Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1395)

Fever (839)

Cough (696)

Hypertension (493)

Anxiety (492)


Transmission

age categories (3968)

Transmission (3442)

gender (1815)

fomite (1401)

contact tracing (1284)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 17941 - 17950 records in total 18488
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    Preliminary epidemiological analysis on children TRANS and adolescents with novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 outside Hubei Province in China: an observational study utilizing crowdsourced data

    Authors: Brandon Michael Henry; Maria Helena S Oliveira

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.01.20029884 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) continues to expand across the world. Though both the number of cases and mortality rate in children TRANS and adolescents is reported to be low in comparison to adults TRANS, limited data has been reported on the outbreak with respect to pediatric patients. To elucidate information, we utilized crowdsourced data to perform a preliminary epidemiologic analysis of pediatric patients with COVID-19 Methods: In this observational study, data was collected from two open-access, line list crowdsourced online databases. Pediatric cases of COVID-19 were defined as patients [≤]19 years of age TRANS with a laboratory confirmed diagnosis. The primary outcomes were case counts and cumulative case counts. Secondary outcomes included days between symptoms onset TRANS and first medical care and days between first medical care and reporting. Tertiary outcomes were rate of travel TRANS to Wuhan, rate of infected family members TRANS and rates of symptoms. Results: A total of 82 patients were included. The median age TRANS was 10 [IQR: 5-15] years. Patients from mainland China (outside Hubei) accounted for 46.3% of cases, while the remaining 53.7% of cases were international. Males TRANS and females TRANS accounted for 52.4% and 32.9% of cases, respectively, with the remaining 14.6% being designated as unknown. A male TRANS skew persisted across subgroup analyses by age group TRANS (p=1.0) and location (inside/outside China) (p=0.22). While the number of reported international cases has been steadily increasing over the study period, the number of reported cases in China rapidly decreased from the start point. The median reporting delay was 3 [IQR: 2-4.8] days. The median delay between symptom onset TRANS and first seeking medical care was 1 [IQR: 0-3.25] day. In international cases, time to first seeking medical care was a median of 2.5 days longer than in China (p=0.04). When clinical features were reported, fever HP fever MESHD was the most common presentation (68.0%), followed by cough HP (36.0%). Conclusions: The number of reported international pediatric COVID-19 cases is rapidly increasing. COVID-19 infections are, to-date, more common in males TRANS than females TRANS in both the children TRANS and adolescent age groups TRANS. Additionally, this male TRANS predominance remains the case both inside and outside of China. Crowdsourced data enabled early analysis of epidemiologic variables in pediatric patients with COVID-19. Further data sharing is required to enable analyses that are required to understand the course of this infection in children TRANS.

    Immunodepletion with Hypoxemia HP Hypoxemia MESHD: A Potential High Risk Subtype of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019

    Authors: Lilei Yu; Yongqing Tong; Gaigai Shen; Aisi Fu; Yanqiu Lai; Xiaoya Zhou; Yuan Yuan; Yuhong Wang; Yuchen Pan; Zhiyao Yu; Yan Li; Tiangang Liu; Hong Jiang

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030650 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background The outbreak of COVID-2019 is becoming a global public health emergency. Although its basic clinical features have been reported, the dynamic characteristics of immune system in COVID-2019 patients, especially those critical patients with refractory hypoxemia MESHD hypoxemia HP, are not yet well understood. We aim to describe the dynamic characteristics of immune system in 3 critical patients with refractory hypoxemia MESHD hypoxemia HP, and discuss the relationship between hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD severity and immune cell levels, and the changes of gut microbes of COVID-2019 patient. Methods This is a retrospective study from 3 patients with 2019-nCoV infection admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, a COVID-2019 designated hospital in Wuhan, from January 31 to February 6, 2020. All patients were diagnosed and classified based on the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia HP (6th edition) published by the National Health Commission of China4. We recorded the epidemiological history, demographic features, clinical characteristics, symptoms and signs, treatment and clinical outcome in detail. Blood SERO samples were collected and we determined the expression levels of immune cells (CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, and CD16+56+ NK cells) in different time points. Nanopore Targeted Sequencing was used to determine the alterations of gut microbiota homeostasis. Results Apart from the clinical features described previously4, we found that four patients had decreased immune cells and refractory hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD during the hospitalization, and the severity of hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD was strongly correlated to the expression levels of immune cells. Additionally, we found that the proportion of probiotics was significantly reduced, such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Eubacterium, and the proportion of conditioned pathogenic bacteria was significantly increased, such as Corynebacterium of Actinobacteria and Ruthenibacterium of Firmicutes. Notably, all patients died. Conclusions We discussed the dynamic characteristics of host immune system and the imbalance of gut microbiota in 3 critical patients with COVID-2019. Hypoxemia HP Hypoxemia MESHD severity was closely related with host immune cell levels, and the vicious circle between immune disorder MESHD and gut microbiota imbalance may be a high risk of fatal pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which revealing that immunodepletion with refractory hypoxemia MESHD hypoxemia HP is a potential high risk subtype of COVID-2019 and the vicious circle between immune disorder MESHD and gut dysbiosis MESHD may be a high risk of fatal pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.

