Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1397)

Fever (843)

Cough (699)

Anxiety (496)

Hypertension (493)


age categories (3978)

Transmission (3456)

gender (1821)

fomite (1401)

contact tracing (1288)

    displaying 17991 - 18000 records in total 18565
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    Epidemiological and clinical features of 291 cases with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 in areas adjacent to Hubei, China: a double-center observational study

    Authors: Xu Chen; Fang Zheng; Yanhua Qing; Shuizi Ding; Danhui Yang; Cheng Lei; Zhilan Yin; Xianglin Zhou; Dixuan Jiang; Qi Zuo; Jun He; Jianlei Lv; Ping Chen; Yan Chen; Hong Peng; Honghui Li; Yuanlin Xie; Jiyang Liu; Zhiguo Zhou; Hong Luo

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030353 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background: The clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Hubei and other areas are different. We aim to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patient with COVID-19 in Hunan which is adjacent to Hubei. Methods: In this double-center, observational study, we recruited all consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 from January 23 to February 14, 2020 in two designated hospitals in Hunan province, China. Epidemiological and clinical data from patients' electronic medical records were collected and compared between mild, moderate and severe/critical group in detail. Clinical outcomes were followed up to February 20, 2020. Findings: 291 patients with COVID-19 were categorized into mild group (10.0%), moderate group (72.8%) and severe/critical group (17.2%). The median age TRANS of all patients was 46 years (49.8% were male TRANS). 86.6% patients had an indirect exposure history. The proportion of patients that had been to Wuhan in severe/critical group (48.0% vs 17.2%, p=0.006) and moderate group (43.4% vs 17.2%, p=0.007) were higher than mild group. Fever HP Fever MESHD (68.7%), cough HP (60.5%), and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD (31.6%) were common symptoms especially for severe and critical patients. Typical lung imaging finding were bilateral and unilateral ground glass opacity MESHD or consolidation. Leukopenia HP Leukopenia MESHD, lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD and eosinopenia occurred in 36.1%, 22.7% and 50.2% patients respectively. Increased fibrinogen was detected in 45 of 58 (77.6%) patients with available results. 29 of 44 (65.9%) or 22 of 40 (55.0%) patients were positive in Mycoplasma pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP or Chlamydia pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP antibody test SERO respectively. Compared with mild or moderate group, severe/critical group had a relative higher level of neutrophil, Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio, h-CRP, ESR, CK, CK-MB, LDH, D-dimer, and a lower level of lymphocyte, eosinophils, platelet, HDL and sodium (all p<0.01). Most patients received antiviral therapy and Chinese Medicine therapy. As of February 20, 2020, 159 (54.6%) patients were discharged and 2 (0.7%) patients died during hospitalization. The median length of hospital stay in discharged patients was 12 days (IQR: 10-15). Interpretation: The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Hunan is different from patients in Wuhan. The proportion of patients that had been to Wuhan in severe/critical group and moderate group were higher than mild group. Laboratory and imaging examination can assist in the diagnosis and classification of COVID-19 patients.

    Preliminary estimation of the novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) cases in Iran: a modelling analysis based on overseas cases and air travel TRANS data

    Authors: Zian Zhuang; Shi Zhao; Qianying Lin; Peihua Cao; Yijun Lou; Lin Yang; Daihai He

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.02.20030320 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    As of 1 March 2020, Iran has reported 987 COVID-19 cases and including 54 associated deaths. At least six neighboring countries (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Afghanistan and Pakistan) have reported imported COVID-19 cases from Iran. We used air travel TRANS data and the cases from Iran to other Middle East countries and estimated 16533 (95% CI: 5925, 35538) COVID-19 cases in Iran by 25 February, before UAE and other Gulf Cooperation Council countries suspended inbound and outbound flights from Iran.

    ddPCR: a more sensitive and accurate tool for SARS-CoV-2 detection in low viral load specimens

