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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (6)

NSP16 (1)

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    Delayed rise of oral fluid antibodies, elevated BMI, and absence of early fever MESHD correlate with longer time to SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in an longitudinally sampled cohort of COVID-19 MESHD outpatients

    Authors: Annukka A. R. Antar; Tong Yu; Nora Pisnic; Razvan Azamfirei; Jeffrey A Tornheim; Diane M. Brown; Kate Kruczynski; Justin P. Hardick; Thelio Sewell; Minyoung Jang; Taylor Church; Samantha N. Walch; Carolyn Reuland; Vismaya S. Bachu; Kirsten Littlefield; Han-Sol Park; Rebecca L. Ursin; Abhinaya Ganesan; Oyinkansola Kusemiju; Brittany Barnaba; Curtisha Charles; Michelle Prizzi; Jaylynn R. Johnstone; Christine Payton; Weiwei Dai; Joelle Fuchs; Guido Massaccesi; Derek T. Armstrong; Jennifer L. Townsend; Sara C. Keller; Zoe O Demko; Chen Hu; Mei-Cheng Wang; Lauren M. Sauer; Heba H. Mostafa; Jeanne C. Keruly; Shruti H. Mehta; Sabra L. Klein; Andrea L. Cox; Andrew Pekosz; Christopher D. Heaney; David L. Thomas; Paul W. Blair; Yukari C. Manabe

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.02.21252420 Date: 2021-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background Viral and immune kinetics in mild to moderate COVID-19 MESHD are understudied because of challenges inherent in longitudinal sampling of people who are infectious to others, feeling ill, yet are not hospitalized. In particular, sustained molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT) in mild to moderate COVID-19 MESHD is common and confounds surveillance efforts in the community. We sought to identify host and immune determinants of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection via longitudinal viral RNA, virus culture, and plasma and oral fluid antibody sampling in a prospective observational cohort study of adult outpatients with COVID-19 MESHD. Methods and Findings Samples from 95 non-hospitalized participants [≥] 30 years old with recent COVID-19 MESHD diagnosis and known symptom onset date were analyzed. Participants self-collected mid-turbinate nasal, oropharyngeal (OP), and gingival crevicular fluid (oral fluid) samples at home and in a research clinic a median of 6 times over 1-3 months. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR performed on 507 URT samples revealed a median time to viral RNA clearance of the URT of 33.5 days. Sixteen nasal-OP samples collected 2-11 days post-symptom onset were virus culture positive out of 183 RT-PCR positive samples tested. All participants but one with positive virus culture were negative for concomitant oral fluid anti- SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN-receptor binding domain (S-RBD) antibodies. The kinetics of oral fluid anti-SARS-Cov-2 antibodies were measured using a multiplex immunoassay. The mean time to first detection of oral fluid anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 8-13 days post-symptom onset. Associations of symptoms, host demographics, comorbidities, and immune kinetics with time to SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. A longer time to first detection of oral fluid anti- SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD antibodies was independently associated with a longer time to SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA clearance (aHR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p=0.020). BMI [≥] 25kg/m2 was also independently associated with a longer time to viral RNA clearance (aHR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.78, p=0.009). Fever MESHD reported as one of first three COVID-19 MESHD symptoms was associated with shorter time to viral RNA clearance (aHR 2.06, 95% CI 1.02-4.18, p=0.044). Plasma titers of neutralizing antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD (S) antibodies, and S-receptor binding domain (S-RBD) antibodies were obtained at 1-4 months post-symptom onset. BMI was positively correlated with post-acute plasma SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibody titer and anti-S-RBD antibody titer. Conclusions In an intensively sampled cohort of 95 adult outpatients with COVID-19 MESHD, we demonstrate that longer time to first detection of oral fluid SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, elevated BMI, and absence of early fever MESHD are independently associated with longer time to viral RNA clearance. This work provides insights into the host and immune factors most important for viral clearance in mild to moderate COVID-19 MESHD.