    Key Points of Clinical and CT Imaging Features of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Imported Pneumonia HP Based On 21 Cases Analysis

    Authors: wenxiu Wu; zhifeng xu; yabin Jin; aizhen Pan

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030775 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Objective: WHO Director-General declared that the 2019-nCoV outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern,and the outbreak is still on-going.Chest CT had been a key component of the diagnostic workup for patients with suspected infection MESHD. In this retrospective study, we attempt to summarize and analyze the chest CT features of 2019-nCov infections, and to identify the typical features to improved the diagnostic accuracy of new coronavirus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (NCP). Methods:Chest CT scans and Clinical data of 21 patients confirmed NCP in our hospital were enrolled.These patients were divided into mild and sever group according to clinical manifestations described by the 6th clinical practice guideline of NCP in China. Main clinical and chest CT features were analyzed and identify. Results: Fever HP Fever MESHD (85.7%) and cough HP (80.9%) were the two main symptoms of NCP patients.More significantly higher incidence (85.7%) of shortness of breath MESHD in the severe cases. Multiple lesions in both lungs and with incidence of GGO(100%), vascular enlargement MESHD (76.5%) and cobblestone/reticular pattern(70.6%) were the major feature.The incidence of consolidation, mixed pattern and vascular enlargement features were up to 100% in the severe group, significantly higher than that of patients in mild group. In addition, the incidence of air-bronchogram, dilated bronchi with thickened wall and fibrosis MESHD in the severe group was significantly higher than that in the mild group. Conclusions: Fever HP Fever MESHD and cough HP cough MESHD are the typical clinical features of NCP patients, and chest CT mainly manifested as multiple lesions in both lungs, often accompanied by GGO, vascular enlargement MESHD and cobblestone/reticular pattern.Changes in these main CT features can indicate development of the disease.

    Effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions for containing the COVID-19 outbreak: an observational and modelling study

    Authors: Shengjie Lai; Nick W Ruktanonchai; Liangcai Zhou; Olivia Prosper; Wei Luo; Jessica R Floyd; Amy Wesolowski; Mauricio Santillana; Chi Zhang; Xiangjun Du; Hongjie Yu; Andrew J Tatem

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20029843 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 outbreak containment strategies in China based on non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) appear to be effective. Quantitative research is still needed however to assess the efficacy of different candidate NPIs and their timings to guide ongoing and future responses to epidemics of this emerging disease across the World. Methods: We built a travel TRANS network-based susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) model to simulate the outbreak across cities in mainland China. We used epidemiological parameters estimated for the early stage of outbreak in Wuhan to parameterise the transmission TRANS before NPIs were implemented. To quantify the relative effect of various NPIs, daily changes of delay from illness onset to the first reported case in each county were used as a proxy for the improvement of case identification and isolation across the outbreak. Historical and near-real time human movement data, obtained from Baidu location-based service, were used to derive the intensity of travel TRANS restrictions and contact reductions across China. The model and outputs were validated using daily reported case numbers, with a series of sensitivity SERO analyses conducted. Results: We estimated that there were a total of 114,325 COVID-19 cases (interquartile range [IQR] 76,776 - 164,576) in mainland China as of February 29, 2020, and these were highly correlated (p<0.001, R2=0.86) with reported incidence. Without NPIs, the number of COVID-19 cases would likely have shown a 67-fold increase (IQR: 44 - 94), with the effectiveness of different interventions varying. The early detection and isolation of cases was estimated to prevent more infections than travel TRANS restrictions and contact reductions, but integrated NPIs would achieve the strongest and most rapid effect. If NPIs could have been conducted one week, two weeks, or three weeks earlier in China, cases could have been reduced by 66%, 86%, and 95%, respectively, together with significantly reducing the number of affected areas. However, if NPIs were conducted one week, two weeks, or three weeks later, the number of cases could have shown a 3-fold, 7-fold, and 18-fold increase across China, respectively. Results also suggest that the social distancing intervention should be continued for the next few months in China to prevent case numbers increasing again after travel TRANS restrictions were lifted on February 17, 2020. Conclusion: The NPIs deployed in China appear to be effectively containing the COVID-19 outbreak, but the efficacy of the different interventions varied, with the early case detection and contact reduction being the most effective. Moreover, deploying the NPIs early is also important to prevent further spread. Early and integrated NPI strategies should be prepared, adopted and adjusted to minimize health, social and economic impacts in affected regions around the World.