    Authors: Tao Suo; Xinjin Liu; Jiangpeng Feng; Ming Guo; Wenjia Hu; Dong Guo; Hafiz Ullah; Yang Yang; Qiuhan Zhang; Xin Wang; Muhanmmad Sajid; Zhixiang Huang; Liping Deng; Tielong Chen; Fang Liu; Ke Xu; Yuan Liu; Qi Zhang; Yingle Liu; Yong Xiong; Guozhong Chen; Ke Lan; Yu Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.29.20029439 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Real time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) is widely used as the gold standard for clinical detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, due to the low viral load in patient throats and the limitations of RT-PCR, significant numbers of false negative reports are inevitable, which results in failure to timely diagnose, early treat, cut off transmission TRANS, and assess discharge criteria. To improve this situation, an optimized droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used for detection of SARS-CoV-2, which showed that the limit of detection of ddPCR is significantly lower than that of RT-PCR. We further explored the feasibility of ddPCR to detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid from 77 clinical throat swab samples, including 63 suspected outpatients with fever HP fever MESHD and 14 supposed convalescents who were about to discharge after treatment, and compared with RT-PCR in terms of the diagnostic accuracy. In this double-blind study, we tested, surveyed subsequently and statistically analyzed 77 clinical samples. According to our study, 26 samples from COVID-19 patients with RT-PCR negative were detected as positive by ddPCR. No FPRs of RT-PCR and ddPCR were observed. The sensitivity SERO, specificity, PPV, NPV, NLR and accuracy were improved from 40% (95% CI: 27-55%), 100% (95% CI: 54-100%), 100%, 16% (95% CI: 13-19%), 0.6 (95% CI: 0.48-0.75) and 47% (95% CI: 33-60%) for RT-PCR to 94% (95% CI: 83-99%), 100% (95% CI: 48-100%), 100%, 63% (95% CI: 36-83%), 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.18) and 95% (95% CI: 84-99%) for ddPCR, respectively. Moreover, 14 (42.9 %) convalescents still carry detectable SARS-CoV-2 after discharge. Overall, ddPCR shows superiority for clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to reduce the false negative reports, which could be a powerful complement to the current standard RT-PCR. It also suggests that the current clinical practice that the convalescent after discharge continues to be quarantined for at least 2 weeks is completely necessary which can prevent potential viral transmission TRANS.

    The effect of human mobility and control measures on the COVID-19 epidemic in China

    Authors: Moritz U.G. Kraemer; Chia-Hung Yang; Bernardo Gutierrez; Chieh-Hsi Wu; Brennan Klein; David M. Pigott; - open COVID-19 data working group; Louis du Plessis; Nuno R Faria; Ruoran Li; William P. Hanage; John S Brownstein; Maylis Layan; Alessandro Vespignani; Huaiyu Tian; Christopher Dye; Simon Cauchemez; Oliver Pybus; Samuel V Scarpino

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.02.20026708 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has expanded rapidly throughout China. Major behavioral, clinical, and state interventions are underway currently to mitigate the epidemic and prevent the persistence of the virus in human populations in China and worldwide. It remains unclear how these unprecedented interventions, including travel TRANS restrictions, have affected COVID-19 spread in China. We use real-time mobility data from Wuhan and detailed case data including travel TRANS history to elucidate the role of case importation on transmission TRANS in cities across China and ascertain the impact of control measures. Early on, the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases in China was well explained by human mobility data. Following the implementation of control measures, this correlation dropped and growth rates became negative in most locations, although shifts in the demographics of reported cases are still indicative of local chains of transmission TRANS outside Wuhan. This study shows that the drastic control measures implemented in China have substantially mitigated the spread of COVID-19.

    Respiratory Virus Shedding in Exhaled Breath and Efficacy of Face Masks

    Authors: Nancy HL Leung; Daniel KW Chu; Eunice YC Shiu; Kwok-Hung Chan; James J McDevitt; Benien JP Hau; Hui-Ling Yen; Yuguo Li; Dennis KM Ip; JS Malik Peiris; Wing-Hong Seto; Gabriel M Leung; Donald K Milton; Benjamin J Cowling

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-03-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    There are few studies describing the presence of respiratory viruses in respiratory droplets and aerosols in the exhaled breath of infected persons, and the efficacy of facemasks as a source control to prevent respiratory virus transmission TRANS. Here, we recruited children TRANS and adults TRANS with acute respiratory illness MESHD and collected respiratory droplets and aerosols, with and without surgical facemasks. We identified human coronaviruses, influenza virus and rhinovirus from both respiratory droplets and aerosols. Surgical face masks reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in both respiratory droplets and aerosols, but only respiratory droplets and not aerosols for influenza virus RNA. Our results provide mechanistic evidence that surgical facemasks could prevent transmission TRANS of human coronavirus and influenza virus infections if worn by symptomatic individuals.Authors Donald K Milton and Benjamin J Cowling are joint senior authors.

