-6 weeks after infection as high fever MESHD and organ dysfunction MESHD and strongly elevated markers of inflammation MESHD. The pathogenesis is unclear but has overlapping features with Kawasaki disease MESHD suggestive of vasculitis MESHD and a likely autoimmune etiology. We apply systems-level analyses of blood immune cells, cytokines and autoantibodies in healthy children, children with Kawasaki disease MESHD enrolled prior to COVID-19 MESHD, children infected with SARS-CoV2 and children presenting with MIS-C. We find that the inflammatory response in MIS-C differs from the cytokine storm of severe acute COVID-19 MESHD, is more similar to Kawasaki disease MESHD, but also differ from this with respect to T-cell subsets, IL-17A HGNC and biomarkers associated with arterial damage. Finally, autoantibody profiling suggests endoglin, an endothelial glycoprotein as one of several candidate targets of autoantibodies in MIS-C.

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