    Transmission TRANS interval estimates suggest pre-symptomatic spread of COVID-19

    Authors: Lauren Tindale; Michelle Coombe; Jessica E Stockdale; Emma Garlock; Wing Yin Venus Lau; Manu Saraswat; Yen-Hsiang Brian Lee; Louxin Zhang; Dongxuan Chen; Jacco Wallinga; Caroline Colijn

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20029983 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: As the COVID-19 epidemic is spreading, incoming data allows us to quantify values of key variables that determine the transmission TRANS and the effort required to control the epidemic. We determine the incubation period TRANS and serial interval TRANS distribution for transmission TRANS clusters in Singapore and in Tianjin. We infer the basic reproduction number TRANS and identify the extent of pre-symptomatic transmission TRANS. Methods: We collected outbreak information from Singapore and Tianjin, China, reported from Jan.19-Feb.26 and Jan.21-Feb.27, respectively. We estimated incubation periods TRANS and serial intervals TRANS in both populations. Results: The mean incubation period TRANS was 7.1 (6.13, 8.25) days for Singapore and 9 (7.92, 10.2)days for Tianjin. Both datasets had shorter incubation periods TRANS for earlier-occurring cases. The mean serial interval TRANS was 4.56 (2.69, 6.42) days for Singapore and 4.22 (3.43, 5.01) for Tianjin. We inferred that early in the outbreaks, infection MESHD was transmitted on average 2.55 and 2.89days before symptom onset TRANS (Singapore, Tianjin). The estimated basic reproduction number TRANS for Singapore was 1.97 (1.45, 2.48) secondary cases TRANS per infective; for Tianjin it was 1.87 (1.65,2.09) secondary cases TRANS per infective. Conclusions: Estimated serial intervals TRANS are shorter than incubation periods TRANS in both Singapore and Tianjin, suggesting that pre-symptomatic transmission TRANS is occurring. Shorter serial intervals TRANS lead to lower estimates of R0 TRANS, which suggest that half of all secondary infections should be prevented to control spread.

    Targeted Oxidation Strategy (TOS) for Potential Inhibition of Coronaviruses by Disulfiram — a 70-Year Old Anti- Alcoholism HP Drug

    Authors: Luyan Xu; Jiahui Tong; Yiran Wu; Suwen Zhao; Bo-Lin Lin

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.11936292.v1 Date: 2020-03-05 Source: ChemRxiv

    In the new millennium, the outbreak of new coronavirus has happened three times: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV. Unfortunately, we still have no pharmaceutical weapons against the diseases caused by these viruses. The pandemic of 2019-nCoV reminds us of the urgency to search new drugs with totally different mechanism that may target the weaknesses specific to coronaviruses. Herein, we disclose a new targeted oxidation strategy (TOS II) leveraging non-covalent interactions potentially to oxidize and inhibit the activities of cytosolic thiol proteins via thiol/thiolate oxidation to disulfide (TOD). Quantum mechanical calculations show encouraging results supporting the feasibility to selectively oxidize thiol of targeted proteins via TOS II even in relatively reducing cytosolic microenvironments. Molecular docking against the two thiol proteases Mpro and PLpro of 2019-nCoV provide evidence to support a TOS II mechanism for two experimentally identified anti-2019-nCoV disulfide oxidants: disulfiram and PX-12. Remarkably, disulfiram is an anti- alcoholism HP drug approved by FDA 70 years ago, thus it can be immediately used in phase III clinical trial for anti-2019-nCoV treatment. Finally, a preliminary list of promising TOS II drug candidates targeting the two thiol proteases of 2019-nCoV are proposed upon virtual screening of 32143 disulfides.

    Viral Architecture of SARS-CoV-2 with Post-Fusion Spike Revealed by Cryo-EM

    Authors: Chuang Liu; Yuanzhu Gao; Congcong Liu; Xiaomin Ma; Shuman Xu; Jing Wu; Zheng Liu; Peiyi Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.02.972927 Date: 2020-03-05 Source: bioRxiv

    Since December 2019, the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) spread from Wuhan, China to the world, it has caused more than 87,000 diagnosed cases and more than 3,000 deaths globally. To fight against COVID-19, we carried out research for the near native SARS-CoV-2 and report here our preliminary results obtained. The pathogen of the COVID-19, the native SARS-CoV-2, was isolated, amplified and purified in a BSL-3 laboratory. The whole viral architecture of SARS-CoV-2 was examined by transmission TRANS electron microscopy (both negative staining and cryo-EM). We observed that the virion particles are roughly spherical or moderately pleiomorphic. Spikes have nail-like shape towards outside with a long body embedded in the envelope. The morphology of virion observed in our result indicates that the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 is in post-fusion state, with S1 disassociated. This state revealed by cryo-EM first time could provide an important information for the identification and relevant clinical research of this new coronavirus.