    How does the outbreak of 2019-nCoV spread in mainland China? A retrospective analysis of the dynamic transmission TRANS routes

    Authors: Xiandeng Jiang; Le Chang; Yanlin Shi

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.01.20029645 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    The fourth outbreak of the Coronaviruses, known as the 2019-nCoV, has occurred in Wuhan city of Hubei province in China in December 2019. We propose a time-varying sparse vector autoregressive (VAR) model to retrospectively analyze and visualize the dyamic transmission TRANS routes of this outbreak in mainland China over January 31 - February 19, 2020. Our results demonstrate that the influential inter-province routes from Hubei have become unidentifiable since February 4, whereas the self- transmission TRANS in each province was accelerating over February 4-15. From February 16, all routes became less detectable, and no influential transmissions TRANS could be identified on February 18 and 19. Such evidence supports the effectiveness of government interventions, including the travel TRANS restrictions in Hubei. Implications of our results suggest that in addition to the origin of the outbreak, virus preventions are of crucial importance in provinces with the largest migrant workers percentages (e.g., Jiangxi, Henan and Anhui) to controlling the spread of 2019-nCoV.

    Adjusted age TRANS-specific case fatality ratio during the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei, China, January and February 2020

    Authors: Anthony Hauser; Michel J Counotte; Charles C Margossian; Garyfallos Konstantinoudis; Nicola Low; Christian L Althaus; Julien Riou

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.04.20031104 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background. As of 16 May 2020, more than 4.5 million cases and more than 300,000 deaths MESHD from disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported. Reliable estimates of mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are essential to understand clinical prognosis, plan health care capacity and for epidemic forecasting. The case fatality ratio (CFR), calculated from total numbers of reported cases and reported deaths MESHD, is the most commonly reported metric, but can be a misleading measure of overall mortality. The objectives of this study were to: 1) simulate the transmission TRANS dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 using publicly available surveillance data; 2) infer estimates of SARS-CoV-2 mortality adjusted for biases and examine the CFR, the symptomatic case fatality ratio (sCFR) and the infection fatality ratio (IFR) in different geographic locations. Method and Findings. We developed an age TRANS-stratified susceptible-exposed- infected-removed (SEIR) compartmental model describing the dynamics of transmission TRANS and mortality during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Our model accounts for two biases: preferential ascertainment of severe cases and right-censoring of mortality. We fitted the transmission TRANS model to surveillance data from Hubei province, China and applied the same model to six regions in Europe: Austria, Bavaria (Germany), Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany), Lombardy (Italy), Spain and Switzerland. In Hubei, the baseline estimates were: CFR 2.4% (95% credible interval [CrI]: 2.1-2.8%), sCFR 3.7% (3.2-4.2%) and IFR 2.9% (2.4-3.5%). Estimated measures of mortality changed over time. Across the six locations in Europe estimates of CFR varied widely. Estimates of sCFR and IFR, adjusted for bias, were more similar to each other but still showed some degree of heterogeneity. Estimates of IFR ranged from 0.5% (95% CrI 0.4-0.6%) in Switzerland to 1.4% (1.1-1.6%) in Lombardy, Italy. In all locations, mortality increased with age TRANS. Among 80+ year olds, estimates of the IFR suggest that the proportion of all those infected with SARS-CoV-2 who will die ranges from 20% (95% CrI: 16-26%) in Switzerland to 34% (95% CrI: 28-40%) in Spain. A limitation of the model is that count data by date of onset are required and these are not available in all countries. Conclusions. We propose a comprehensive solution to the estimation of SARS-Cov-2 mortality from surveillance data during outbreaks. The CFR is not a good predictor of overall mortality from SARS-CoV-2 and should not be used for evaluation of policy or comparison across settings. Geographic differences in IFR suggest that a single IFR should not be applied to all settings to estimate the total size of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic MESHD in different countries. The sCFR and IFR, adjusted for right-censoring and preferential ascertainment of severe cases, are measures that can be used to improve and monitor clinical and public health strategies to reduce the deaths from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Projecting the transmission TRANS dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the post-pandemic period

