Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1049)

Fever (651)

Cough (525)

Hypertension (362)

Anxiety (286)


Transmission

age categories (2647)

Transmission (2432)

gender (1227)

fomite (1108)

contact tracing (876)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 12421 - 12430 records in total 12932
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    Strong evolutionary convergence of receptor-binding protein spike between COVID-19 and SARS-related coronaviruses

    Authors: Yonghua Wu

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.04.975995 Date: 2020-03-04 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS)-related coronaviruses (e.g., 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV) are phylogenetically distantly related, but both are capable of infecting human hosts via the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and cause similar clinical and pathological features, suggesting their phenotypic convergence. Yet, the molecular basis that underlies their phenotypic convergence remains unknown. Here, we used a recently developed molecular phyloecological approach to examine the molecular basis leading to their phenotypic convergence. Our genome-level analyses show that the spike protein, which is responsible for receptor binding, has undergone significant Darwinian selection along the branches related to 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV. Further examination shows an unusually high proportion of evolutionary convergent amino acid sites in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein between COVID-19 and SARS-related CoV clades, leading to the phylogenetic uniting of their RBD protein sequences. In addition to the spike protein, we also find the evolutionary convergence of its partner protein, ORF3a, suggesting their possible co-evolutionary convergence. Our results demonstrate a strong adaptive evolutionary convergence between COVID-19 and SARS-related CoV, possibly facilitating their adaptation to similar or identical receptors. Finally, it should be noted that many observed bat SARS-like CoVs that have an evolutionary convergent RBD sequence with 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV may be pre-adapted to human host receptor ACE2, and hence would be potential new coronavirus sources to infect humans in the future.

    Preventive, Mitigating and Treatment Strategies for Containing or Ending the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Jianqing Wu; Ping Zha

    id:202002.0450/v2 Date: 2020-03-04 Source: preprints.org

    To understand great disparities in disease MESHD outcomes between CIVID-19 patients, we explore infection MESHD and host responses in kinetics. From existing data, we deduced a model that the lungs are damaged by rapidly rising flow resistance as a result of retaining white blood SERO cells in lung tissues. The retention of white blood SERO cells is initially triggered by viral infection MESHD but aggravated by injuries caused by low temperature. Lungs are initially damaged by fluid leakage, rapidly followed by extruding blood SERO into alveolar spaces. The step of blood SERO extruding is predicted to take place in a very short time. Our simulations show that as little as 0.1% retention of white blood SERO cells in the lungs can lead to their failure in 5 to 10 days. The small degrees of imbalance implies that this imbalance could be corrected by a large number of factors that are known to reduce flow resistance. The model implies that the top priority is maintaining blood SERO micro-circulation and preserving organ functions in the entire disease MESHD course, especially after the virus has spread the whole lungs. From exploring a large number of hypothetical infection MESHD modes, we propose preventive, mitigating and treatment strategies for ultimately ending the pandemic. The first strategy is avoiding exposures that could result in widespread damages to lungs and taking post exposure mitigating measures that would reduce disease MESHD severity. The second strategy is reducing death MESHD rate and disability rate from the current levels to one tenth for infected patients by using multiple factors health optimization method. The double reduction strategies are expected to generate a series of chain reactions that favor mitigating or ending the pandemic. Some reactions include a big reduction of the amount of viral discharges from infected patients into the air, the avoidance of panic, chronic stress and emotional distress, and cross-infections MESHD which are expected in quarantines. The double reductions would have a final effect of ending the pandemic.