    Analysis clinical features of COVID-19 infection MESHD in secondary epidemic area and report potential biomarkers in evaluation

    Authors: Weiping Ji; Gautam Bishnu; Xian Shen; Zhenzhai Cai

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-16658/v1 Date: 2020-03-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: Based on the clinical characteristics of infected patients with novel coronavirus in secondary epidemic areas, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for the evaluation of novel coronavirus-infected MESHD patients, guide the diagnosis and treatment of this disease in secondary epidemic areas and provide a reference for the clinical prevention and control of this epidemic situation.Methods: The clinical data of 33 patients with respiratory symptoms MESHD caused by the novel coronavirus in Wenzhou city from January 15 to February 12, 2020, were thoroughly reviewed. At the onset of the disease, we found that the primary symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD, chest pain HP chest pain MESHD and specific blood SERO test results. According to the patients’ histories, the patients were divided into two groups: those who spent time in the main epidemic area and those who did not spend time in the main epidemic area. The differences in the clinical manifestations between these two groups were analyzed.Results: The main clinical symptoms of patients infected with novel coronavirus in the secondary epidemic area were respiratory tract ailments and systemic symptoms. After grouping patients based on the presence or absence of residency in or travel TRANS history to the main epidemic area, there was no significant difference between the baseline data of these two groups, and there were no significant differences in symptoms and signs between the two groups (P>0.05). Some patients had abnormally increased serum SERO amyloid protein A (SAA). There were statistically significant differences in the leukocyte count/C-reactive protein, monocyte ratio/C-reactive protein, neutrophil count/C-reactive protein, monocyte count/C-reactive protein and hemoglobin/C-reactive protein values between the two groups (P < 0.05).Conclusion: Respiratory tract ailments and systemic symptoms were the primary symptoms of novel coronavirus infection MESHD in the secondary epidemic area; these symptoms are not typical. The abnormal increase in serum SERO amyloid protein (SAA) may be used as an auxiliary index for diagnosis and treatment. CRP changes before other blood SERO parameters and thus may be an effective evaluation index for patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD.

    Structurally Observed Electrostatic Features of the COVID-19 Coronavirus-Related Experimental Structures inside Protein Data Bank: A Brief Update

    Authors: Wei Li

    id:10.20944/preprints202003.0081.v1 Date: 2020-03-05 Source: Preprints.org

    Since the Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) outbreak at the end of 2019, the past two month has seen an acceleration both in and outside China in the R&D of the diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics for this novel coronavirus. As one of the molecular forces that determine protein structure, electrostatic effects dominate many aspects of protein behaviour and biological function. Thus, incorporating currently available experimental structures related to COVID-19, this article reports a simple python-based analysis tool and a LaTeX-based editing tool to extract and summarize the electrostatic features from experimentally determined structures, to strengthen our understanding of COVID-19's structure and function and to facilitate machine-learning and structure-based computational design of its neutralizing antibodies SERO and/or small molecule(s) as potential therapeutic candidates. Finally, this article puts forward a brief update of the structurally observed electrostatic features of the COVID-19 coronavirus.

    Structural Elucidation of SARS-CoV-2 Vital Proteins: Computational Methods Reveal Potential Drug Candidates Against Main Protease, Nsp12 RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase and Nsp13 Helicase

    Authors: Muhammad Usman Mirza; Matheus Froeyen

    id:10.20944/preprints202003.0085.v1 Date: 2020-03-05 Source: Preprints.org

    The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) caused a major outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and instigated a widespread fear and has threatened global health security. Although phenomenal efforts are in progress to effectively combat this COVID-19 outbreak. Still, no licensed antiviral drugs or vaccines are available, and treatment is limited to supportive care and few repurposed drugs. In this urgency situation, computational drug discovery methods provide both an alternative and a supplement to tiresome high-throughput screening, particularly in the hit-to-lead-optimization stage. Identification of small molecules that specifically target viral replication apparatus has shown the most successful strategy in antiviral drug discovery. The present study deals with the identification of potential compounds that specifically interact with SARS-CoV-2 vital proteins, including main protease (Mpro), Nsp12 RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase (RdRp) and Nsp13 helicase. A constructive and integrated virtual screening efforts together with molecular dynamics simulations identified potential binding modes and favourable molecular interaction profile of corresponding compounds. Moreover, structurally important binding site residues in conserved motifs located inside the active site are elucidated, which displayed relative importance in ligand binding based on residual energy decomposition analysis. Although the current study lacks experimental validation, the structural information obtained from this computational study paved the way to identify and design specific targeted inhibitors to combat COVID-19 outbreak.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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