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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Evolution of COVID-19 MESHD patients treated with ImmunoFormulation, a combination of nutraceuticals to reduce symptomatology and improve prognosis: a multi-centred, retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Mariana Hernández; Jully Urrea; Luciano Bascoy

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-133532/v2 Date: 2020-12-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Although a vast knowledge has already been gathered on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 MESHD, there are still limited, non-optimal treatment options. In this context, agents that can act on prophylaxis or as adjuvants to the therapies are of high value.Methods In this paper, we describe a multicentre, retrospective, observational study to describe the course of SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD in patients treated with ImmunoFormulation (IF), an add-on therapy developed to decrease duration of clinical symptoms. In parallel, a group of patients that did not receive IF was used for comparison (using standard of care treatment). A total of 39 patients were evaluated for their recovery rate, general symptoms and their severity, and adverse reactions.Results Throughout the observational period, 90% of patients recovered in the IF cohort and 47.4% in the Control cohort (p=0.0057). From the symptoms with statistically significant differences, the duration of symptoms (i.e., the time to recover from it) was shorter in the IF cohort than in control cohort (in days, average), especially for fever MESHD (2.25 x 21.78), dry cough MESHD (4.38 x 24.00), dyspnoea MESHD (3.67 x 20.00), headache MESHD (2.00 x 26.50), diarrhoea MESHD (5.25 x 25.25), and weakness MESHD (1.92 x 23.30).Conclusions This demonstrates a potential promising role of IF as adjuvant therapy on the evolution of symptomatology to COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Evolution of COVID-19 MESHD patients treated with a combination of nutraceuticals to reduce symptomatology and improve prognosis: a multi-centred, retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Mariana Hernandez; Jully Urrea; Luciano Bascoy

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.11.20246561 Date: 2020-12-15 Source: medRxiv

    Although a vast knowledge has already been gathered on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 MESHD, there are still limited, non-optimal treatment options. In this paper, we describe a multicentre, retrospective, observational study to describe the course of SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD in patients treated with ImmunoFormulation (IF), an add-on therapy developed to decrease duration of clinical symptoms. In parallel, a group of patients that did not receive IF was used for comparison (using standard of care treatment). A total of 39 patients were evaluated. Throughout the observational period, 90% of patients recovered in the IF cohort and 47.4% in the Control cohort (p=0.0057). From the symptoms with statistically significant differences, the duration of symptoms (i.e., the time to recover from it) was shorter in the IF cohort than in control cohort (in days, average), especially for fever MESHD (2.25 x 21.78), dry cough MESHD (4.38 x 24.00), dyspnoea MESHD (3.67 x 20.00), headache MESHD (2.00 x 26.50), diarrhoea MESHD (5.25 x 25.25), and weakness MESHD (1.92 x 23.30). This demonstrates a potential promising role of IF as adjuvant therapy on the evolution of symptomatology to COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Efficacy and Safety of Levamisole Treatment in Clinical Presentations of Patients With COVID-19 MESHD: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Authors: Amir Roostaei; Zohre Akhoundi Meybodi; Seyed Rohollah Mosavinasab; Iman Karimzadeh; Adeleh Sahebnasagh; Mohsen Gholinataj; Fatemeh Saghafi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-122376/v1 Date: 2020-12-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundIn late December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the cause of a series of pneumonia MESHD cases in China. Levamisole can show clinical benefits in management of COVID-19 MESHD by its immunomodulatory effect, but effect in clinical status of patients is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of levamisole on clinical status of patients with COVID-19 MESHD on days 3, 7, and 14.MethodsThis prospective, double-blind, randomized, and controlled clinical trial was performed in 18- to 60-year-old patients with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD from late April 2020 to mid-August 2020. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups to receive a 5-day course of levamisole or placebo in combination with routine care. Results50 patients with COVID-19 MESHD were analyzed: 25 patients were in each group. More than half of the infected MESHD patients was men too (60%). On days 3 and 14, patients in Levamisole group had significantly better cough status distribution compared with Placebo (P=0.034 and 0.005, respectively). The difference in fever MESHD status on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 between two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There was significant differences between two groups in dyspnea MESHD over a median follow-up of 7th (P=0.015) and 14th (P=0.010) days after receiving the interventions.  ConclusionThe results of the current study have overall demonstrated that patients receiving levamisole had significantly higher odds of having a better clinical status including cough and Dyspnea MESHD on day 14 than those receiving placebo, but with an effect-size of unsure clinical importance. The difference in the distribution of fever MESHD on days 3, 7, and 14 between two groups was not significant, suggesting that levamisole can efficiently improve the most clinical status of patients with COVID-19 MESHD infectious compared to placebo.Trial registrationThe trial was registered as IRCT20190810044500N7 (19/09/2020).

