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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    An update of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD): an essential brief for clinicians

    Authors: Afshin Zare; Seyyede Fateme Sadati-Seyyed-Mahalle; Amirhossein Mokhtari; Nima Pakdel; Zeinab Hamidi; Sahar Almasi-Turk; Neda Baghban; Arezoo Khoradmehr; Iraj Nabipour; Mohammad Amin Behzadi; Amin Tamadon

    id:10.20944/preprints202102.0530.v1 Date: 2021-02-23 Source: Preprints.org

    During 2019, the number of patients suffering from cough, fever MESHD and reduction of WBC’s count increased. At the beginning, this mysterious illness was called “ fever MESHD with unknown origin”. At the present time, the cause of this pneumonia MESHD is known as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 is one member of great family of coronaviruses. Coronaviruses can cause different kind of illnesses including respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and neurological diseases MESHD in animals like cat and bat. Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The SARS-CoV-2 has some particular structures for binding to host cells, reproducing itself in cells and damaging human cells. The SARS-CoV-2 can bind angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE‐2 HGNC) receptors and cause various difficulties for human. The SARS-CoV-2 can cause either not-serious issues like fever MESHD and cough MESHD or serious concerns such as multi-organ failure MESHD. Source(s) of SARS-CoV-2 is under debate. Malayan pangolin and bat are the most suspicious candidate for being sources of the SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by various ways such as transmitting from infected human to healthy human and can make severe pneumonia MESHD, which can lead to death. The SARS-CoV-2 can infect different kind of people with different ages, races, and social and economic levels. The SARS‐CoV‐2 infection MESHD can cause various sorts of clinical manifestations like cough and fever MESHD and intensity of signs and symptoms depends on sufferer conditions. Clinicians use all of available documents and tests like laboratory, histopathological and radiological findings for diagnosing new cases and curing patients with high accuracy. At the present time, there is no particular way for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD; neither antiviral drugs nor palliative agents. It seems that the best way for standing against the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is preventing from it by social distancing and vaccination. This review tries to prepare an essential brief update about SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD for clinicians.

    Neonatal COVID-19 MESHD in French Guiana, a Case-Control study.

    Authors: Narcisse Elenga; Wandji Marie-Josephine; Julie Siban; Mathieu Nacher; Magalie Demar

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-147493/v1 Date: 2021-01-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThis study aims to assess the risk of transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD ( SARS COV-2 MESHD) to newborns in the context of breastfeeding practice as part of routine care.MethodsIn this prospective study, we identified neonates born between May 14th and August 31st, 2020, to mothers who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the time of delivery. From the cohort of 974 deliveries, we performed a nested case-control study. ResultsDuring the study period, 133 (13.7%) were positive by RT‐PCR for SARS‐CoV‐2. Among the 35 pregnant women with symptomatic COVID-19 MESHD (26.3%), cough MESHD was the most common symptom, occurring in half of the cases. Among them, 3 developed fever MESHD as other symptoms during hospitalization and 4 have progressed to critical pneumonia MESHD requiring transfer to intensive care unit. Among the neonates born from mothers with positive RT‐PCR for SARS‐CoV‐2, 32 were tested for SARS-COV-2 at 48 hours-7 days. Of them, 3 asymptomatic neonates tested positive. There were no significant differences in fetal distress, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, preterm birth, and neonatal asphyxia MESHD between the two groups Most infants were breastfed at birth, regardless of their mothers' COVID-19 MESHD status. In COVID-19 MESHD-positive pregnant women admitted to intensive care unit, the proportion of preterm births ( OR=12.5 [1.7-90.5]), fetal death MESHD in utero (OR=25.9 [2.2-305]) and admission in neonatal intensive care unit admission (OR=13.4 [3.0-60]), appeared higher than the controls. No maternal deaths were recorded.ConclusionsOur data suggest that under breastfeeding conditions with rigorous hygiene precautions and parental education, the risk of vertical transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus is unlikely.

    Evolution of COVID-19 MESHD patients treated with ImmunoFormulation, a combination of nutraceuticals to reduce symptomatology and improve prognosis: a multi-centred, retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Mariana Hernández; Jully Urrea; Luciano Bascoy