    Detectable serum SERO SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is closely associated with drastically elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) level in critically ill COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Xiaohua Chen; Binghong Zhao; Yueming Qu; Yurou Chen; Jie Xiong; Yong Feng; Dong Men; Qianchuan Huang; Ying Liu; Bo Yang; Jinya Ding; Feng Li

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.29.20029520 Date: 2020-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Although the SARS-CoV-2 viral load detection of respiratory specimen has been widely used for novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) diagnosis, it is undeniable that serum SERO SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid (RNAaemia) could be detected in a fraction of the COVID-19 patients. However, it is not clear that if the incidence of RNAaemia could be correlated with the occurrence of cytokine storm or with the specific class of patients. Methods: This study enrolled 48 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the General Hospital of Central Theater Command, PLA, a designated hospital in Wuhan, China. The patients were divided into three groups according to the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP (version 6) published by the National Health Commission of China. The clinical and laboratory data were collected. The serum SERO viral load detection and serum SERO IL-6 levels were determined. Except for routine statistical analysis, Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) analysis was used to establish a patient status prediction model based on real-time RT-PCR Ct value. Findings: The Result showed that cases with RNAaemia were exclusively confirmed in critically ill patients group and appeared to reflect the illness severity. Further more, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in critically ill patients, which is almost 10-folds higher than those in other patients. More importantly, the extremely high IL-6 level was closely correlated with the incidence of RNAaemia (R=0.902) and the vital signs of COVID-19 patients (R= -0.682). Interpretation: Serum SERO SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is strongly associated with cytokine storm and can be used to predict the poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that cytokine IL-6 should be considered as a therapeutic target in critically ill patients with excessive inflammatory response.

    The spatiotemporal estimation of the dynamic risk and the international transmission TRANS of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: A global perspective

    Authors: Yuan-Chien Lin; Wan-Ju Chi; Yu-Ting Lin; Chun-Yeh Lai

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.29.20029413 Date: 2020-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    An ongoing novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP infection MESHD outbreak called COVID-19 started in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. It both spread rapidly to all provinces in China and started spreading around the world quickly through international human movement from January 2020. Currently, the spatiotemporal epidemic transmission TRANS patterns, prediction models, and possible risk analysis for the future are insufficient for COVID-19 but we urgently need relevant information, particularly from the global perspective. We have developed a novel two-stage simulation model to simulate the spatiotemporal changes in the number of COVID-19 cases and estimate the future worldwide risk. Based on the connectivity of countries to China and the country's medical and epidemic prevention capabilities, different scenarios are generated to analyze the possible transmission TRANS throughout the world and use this information to evaluate each country's vulnerability to and the dynamic risk of COVID-19. Countries' vulnerability to the COVID-19 outbreak from China is calculated for 63 countries around the world. Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Japan are the most vulnerable areas. The relationship between each country's vulnerability and days before the first imported case occurred shows a very high exponential decrease. The cumulative number of cases in each country also has a linear relationship with vulnerability, which can compare and quantify the initial epidemic prevention capabilities to various countries' management strategies. In total, 1,000 simulation results of future cases around the world are generated for the spatiotemporal risk assessment. According to the simulation results of this study, if there is no specific medicine for it, it will likely form a global pandemic. This method can be used as a preliminary risk assessment of the spatiotemporal spread for a new global epidemic. * Note: This study was completed on February 15, 2020.

    Systematic Review of the Registered Clinical Trials of Coronavirus Diseases MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)

    Authors:

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.01.20029611 Date: 2020-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), many researchers in China have immediately carried out clinical research scheme of the COVID-19. But, there is still a lack of systematic review of registered clinical trials. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the clinical trials of COVID-19 to summarize the characteristics of the COVID-19 registered clinical trials. Methods: This study is based on the recommendations of the PRISMA in the Cochrane handbook. The databases from the Chinese Clinical Registration Center and the ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to collect the registered clinical trials of COVID-19. The retrieval inception date is February 9, 2020. Two researchers independently selected the literature based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and evaluated the risk of bias. Results: A total of 75 registered clinical trials (63 interventional studies and 12 observational studies) of COVID-19 were obtained. A majority of clinical trials were sponsored by Chinese hospitals. Only 11 trials have begun to recruit patients, and none of the registered clinical trials had been completed; 34 trials were early clinical exploratory trials or in a pre-experiment stage, 15 trials belonged to phrase and 4 trials were phrase . The methods of intervention included traditional Chinese medicine involving 26 trials, Western medicine involving 30 trials, and integrated traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine involving 19 trials. The subjects were mainly non-critical adult TRANS patients ([≥] 18 years old). The median sample size of the trials was 100 (IQR: 60 - 200), and the median execute time of the trials was 179 d (IQR: 94 - 366 d). The main outcomes were clinical observation and examinations. Overall, both the methodology quality of interventional trials and observational studies were low. Conclusions: Disorderly and intensive clinical trials of COVID-19 using traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine are ongoing or will being carried out in China. However, based on the low methodology quality and small sample size and long studies execute time, we will not be able to obtain reliable, high-quality clinical evidence about COVID-19 treatment in the near future. Improving the quality of study design, prioritizing promising drugs, and using different designs and statistical methods are worth advocating and recommending for the clinical trials of COVID-19 in China.