    Clinical course of COVID-19 MESHD patients needing supplemental oxygen outside the intensive care unit

    Authors: Ayham Daher; Paul Balfanz; Maria Aetou; Bojan Hartmann; Dirk Müller-Wieland; Tobias Müller; Nikolaus Marx; Michael Dreher; Christian G Cornelissen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-95432/v1 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: Patients suffering from CVOID-19 mostly experience a benign course of the disease. Approximately 14 % of SARS-CoV2 infected MESHD patients are admitted to a hospital. Cohorts exhibiting severe lung failure MESHD in the form of acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD) have been well characterized. Patients without ARDS MESHD but in need of supplementary oxygen have received much less attention. This study describes the diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 MESHD needing oxygen support during their stay on regular ward.Methods: All 133 patients admitted to the RWTH Aachen university hospital with the diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD were included in an observational registry. Clinical data sets were extracted from the hospital information system. This analysis includes all 57 patients requiring supplemental oxygen not admitted to the ICU.Results: 57 patients needing supplemental oxygen and being treated outside the ICU were analyzed. Patients exhibited the typical set of symptoms for COVID-19 MESHD. Of note, hypoxic MESHD patients mostly did not suffer from clinically relevant dyspnea MESHD despite oxygen saturations below 92 %. Patients had fever MESHD for 7 [2-11] days and needed supplemental oxygen for 8 [5-13] days resulting in an overall hospitalization time of 12 [7-20] days. In addition, patients had persisting systemic inflammation MESHD with CRP HGNC levels remaining elevated until discharge or death MESHD.Conclusion: This description of COVID-19 MESHD patients requiring oxygen therapy should be taken into account when planning treatment capacity. Patients on oxygen need long-term inpatient care.

    Age-dependent and Independent Symptoms and Comorbidities Predictive of COVID-19 MESHD Hospitalization

    Authors: Yingxiang Huang; Dina Radenkovic; Kevin Perez; Kari Nadeau; Eric Verdin; David Furman

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.14.20170365 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: medRxiv

    The coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD (SARS)-CoV-2, continues to burden medical institutions around the world by increasing total hospitalization and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions. A better understanding of symptoms, comorbidities and medication used for pre-existing conditions in patients with COVID-19 MESHD could help healthcare workers identify patients at increased risk of developing more severe disease. Here, we have used self-reported data (symptoms, medications and comorbidities) from more than 3 million users from the COVID-19 MESHD Symptom Tracker app12 to identify previously reported and novel features predictive of patients being admitted in a hospital setting. Despite previously reported association between age and more severe disease phenotypes, we found that patient's age, sex and ethnic group were minimally predictive when compared to patient's symptoms and comorbidities. The most important variables selected by our predictive algorithm were fever MESHD, the use of immunosuppressant medication, mobility aid, shortness of breath MESHD and fatigue MESHD. It is anticipated that early administration of preventative measures in COVID-19 MESHD positive patients (COVID+) who exhibit a high risk of hospitalization signature may prevent severe disease progression.

    The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 MESHD: A population-based cohort study in Iceland

    Authors: Elias Eythorsson; Dadi Helgason; Ragnar Freyr Ingvarsson; Helgi K Bjornsson; Lovisa Bjork Olafsdottir; Valgerdur Bjarnadottir; Hrafnhildur Linnet Runolfsdottir; Solveig Bjarnadottir; Arnar Snaer Agustsson; Kristin Oskarsdottir; Hrafn Hliddal Thorvaldsson; Gudrun Kristjansdottir; Brynja Armannsdottir; Agnar Bjarnason; Birgir Johannsson; Olafur Gudlaugsson; Magnus Gottfredsson; Martin I Sigurdsson; Olafur S Indridason; Runolfur Palsson