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-133532/v2 Date: 2020-12-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Although a vast knowledge has already been gathered on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 MESHD, there are still limited, non-optimal treatment options. In this context, agents that can act on prophylaxis or as adjuvants to the therapies are of high value.Methods In this paper, we describe a multicentre, retrospective, observational study to describe the course of SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD in patients treated with ImmunoFormulation (IF), an add-on therapy developed to decrease duration of clinical symptoms. In parallel, a group of patients that did not receive IF was used for comparison (using standard of care treatment). A total of 39 patients were evaluated for their recovery rate, general symptoms and their severity, and adverse reactions.Results Throughout the observational period, 90% of patients recovered in the IF cohort and 47.4% in the Control cohort (p=0.0057). From the symptoms with statistically significant differences, the duration of symptoms (i.e., the time to recover from it) was shorter in the IF cohort than in control cohort (in days, average), especially for fever MESHD (2.25 x 21.78), dry cough MESHD (4.38 x 24.00), dyspnoea MESHD (3.67 x 20.00), headache MESHD (2.00 x 26.50), diarrhoea MESHD (5.25 x 25.25), and weakness MESHD (1.92 x 23.30).Conclusions This demonstrates a potential promising role of IF as adjuvant therapy on the evolution of symptomatology to COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Evolution of COVID-19 MESHD patients treated with a combination of nutraceuticals to reduce symptomatology and improve prognosis: a multi-centred, retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Mariana Hernandez; Jully Urrea; Luciano Bascoy

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.11.20246561 Date: 2020-12-15 Source: medRxiv

    Although a vast knowledge has already been gathered on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 MESHD, there are still limited, non-optimal treatment options. In this paper, we describe a multicentre, retrospective, observational study to describe the course of SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD in patients treated with ImmunoFormulation (IF), an add-on therapy developed to decrease duration of clinical symptoms. In parallel, a group of patients that did not receive IF was used for comparison (using standard of care treatment). A total of 39 patients were evaluated. Throughout the observational period, 90% of patients recovered in the IF cohort and 47.4% in the Control cohort (p=0.0057). From the symptoms with statistically significant differences, the duration of symptoms (i.e., the time to recover from it) was shorter in the IF cohort than in control cohort (in days, average), especially for fever MESHD (2.25 x 21.78), dry cough MESHD (4.38 x 24.00), dyspnoea MESHD (3.67 x 20.00), headache MESHD (2.00 x 26.50), diarrhoea MESHD (5.25 x 25.25), and weakness MESHD (1.92 x 23.30). This demonstrates a potential promising role of IF as adjuvant therapy on the evolution of symptomatology to COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Early use of nitazoxanide in mild Covid-19 MESHD disease: randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Authors: Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco; Pedro Leme Silva; Fernanda Ferreira Cruz; Marco Antonio C.M. Junior; Paulo Fernando Guimaraes Morando Marzocchi Tierno; Marcos de Assis Moura; Luis Frederico Gerbase De Oliveira; Cristiano Cleidson Lima; Ezequiel Aparecido Dos Santos; Walter Freitas Junior; Ana Paula Salles Moura Fernandes; Kleber Gomes Franchini; Erick Magri; Nara Franzin de Moraes; Jose Mario de Jesus Goncalves; Melanie Nogueira Carbonieri; Ivonise Sampaio Dos Santos; Natalia de Fatima Paes; Paula Veronica Martini Maciel; Raissa Prado Rocha; Alex Fiorini de Carvalho; Pedro Augusto Alves; Jose Luiz Proenca Modena; Artur Torres Cordeiro; Daniela Barreto Barbose Trivella; Rafael Elias Marques; Ronir R Luiz; Paolo Pelosi; Jose Roberto Lapa e Silva

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.21.20217208 Date: 2020-10-23 Source: medRxiv

    The antiparasitic drug nitazoxanide is widely available and exerts broad-spectrum antiviral activity in vitro. However, there is no evidence of its impact on SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients who presented up to 3 days after onset of Covid-19 MESHD symptoms ( dry cough MESHD, fever MESHD, and/or fatigue MESHD) were enrolled. After confirmation of SARS-CoV2 infection MESHD by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swab, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either nitazoxanide (500 mg) or placebo, TID, for 5 days. The primary outcome was complete resolution of symptoms. Secondary outcomes were viral load, general laboratory tests, serum biomarkers of inflammation MESHD, and hospitalization rate. Adverse events were also assessed. From June 8 to August 20, 2020, 1,575 patients were screened. Of these, 392 (198 placebo, 194 nitazoxanide) were analyzed. Median time from symptom onset to first dose of study drug was 5 (4-5) days. At the 5-day study visit, symptom resolution did not differ between the nitazoxanide and placebo arms. However, at the 1-week follow-up, 78% in the nitazoxanide arm and 57% in the placebo arm reported complete resolution of symptoms (p=0.048). Swabs collected were negative for SARS-CoV-2 in 29.9% of patients in the nitazoxanide arm versus 18.2% in the placebo arm (p=0.009). Viral load was also reduced after nitazoxanide compared to placebo (p=0.006). No serious adverse events were observed. In patients with mild Covid-19 MESHD, symptom resolution did not differ between the nitazoxanide and placebo groups after 5 days of therapy. However, early nitazoxanide therapy was safe and reduced viral load significantly.

    Ruling In and Ruling Out COVID-19 MESHD: Computing SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD Risk From Symptoms, Imaging and Test Data.