    Highly ACE2 Expression in Pancreas May Cause Pancreas Damage After SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Furong Liu; Xin Long; Wenbin Zou; Minghao Fang; Wenjuan Wu; Wei Li; Bixiang Zhang; Wanguang Zhang; Xiaoping Chen; Zhanguo Zhang

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.28.20029181 Date: 2020-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in the end of 2019 in China has triggered a global public health crisis. Previous studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 infects cells by binding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the same as SARS-CoV. The expression and distribution of ACE2 in the pancreas are unknown. At the same time, the injury of pancreas after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD has not been concerned. Here, we collected public datasets (bulk RNA-seq and single-cell RNA-seq) to indicate the expression and the distribution of ACE2 in pancreas (in both exocrine glands and islets). And further, clinical data including mild and severe patients with COVID-19 demonstrated there existed mild pancreatitis MESHD pancreatitis HP. In the 67 severe cases, 11 patients (16.41%) showed elevated levels of both amylase and lipase, and 5 patients (7.46%) showed imaging alterations. Only one patient (1.85%) showed elevated levels of both amylase and lipase in 54 mild cases, without imaging changes. Our study revealed the phenomenon and possible cause of mild pancreatic injury in patients with COVID-19. This suggests that pancreatitis MESHD pancreatitis HP after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD should also be paid attention in clinical work.

    Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Severe Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP Caused by the 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Yafei Wang; Ying Zhou; Zhen Yang; Dongping Xia; Shuang Geng

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.02.20029306 Date: 2020-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background: A new virus broke out in Wuhan, Hubei, China, and was later named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The clinical characteristics of severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP caused by 2019-nCoV are still not clear. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics and risk factors of the severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP caused by the 2019-nCoV in Wuhan, China. Method: The study included patients hospitalized at the central hospital of Wuhan who had been diagnosed with a pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP caused by the novel coronavirus. Clinical features, chronic co-morbidities, demographic data, laboratory examinations, and chest computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed through electronic medical records. SPSS was used for data analysis to explore the clinical characteristics and risk factors of the patients with the severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Results: A total of 110 patients diagnosed with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were included in the study, including 38 with severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and 72 with non-severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Statistical analysis showed that advanced age TRANS, an increase of D-dimer, and a decrease of lymphocytes were characteristics of the patients with severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Moreover, in the early stage of the disease MESHD, chest CT scans of patients with the severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP showed the illness can progress rapidly. Conclusions: Advanced age TRANS, lymphocyte decline, and D-dimer elevation are important characteristics of patients with severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Clinicians should focus on these characteristics to identify high-risk patients at an early stage.

    An epidemiological forecast model and software assessing interventions on COVID-19 epidemic in China

    Authors: Peter X Song; Lili Wang; Yiwang Zhou; Jie He; Bin Zhu; Fei Wang; Lu Tang; Marisa Eisenberg

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.29.20029421 Date: 2020-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    We develop a health informatics toolbox that enables public health workers to timely analyze and evaluate the time-course dynamics of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection MESHD using the public available data from the China CDC. This toolbox is built upon a hierarchical epidemiological model in which two observed time series of daily proportions of infected and removed cases are emitted from the underlying infection MESHD dynamics governed by a Markov SIR infectious disease MESHD process. We extend the SIR model to incorporate various types of time-varying quarantine protocols, including government-level macro isolation policies and community-level micro inspection measures. We develop a calibration procedure for under-reported infected cases. This toolbox provides forecast, in both online and offline forms, of turning points of interest, including the time when daily infected proportion becomes smaller than the previous ones and the time when daily infected proportions becomes smaller than that of daily removed proportion, as well as the ending time of the epidemic. An R software is made available for the public, and examples on the use of this software are illustrated. Some possible extensions of our novel epidemiological models are discussed.