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.09.20171249 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Previous studies on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD have generally been limited to hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to describe the complete clinical spectrum of COVID-19 MESHD, based on a nationwide cohort with extensive diagnostic testing and a rigorous contact tracing approach. Methods: A population-based cohort study examining symptom progression using prospectively recorded data on all individuals with a positive test (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) who were enrolled in a telehealth monitoring service provided to all identified cases in Iceland. Symptoms were systematically monitored from diagnosis to recovery. Results: From January 31 to April 30, 2020, a total of 45,105 individuals (12% of the Icelandic population) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 1797 were positive, yielding a population incidence of 5 per 1000 individuals. The most common presenting symptoms were myalgia MESHD (55%), headache MESHD (51%), and non-productive cough (49%). At the time of diagnosis, 5.3% of cases reported no symptoms and 3.1% remained asymptomatic during follow-up. In addition, 216 patients (13.8%) and 349 patients (22.3%) did not meet the case definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, respectively. The majority (67.5%) of patients had mild symptoms throughout the course of the disease. Conclusion: In the setting of broad access to diagnostic testing, the majority of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were found to have mild symptoms. Fever MESHD and dyspnea MESHD were less common than previously reported. A substantial proportion of patients did not meet recommended case definitions at the time of diagnosis.

    Clinical characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD): a systematic review

    Authors: Yuan Hu; Jing Xiong; Yuan Shi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50795/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study aimed to summarize the existing literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in newborns to clarify the clinical features and outcomes of neonates with COVID-19 MESHD. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and  VIP HGNC databases from January 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. The references of relevant studies were also searched. A descriptive summary was organized by aspects of clinical presentations (symptoms, laboratory examinations, and imaging) and outcomes. We identified 14 studies reporting 18 newborns with COVID-19 MESHD. The most common clinical manifestations were fever MESHD (62.5%), shortness of breath MESHD (50.0%), diarrhea MESHD/ vomiting MESHD/feeding intolerance(43.8%), cough (37.5%), dyspnea MESHD (25.0%), and nasal congestion/runny nose/sneeze(25.0%). Atypical symptoms included jaundice MESHD and convulsion MESHD. Lymphocyte numbers decreased in 5 cases, and radiographic findings were likely to show pneumonia MESHD. All newborns recovered and discharged from the hospital, and there was no death.Conclusion: Clinical symptoms of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are atypical, most of them are mild. Up to now, the prognosis of newborns is good, and there is no death. Intrauterine vertical transmission is possible, but confirmed evidence is still lacking. The Long-term follow-up of potential influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on neonates need further exploration.

    Reconstructing the global dynamics of under-ascertained COVID-19 MESHD cases and infections

    Authors: Timothy W Russell; Nick Golding; Joel Hellewell; Sam Abbott; Lawrence Wright; Carl A B Pearson; Kevin van Zandvoort; Christopher I Jarvis; Hamish Gibbs; Yang Liu; Rosalind M Eggo; John W Edmunds; Adam J Kucharski

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20148460 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Asymptomatic or subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD are often unreported, which means that confirmed case counts may not accurately reflect underlying epidemic dynamics. Understanding the level of ascertainment (the ratio of confirmed symptomatic cases to the true number of symptomatic individuals) and undetected epidemic progression is crucial to informing COVID-19 MESHD response planning, including the introduction and relaxation of control measures. Estimating case ascertainment over time allows for accurate estimates of specific outcomes such as seroprevalence, which is essential for planning control measures. Methods: Using reported data on COVID-19 MESHD cases and fatalities globally, we estimated the proportion of symptomatic cases (i.e. any person with any of fever MESHD >= to 37.5C, cough, shortness of breath MESHD, sudden onset of anosmia MESHD, ageusia or dysgeusia illness MESHD) that were reported in 210 countries and territories, given those countries had experienced more than ten deaths. We used published estimates of the case fatality ratio (CFR) as an assumed baseline. We then calculated the ratio of this baseline CFR to an estimated local delay-adjusted CFR to estimate the level of under-ascertainment in a particular location. We then fit a Bayesian Gaussian process model to estimate the temporal pattern of under-ascertainment. Results: We estimate that, during March 2020, the median percentage of symptomatic cases detected across the 84 countries which experienced more than ten deaths ranged from 2.38% (Bangladesh) to 99.6% (Chile). Across the ten countries with the highest number of total confirmed cases as of 6th July 2020, we estimated that the peak number of symptomatic cases ranged from 1.4 times (Chile) to 17.8 times (France) larger than reported. Comparing our model with national and regional seroprevalence data where available, we find that our estimates are consistent with observed values. Finally, we estimated seroprevalence for each country. Despite low case detection in some countries, our results that adjust for this still suggest that all countries have had only a small fraction of their populations infected as of July 2020. Conclusions: We found substantial under-ascertainment of symptomatic cases, particularly at the peak of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, in many countries. Reported case counts will therefore likely underestimate the rate of outbreak growth initially and underestimate the decline in the later stages of an epidemic. Although there was considerable under-reporting in many locations, our estimates were consistent with emerging serological data, suggesting that the proportion of each country's population infected with SARS-CoV-2 worldwide is generally low.