    Authors: Stephen M Kissler; Christine Tedijanto; Edward Goldstein; Yonatan H. Grad; Marc Lipsitch

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.04.20031112 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    There is an urgent need to project how transmission TRANS of the novel betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 will unfold in coming years. These dynamics will depend on seasonality, the duration of immunity, and the strength of cross-immunity to/from the other human coronaviruses. Using data from the United States, we measured how these factors affect transmission TRANS of human betacoronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1. We then built a mathematical model to simulate transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 through the year 2025. We project that recurrent wintertime outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 will probably occur after an initial pandemic wave. We summarize the full range of plausible transmission TRANS scenarios and identify key data still needed to distinguish between them, most importantly longitudinal serological studies to determine the duration of immunity to SARS-CoV-2.

    Estimating the burden of United States workers exposed to infection MESHD or disease: a key factor in containing risk of COVID-19 infection

    Authors: Marissa G Baker; Trevor K Peckham; Noah S. Seixas

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.02.20030288 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: With the global spread of COVID-19, there is a compelling public health interest in quantifying who is at increased risk of disease. Occupational characteristics, such as interfacing with the public and being in close quarters with other workers, not only put workers at high risk for disease, but also make them a nexus of disease transmission TRANS to the community. This can further be exacerbated through presenteeism, the term used to describe the act of coming to work despite being symptomatic for disease. Understanding which occupational groups are exposed to infection MESHD and disease in the workplace can help to inform public health risk response and management for COVID-19, and subsequent infectious disease MESHD outbreaks. Methods: To estimate the burden of United States workers exposed to infection MESHD and disease in the workplace, national employment data (by Standard Occupational Classification) maintained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) was merged with BLS O*NET survey data, which ranks occupations with particular physical, ergonomic, and structural exposures. For this analysis, occupations reporting exposure to infection MESHD or disease more than once a month was the focus. Results: Based on our analyses, approximately 10% (14.4 M) of United States workers are employed in occupations where exposure to disease or infection MESHD occurs at least once per week. Approximately 18.4% (26.7 M) of all United States workers are employed in occupations where exposure to disease or infection MESHD occurs at least once per month. While the majority of exposed workers are employed in healthcare sectors, other occupational sectors also have high proportions of exposed workers. These include protective service occupations (e.g. police officers, correctional officers, firefighters), office and administrative support occupations (e.g. couriers and messengers, patient service representatives), education occupations (e.g. preschool and daycare teachers), community and social services occupations (community health workers, social workers, counselors), and even construction and extraction occupations (e.g. plumbers, septic tank installers, elevator repair). Conclusions: The large number of persons employed in a wide variety of occupations with frequent exposure to infection MESHD and disease underscore the importance of all workplaces developing risk response plans for COVID-19. This work also serves as an important reminder that the workplace is a key locus for public health interventions, which could protect both workers and the communities they serve.

    Close contacts TRANS and household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in China: a content analysis based on local Heath Commissions' public disclosures.

    Authors: xiaoke Xu; Xiaofan Liu; Lin Wang; Sheikh Taslim ALI; Zhanwei Du; Paolo Bosetti; Benjamin J Cowling; Ye Wu

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.02.20029868 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Question: What are the characteristics of household and social transmissions TRANS of COVID-19 areas outside of epidemic centers? Findings: Based on 1,407 COVID-19 reported infection MESHD events in China outside of Hubei Province between 20 January and 19 February 2020, we estimate the distribution of secondary infection sizes, frequency of super spreading events, serial intervals TRANS and age TRANS-stratified hazard of infection MESHD. Young and older people have higher risks of being infected with households while males TRANS 65+ of age TRANS are responsible for a disproportionate number of household infections MESHD. Meaning: This report is the first large-scale analysis of the household and social transmission TRANS events in the COVID-19 pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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