    Authors: Chistopher D'Ambrosia; Henrik Christensen; Eliah Aronoff-Spencer

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.18.20197582 Date: 2020-09-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Assigning meaningful probabilities of SARS CoV2 infection risk presents a diagnostic challenge across the continuum of care. Methods: We integrated patient symptom and test data using machine learning and Bayesian inference to quantify individual patient risk of SARS CoV 2 infection MESHD. We trained models with 100,000 simulated patient profiles based on thirteen symptoms, estimated local prevalence, imaging, and molecular diagnostic performance from published reports. We tested these models with consecutive patients who presented with a COVID 19 compatible illness at the University of California San Diego Medical Center over 14 days starting in March 2020. Results: We included 55 consecutive patients with fever MESHD (78%) or cough MESHD (77%) presenting for ambulatory (n=11) or hospital care (n=44). 51% (n=28) were female, 49% were age <60. Common comorbidities included diabetes MESHD (22%), hypertension MESHD (27%), cancer MESHD (16%) and cardiovascular disease MESHD (13%). 69% of these (n=38) were RT-PCR confirmed positive for SARS CoV2 infection, 11 had repeated negative nucleic acid testing and an alternate diagnosis. Bayesian inference network, distance metric learning, and ensemble models discriminated between patients with SARS CoV2 infection and alternate diagnoses with sensitivities of 81.6 to 84.2%, specificities of 58.8 to 70.6%, and accuracies of 61.4 to 71.8%. After integrating imaging and laboratory test statistics with the predictions of the Bayesian inference network, changes in diagnostic uncertainty at each step in the simulated clinical evaluation process were highly sensitive to location, symptom, and diagnostic test choices. Conclusions: Decision support models that incorporate symptoms and available test results can help providers diagnose SARS CoV2 infection in real world settings.

    Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic COVID-19 MESHD disease in a population sample from SE England

    Authors: Philippa M Wells; Katie M Doores; Simon Couvreur; Rocio Martin Martinez; Jeffrey Seow; Carl Graham; Sam Acors; Neophytos Kouphou; Stuart Neil; Richard Tedder; Pedro Matos; Kate Poulton; Maria Jose Lista; Ruth Dickenson; Helin Sertkaya; Thomas Maguire; Edward Scourfield; Ruth Bowyer; Deborah Hart; Aoife O'Byrne; Kathryn Steele; Oliver Hemmings; Carolina Rosadas; Myra McClure; Joan Capedevila-Pujol; Jonathan wolf; Sebastien Ourseilin; Matthew Brown; Michael Malim; Timothy Spector; Claire Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20162701 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding of the true asymptomatic rate of infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD is currently limited, as is understanding of the population-based seroprevalence after the first wave of COVID-19 MESHD within the UK. The majority of data thus far come from hospitalised patients, with little focus on general population cases, or their symptoms. Methods: We undertook enzyme linked immunosorbent assay characterisation of IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein PROTEIN of 431 unselected general-population participants of the TwinsUK cohort from South-East England, aged 19-86 (median age 48; 85% female). 382 participants completed prospective logging of 14 COVID-19 MESHD related symptoms via the COVID Symptom Study App, allowing consideration of serology alongside individual symptoms, and a predictive algorithm for estimated COVID-19 MESHD previously modelled on PCR positive individuals from a dataset of over 2 million. Findings: We demonstrated a seroprevalence of 12% (51participants of 431). Of 48 seropositive individuals with full symptom data, nine (19%) were fully asymptomatic, and 16 (27%) were asymptomatic for core COVID-19 MESHD symptoms: fever MESHD, cough MESHD or anosmia MESHD. Specificity of anosmia MESHD for seropositivity was 95%, compared to 88% for fever cough MESHD and anosmia MESHD combined. 34 individuals in the cohort were predicted to be Covid-19 MESHD positive using the App algorithm, and of those, 18 (52%) were seropositive. Interpretation: Seroprevalence amongst adults from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic throughout the study. Anosmia demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. Funding: NIHR BRC, CDRF, ZOE global LTD, RST-UKRI/MRC

    Health-care workers with COVID-19 MESHD living in Mexico City: clinical characterization and related outcomes

    Authors: Neftali Eduardo Antonio-Villa; Omar Yaxmehen Bello-Chavolla; Arsenio Vargas-Vazquez; Carlos A. Fermin-Martinez; Alejandro Marquez-Salinas; Julio Pisanty-Alatorre; Jessica Paola Bahena-Lopez