    Effective Infection MESHD Control Accelerated SARS-CoV-2 Suppression in China

    Authors: Xuebing Liu; Shanshan Deng; Xianqin Zhang; Xiaokui Zhu; Chao Liu; Tai Yang; Xue Luo; Nanqing Luo; Li Yang; Youjun Feng; Le Zhang; Ming Xiao; Lin Zhang; Xu Jia

    id:202003.0039/v1 Date: 2020-03-03 Source: preprints.org

    The disease MESHD COVID-19 is highly infectious, and infectious in asymptomatic TRANS incubation period TRANS. The national epidemic development has been effectively controlled and continues improving, especially in areas outside Hubei province. Such periodical results were achieved by the joint efforts of the whole society, including not only the hard work and dedication of the front-line medical workers but also the active cooperation of the general public. The strict epidemic prevention and control measurements have brought remarkable control results. In the present study, the basic infection MESHD number of the coronavirus R0 TRANS (basic replication number of the infection MESHD) before and after prevention and control measurements was simulated to elaborate the measurements of the Chinese government on epidemic prevention and control, providing reference for the people around the world.

    Epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19 patients with and without pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in Beijing, China

    Authors: Penghui Yang; Yibo Ding; Zhe Xu; Rui Pu; Ping Li; Jin Yan; Jiluo Liu; Fanping Meng; Lei Huang; Lei Shi; Tianjun Jiang; Enqiang Qin; Min Zhao; Dawei Zhang; Peng Zhao; Lingxiang Yu; Zhaohai Wang; Zhixian Hong; Zhaohui Xiao; Qing Xi; Dexi Zhao; Peng Yu; Caizhong Zhu; Zhu Chen; Shaogeng Zhang; Junsheng Ji; Guangwen Cao; Fusheng Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.28.20028068 Date: 2020-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background:SARS-CoV-2-caused coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is posinga large casualty. The features of COVID-19patients withand without pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP,SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility TRANS in asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS, and factors predicting disease progression MESHD remain unknown. Methods: We collected information on clinical characteristics, exposure history, andlaboratory examinations of all laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to PLA General Hospital. Cox regression analysis was applied to identify prognostic factors. The last follow-up was February 18, 2020. Results:We characterized 55 consecutive COVID-19 patients. The mean incubation was 8.42(95% confidence interval [CI], 6.55-10.29) days. The mean SARS-CoV-2-positive duration from first positive test to clearance was 9.71(95%CI, 8.21-11.22) days. COVID-19 course was approximately 2 weeks. Asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS might transmit SARS-CoV-2. Compared with patients without pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, those with pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were 15 years older and had a higher rate of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, higher frequencies of having a fever MESHD fever HP and cough MESHD cough HP, and higher levels of interleukin-6 (14.61 vs. 8.06pg/mL, P=0.040), B lymphocyte proportion (13.0% vs.10.0%, P=0.024), low account (<190/L) of CD8+ T cells (33.3% vs. 0, P=0.019). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that circulating interleukin-6 andlactate independently predicted COVID-19 progression, with a hazard ratio (95%CI) of 1.052 (1.000-1.107) and 1.082 (1.013-1.155), respectively. During disease MESHD course,T lymphocytes were generally lower,neutrophils higher, in pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients than in pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP-free patients. CD8+ lymphocytes did not increase at the 20th days after illness onset. Conclusion: The epidemiological features areimportant for COVID-19 prophylaxis. Circulating interleukin-6 and lactateare independent prognostic factors. CD8+ T cell exhaustion might be critical in the development of COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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