    Persistence and baseline determinants of seropositivity in health care workers up to nine months after COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Carlota Dobaño; Anna Ramirez; Selena Alonso; Josep Vidal-Alaball; Gemma Ruiz-Olalla; Marta Vidal; Rocio Rubio; Emma Cascant; Daniel Parras; Natalia Rodrigo Melero; Pau Serra; Carlo Carolis; Pere Santamaria; Anna Forcada; Jacobo Mendioroz; Ruth Aguilar; Gemma Moncunill; Anna Ruiz-Comellas

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-142984/v1 Date: 2021-01-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    We determined the duration and baseline determinants of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 up to nine months after COVID-19 MESHD symptoms onset in 173 primary health care worker patients from Spain. Seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN and RBD antigens was 92.49% (60.69% IgM, 76.3% IgA, 90.17% IgG), with four suspected reinfection cases. Antibody levels significantly correlated with fever MESHD, hospitalization, anosmia/hypogeusia MESHD, allergies MESHD, smoking and occupation, and persisted 149-270 days in this cohort of patients

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in recovered COVID-19 MESHD patients: studies based on cellular and structural biology analysis

    Authors: Fan Wu; Renhong Yan; Mei Liu; Zezhong Liu; Yingdan Wang; Die Luan; Kaiyue Wu; Zhigang Song; Tingting Sun; Yunping Ma; Yuanyuan Zhang; Qimin Wang; Xiang Li; Ping Ji; Yaning Li; Cheng Li; Yanling Wu; Tianlei Ying; Yumei Wen; Shibo Jiang; Tongyu Zhu; Lu Lu; Yongzheng Zhang; Qiang Zhou; Jinghe Huang

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.08.20209114 Date: 2020-10-13 Source: medRxiv

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has been reported in several virus infections including dengue fever MESHD virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection MESHD. To study whether ADE is involved in COVID-19 MESHD infections, in vitro pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 entry into Raji cells, K562 cells, and primary B cells mediated by plasma from recovered COVID-19 MESHD patients were employed as models. The enhancement of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells was more commonly detected in plasma from severely-affected elderly patients with high titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein-specific antibodies. Cellular entry was mediated via the engagement of Fc{gamma}RII receptor through virus-cell membrane fusion, but not by endocytosis. Peptide array scanning analyses showed that antibodies which promote SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD targeted the variable regions of the RBD domain. To further characterize the association between the spike-specific antibody and ADE, an RBD-specific monoclonal antibody (7F3) was isolated from a recovered patient, which potently inhibited SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD of ACE-2 HGNC expressing cells and also mediated ADE in Raji cells. Site-directed mutagenesis the spike RBD domain reduced the neutralization activity of 7F3, but did not abolish its binding to the RBD domain. Structural analysis using cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) revealed that 7F3 binds to spike proteins PROTEIN at a shift-angled pattern with one up and two down RBDs, resulting in partial overlapping with the receptor binding motif ( RBM HGNC), while a neutralizing monoclonal antibody that lacked ADE activity binds to spike proteins PROTEIN with three up RBDs, resulting in complete overlapping with RBM HGNC. Our results revealed that ADE mediated by SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN-specific antibodies could result from binding to the receptor in slightly different pattern from antibodies mediating neutralizations. Studies on ADE using antibodies from recovered patients via cell biology and structural biology technology could be of use for developing novel therapeutic and preventive measures for control of COVID-19 MESHD infection.

    Virion Structure and Mechanism of Propagation of Coronaviruses including SARS-CoV 2 (COVID -19 ) and some Meaningful Points for Drug or Vaccine Development

    Authors: Swapan Ghosh

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0312.v1 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: Preprints.org

    SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 MESHD, a new seventh human corona virus, has out-broken in Wuhan, China since 31st December 2019, and quickly escalated to take the form of pandemic which killed many human beings throughout almost all countries across continents. The rapidity of its transmission from human to human is far greater than all previous human corona viruses which came into existence like SARS-CoV MESHD, MERS-CoV, etc. The nucleotide sequence of SARS-CoV-2 (isolates Wuhan-Hu-1) is 29,875 bp in ss-RNA. Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infected pneumonia MESHD include from asymptomatic to high fever and/or respiratory illnesses. Coronavirus virion (spherical/round /elliptical in shape) consists of three parts- outer membrane or envelope, nucleocapsid and genome (RNA). SARS-CoV-2 was shown to use receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) for attachment to the cells through its surface spike (S) protein PROTEIN (S1), and the virion enters into the host cell through two routes- direct membrane fusion and endocytotic pathway. The RNA of SARS-CoV acts MESHD directly as mRNA and here minus(-) 1 programmed ribosomal frameshift (-1PRF) is being operated by slippery sequence and pseudoknot, so it translates 16 nonstructural proteins PROTEIN including RNA dependent RNA replicase. Then genomic RNA replicated continuously on – strand RNA template and subgenomic RNA transcribed discontinuously on –RNA template to sgmRNA. Subgenomic RNAs/sgmRNAs synthesize all structural proteins. This article takes into consideration the details of established theories of viral structure, viral attachment, mode of entry into human cells, different models of replication and transcription of virus genome proposed by eminent scientists over the years, and makes an in depth examination highlighting meaningful points or important target cites of viral propagation or synthesis, which are conserved, for prompt development of potent drugs or vaccine to counter COVID-19 MESHD for which human race is anxiously and eagerly waiting.

    Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic COVID-19 MESHD disease in a population sample from SE England

    Authors: Philippa M Wells; Katie M Doores; Simon Couvreur; Rocio Martin Martinez; Jeffrey Seow; Carl Graham; Sam Acors; Neophytos Kouphou; Stuart Neil; Richard Tedder; Pedro Matos; Kate Poulton; Maria Jose Lista; Ruth Dickenson; Helin Sertkaya; Thomas Maguire; Edward Scourfield; Ruth Bowyer; Deborah Hart; Aoife O'Byrne; Kathryn Steele; Oliver Hemmings; Carolina Rosadas; Myra McClure; Joan Capedevila-Pujol; Jonathan wolf; Sebastien Ourseilin; Matthew Brown; Michael Malim; Timothy Spector; Claire Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20162701 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding of the true asymptomatic rate of infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD is currently limited, as is understanding of the population-based seroprevalence after the first wave of COVID-19 MESHD within the UK. The majority of data thus far come from hospitalised patients, with little focus on general population cases, or their symptoms. Methods: We undertook enzyme linked immunosorbent assay characterisation of IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein PROTEIN of 431 unselected general-population participants of the TwinsUK cohort from South-East England, aged 19-86 (median age 48; 85% female). 382 participants completed prospective logging of 14 COVID-19 MESHD related symptoms via the COVID Symptom Study App, allowing consideration of serology alongside individual symptoms, and a predictive algorithm for estimated COVID-19 MESHD previously modelled on PCR positive individuals from a dataset of over 2 million. Findings: We demonstrated a seroprevalence of 12% (51participants of 431). Of 48 seropositive individuals with full symptom data, nine (19%) were fully asymptomatic, and 16 (27%) were asymptomatic for core COVID-19 MESHD symptoms: fever MESHD, cough MESHD or anosmia MESHD. Specificity of anosmia MESHD for seropositivity was 95%, compared to 88% for fever cough MESHD and anosmia MESHD combined. 34 individuals in the cohort were predicted to be Covid-19 MESHD positive using the App algorithm, and of those, 18 (52%) were seropositive. Interpretation: Seroprevalence amongst adults from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic throughout the study. Anosmia demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. Funding: NIHR BRC, CDRF, ZOE global LTD, RST-UKRI/MRC

    IL-33 HGNC expression in response to SARS-CoV-2 correlates with seropositivity in COVID-19 MESHD convalescent individuals

    Authors: Michal A Stanczak; David E Sanin; Petya Apostolova; Gabriele Nerz; Dimitrios Lampaki; Maike Hofmann; Daniel Steinmann; Robert Thimme; Gerhard Mittler; Cornelius F Waller; Edward J Pearce; Erika L Pearce

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20148056 Date: 2020-07-10 Source: medRxiv

    Our understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still developing. We investigated seroprevalence and immune responses in subjects professionally exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and their family members (155 individuals; ages 5-79 years). Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein aligned with PCR results that confirmed previous infection. Anti-spike IgG titers remained high 60 days post-infection and did not associate with symptoms, but spike-specific IgM did associate with malaise and fever MESHD. We found limited household transmission, with children of infected individuals seldomly seropositive, highlighting professional exposure as the dominant route of infection in our cohort. We analyzed PBMCs from a subset of seropositive and seronegative adults. TLR7 HGNC agonist- activation revealed an increased population of IL-6+TNF-IL-1 HGNC{beta}+ monocytes, while SARS-CoV-2 peptide stimulation elicited IL-33 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IFNa2 HGNC, and IL-23 HGNC expression in seropositive individuals. IL-33 HGNC correlated with CD4+ T cell activation in PBMCs from convalescent subjects, and was likely due to T cell-mediated effects on IL-33 HGNC- producing cells. IL-33 HGNC is associated with pulmonary infection MESHD and chronic diseases like asthma MESHD and COPD, but its role in COVID-19 MESHD is unknown. Analysis of published scRNAseq data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid MESHD ( BALF MESHD) from patients with mild to severe COVID-19 MESHD revealed a population of IL-33 HGNC-producing cells that increases with disease. Together these findings show that IL-33 HGNC production is linked to SARS-CoV- 2 infection MESHD and warrant further investigation of IL-33 HGNC in COVID-19 MESHD pathogenesis and immunity.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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