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.02.20145169 Date: 2020-07-04 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCWs) have increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Information about the prevalence and risk factors for adverse outcomes in HCWs is scarce in Mexico. Here, we aimed to explore prevalence of SARS-CoV-2, symptoms, and risk factors associated with adverse outcomes in HCWs in Mexico City. METHODS: We explored data collected by the National Epidemiological Surveillance System in Mexico City. All cases underwent real-time RT-PCR test. We explored outcomes related to severe COVID-19 MESHD in HCWs and the diagnostic performance of symptoms to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in HCWs. RESULTS: As of July 2nd, 2020, 34,263 HCWs were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 10,925 were confirmed (31.9%). Overall, 4,200 were nurses (38.4%), 3,244 physicians (29.7%), 126 dentists (1.15%) and 3,355 laboratory personnel and other HCWs (30.7%). After follow-up, 992 HCWs required hospitalization (9.08%), 206 developed severe outcomes (1.89%), and 90 required mechanical-ventilatory support (0.82%). Lethality was recorded in 224 (2.05%) cases. Symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity were fever MESHD, cough MESHD, malaise, shivering, myalgias MESHD at evaluation but neither had significant predictive value. We also identified 333 asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD (3.05%). Older HCWs with chronic non-communicable diseases, pregnancy, and severe respiratory symptoms MESHD were associated with higher risk for adverse outcomes. Physicians had higher risk for hospitalization and for severe outcomes compared with nurses and other HCWs. CONCLUSIONS: We report a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in HCWs in Mexico City. No symptomatology can accurately discern HCWs with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Particular attention should focus on HCWs with risk factors to prevent adverse outcomes and reduce infection risk.

    CLINICAL PROPERTIES AND DIAGNOSTIC METHODS OF COVID-19 MESHD INFECTION IN PREGNANCIES: META-ANALYSIS

    Authors: Banu Uygun-Can; Bilge Acar-Bolat

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.06.20123901 Date: 2020-06-07 Source: medRxiv

    We aimed to summarize reliable medical evidence by the meta-analysis of all published retrospective studies that examined data based on the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by clinical symptoms, molecular (RT-PCR) diagnosis and characteristic CT imaging features in pregnant women. MEDLINE PubMed, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science, Clinical Key, and CINAHL databases were used to select the studies. Then, 384 articles were received, including the studies until 01/MAY/2020. As a result of the full-text evaluation, 12 retrospective articles covering all the data related were selected. A total of 181 pregnant cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHDs were included in the meta-analysis within the scope of these articles. According to the results, the incidence of fever MESHD was 38.1% (95% CI: 14.2-65%), and cough was 22% (95% CI: 10.8-35.2%) among all clinical features of pregnant cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. So, fever MESHD and cough MESHD are the most common symptoms in pregnant cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, and 91.8% (95% CI: 76.7-99.9%) of RT-PCR results are positive. Moreover, abnormal CT incidence is 97.9% (95% CI: 94.2-99.9%) positive. No case was death MESHD. However, as this virus spreads globally, it should not be overlooked that the incidence will increase in pregnant women and may be in the risky group. RT-PCR and CT can be used together in an accurate and safe diagnosis. In conclusion, these findings will provide important guidance for current studies regarding the clinical features and correct detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in pregnant women, as well as whether it will create emergency tables that will require the use of a viral drug.

    Olfactory transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 invasion as port of Central Nervous System entry in COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Jenny Meinhardt; Josefine Radke; Carsten Dittmayer; Ronja Mothes; Jonas Franz; Michael Laue; Julia Schneider; Sebastian Bruenink; Olga Hassan; Werner Stenzel; Marc Windgassen,; Larissa Roessler; Hans-Hilmar Goebel; Hubert Martin; Andreas Nitsche; Walter Schulz-Schaeffer; Samy Hakroush; Martin S Winkler; Bjoern Tampe; Sefer Elezkurtaj; David Horst; Lars Oesterhelweg; Michael Tsokos; Barbara Ingold Heppner; Christine Stadelmann; Christian Drosten; Victor M Corman; Helena Radbruch; Frank L Heppner

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.135012 Date: 2020-06-04 Source: bioRxiv

    The newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 MESHD, a pandemic respiratory disease MESHD presenting with fever MESHD, cough MESHD, and often pneumonia MESHD. Moreover, thromboembolic MESHD events throughout the body including the central nervous system (CNS) have been described. Given first indication for viral RNA presence in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid and in light of neurological symptoms MESHD in a large majority of COVID-19 MESHD patients, SARS-CoV-2-penetrance of the CNS is likely. By precisely investigating and anatomically mapping oro- and pharyngeal regions and brains of 32 patients dying from COVID-19 MESHD, we not only describe CNS infarction MESHD due to cerebral thromboembolism MESHD, but also demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 enters the nervous system via trespassing the neuro-mucosal interface in the olfactory mucosa by exploiting the close vicinity of olfactory mucosal and nervous tissue including delicate olfactory and sensitive nerve endings. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 follows defined neuroanatomical structures, penetrating defined neuroanatomical areas, including the primary respiratory and cardiovascular control center in the medulla oblongata.

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MeSH Disease
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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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