    Complicated COVID-19 MESHD in pregnancy: a case report with severe liver and coagulation dysfunction promptly improved by delivery

    Authors: Louise Ronnje; John-Kalle Länsberg; Olga Vikhareva; Stefan Hansson; Andreas Herbst; Mehreen Zaigham

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31225/v1 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundIt has been proposed that pregnant women and their fetuses may be particularly at risk for poor outcomes due to the coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic. From the few case series that are available in the literature, women with high risk pregnancies have been associated with higher morbidity. It has been suggested that pregnancy induced immune responses and cardio-vascular changes can exaggerate the course of the COVID-19 MESHD infectionCase presentationA 26-year old Somalian woman (G2P1) presented with a nine-day history of shortness of breath MESHD, dry cough MESHD, myalgia MESHD, nausea MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD and fever MESHD. A nasopharyngeal swab returned positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD. Her condition rapidly worsened leading to severe liver and coagulation impairment MESHD. An emergency Caesarean section was performed at gestational week 32+6 after which the patient made a rapid recovery. Severe COVID-19 MESHD promptly improved by the termination of the pregnancy or atypical HELLP ( Hemolysis MESHD, Elevated Liver Enzymes and Low Platelet Count) exacerbated by concomitant COVID-19 MESHD infection could not be ruled out. There was no evidence of vertical transmission. ConclusionThis case adds to the growing body of evidence which raises concerns about the possible negative maternal outcomes of COVID-19 MESHD infection during pregnancy and advocates for pregnant women to be recognized as a vulnerable group during the current pandemic.

    REMBRANDT: A high-throughput barcoded sequencing approach for COVID-19 MESHD screening.

    Authors: Dario Palmieri; Jalal K Siddiqui; Anne Gardner; Richard Fishel; Wayne Miles

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.16.099747 Date: 2020-05-17 Source: bioRxiv

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), is a highly infectious RNA virus. A still-debated percentage of patients develop coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) after infection, whose symptoms include fever MESHD, cough MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD and fatigue MESHD. Acute and life-threatening respiratory symptoms are experienced by 10-20% of symptomatic patients, particularly those with underlying medical conditions that includes diabetes MESHD, COPD MESHD and pregnancy. One of the main challenges in the containment of COVID-19 MESHD is the identification and isolation of asymptomatic/pre-symptomatic individuals. As communities re-open, large numbers of people will need to be tested and contact-tracing of positive patients will be required to prevent additional waves of infections and enable the continuous monitoring of the viral loads COVID-19 MESHD positive patients. A number of molecular assays are currently in clinical use to detect SARS-CoV-2. Many of them can accurately test hundreds or even thousands of patients every day. However, there are presently no testing platforms that enable more than 10,000 tests per day. Here, we describe the foundation for the REcombinase Mediated BaRcoding and AmplificatioN Diagnostic Tool (REMBRANDT), a high-throughput Next Generation Sequencing-based approach for the simultaneous screening of over 100,000 samples per day. The REMBRANDT protocol includes direct two-barcoded amplification of SARS-CoV-2 and control amplicons using an isothermal reaction, and the downstream library preparation for Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. This protocol represents a potentially powerful approach for community screening, a major bottleneck for testing samples from a large patient population for COVID-19 MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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