Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1397)

Fever (843)

Cough (699)

Anxiety (496)

Hypertension (493)


Transmission

age categories (3978)

Transmission (3456)

gender (1821)

fomite (1401)

contact tracing (1288)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 18001 - 18010 records in total 18565
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    Communicating Prevention in the COVID-19 Epidemic: Case Study on Macau SAR TRANS

    Authors: Anna Weng Ian Au

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-16832/v1 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background As the COVID-19 epidemic is unfolding, an infodemic has also developed. With commonplace social media usage, a massive amount of information and misinformation is spreading at the same time. Irrational responses are reported worldwide – face mask and detergent shortages, panic shopping, and xenophobia, which could possibly be a result of ineffective science communication. Using Macau SAR TRANS for a case study, this article sets out to understand effective prevention communication. Methods An observation study was conducted to understand Macau’s prevention communication in the COVID-19 epidemic. Results Macau has imposed a wide range of preventions, covering most dimensions of daily life. Lessons are learned in risk perception, language used, science communication, digital literacy, information flow, and support in STEM advancement. Conclusions Macau’s prevention communication is not perfect, but Macau’s experience offers insights to European authorities on how to contain the epidemic and minimize undesirable outcomes as the epidemic is just beginning in Europe.

    How to differentiate COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from heart failure MESHD with computed tomography at initial medical contact during epidemic period

    Authors: Zhaowei Zhu; Jianjun Tang; Xiangping Chai; Zhenfei Fang; Qiming Liu; Xinqun Hu; Danyan Xu; Jia He; Liang Tang; Shi Tai; Yuzhi Wu; Shenghua Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.04.20031047 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVES To compare chest CT findings in heart failure MESHD with those of Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. BACKGROUND During epidemic period, chest computed tomography (CT) has been highly recommended for screening patients with suspected COVID-19. However, the comparison of CT imaging between heart failure MESHD and COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD has not been fully elucidated. METHODS Patients with heart failure MESHD (n=12), COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (n=12) and one patient with both diseases were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical information and imaging of chest CT were collected and analyzed. RESULTS There was no difference of ground glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, crazy paving pattern, lobes affected and septal thickening between heart failure MESHD and COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. However, less rounded morphology (8.3% vs. 67%, p=0.003), more peribronchovascular thickening (75% vs. 33%, p=0.041) and fissural thickening (33% vs. 0%, p=0.028), less peripheral distribution (33% vs. 92%, p=0.003) were found in heart failure MESHD group than that in COVID-19 group. Importantly, there were also more patients with upper pulmonary vein enlargement MESHD (75% vs. 8.3%, p=0.001), subpleural effusion MESHD and cardiac enlargement in heart failure MESHD group than that in COVID-19 group (50% vs. 0%, p=0.005, separately). Besides, more fibrous lesions MESHD were found in COVID-19 group although there was no statistical difference (25% vs. 0%, P=0.064) CONCLUSIONS Although there are some overlaps of CT imaging between heart failure MESHD and COVID-19, CT is still a useful tool in differentiating COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.

    Evolving Epidemiology and Impact of Non-pharmaceutical Interventions on the Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Chaolong Wang; Li Liu; Xingjie Hao; Huan Guo; Qi Wang; Jiao Huang; Na He; Hongjie Yu; Xihong Lin; An Pan; Sheng Wei; Tangchun Wu

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030593 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND We described the epidemiological features of the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (Covid-19) outbreak, and evaluated the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on the epidemic in Wuhan, China. METHODS Individual-level data on 25,961 laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 cases reported through February 18, 2020 were extracted from the municipal Notifiable Disease Report System. Based on key events and interventions, we divided the epidemic into four periods: before January 11, January 11-22, January 23 - February 1, and February 2-18. We compared epidemiological characteristics across periods and different demographic groups. We developed a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model to study the epidemic and evaluate the impact of interventions. RESULTS The median age TRANS of the cases was 57 years and 50.3% were women. The attack rate TRANS peaked in the third period and substantially declined afterwards across geographic regions, sex and age groups TRANS, except for children TRANS ( age TRANS <20) whose attack rate TRANS continued to increase. Healthcare workers and elderly TRANS people had higher attack rates TRANS and severity risk increased with age TRANS. The effective reproductive number TRANS dropped from 3.86 (95% credible interval 3.74 to 3.97) before interventions to 0.32 (0.28 to 0.37) post interventions. The interventions were estimated to prevent 94.5% (93.7 to 95.2%) infections till February 18. We found that at least 59% of infected cases were unascertained in Wuhan, potentially including asymptomatic TRANS and mild-symptomatic cases. CONCLUSIONS Considerable countermeasures have effectively controlled the Covid-19 outbreak in Wuhan. Special efforts are needed to protect vulnerable populations, including healthcare workers, elderly TRANS and children TRANS. Estimation of unascertained cases has important implications on continuing surveillance and interventions.

    Psychological impact of the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on healthcare workers in China

    Authors: Yuhong Dai; Guangyuan Hu; Huihua Xiong; Hong Qiu; Xianglin Yuan

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030874 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), more than 3000 (including clinical diagnosis) healthcare workers (HCWs) have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in China. This study is aimed to investigate the risk perception and immediate psychological state of HCWs in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods This study utilized a cross-sectional survey designed on a convenient sample of 4357 HCWs in China. Its data were collected using anonymous structured questionnaires distributed through social software. 6 questions were set to evaluate the participants' risk perception of COVID-19, and a General Health Questionnaire was used to identify the participants' immediate psychological status. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Risk perception and psychological status were compared by demographic characteristics and COVID-19 exposure experiences. Result A total of 4,600 questionnaires were distributed, and 4,357 qualified ones (94.7%) were collected. The main concerns of HCWs are: infection of colleagues (72.5%), infection MESHD of family members TRANS (63.9%), protective measures (52.3%) and medical violence (48.5%). And 39.1% of the HCWs had psychological distress, especially working in Wuhan, participating in frontline treatments, having been isolated and having family members TRANS or colleagues infected. Conclusions The finding indicating that, faced with the COVID-19 epidemic, HCWs, especially in Wuhan, were worried about the risks of infection TRANS risks of infection TRANS infection MESHD and protective measures, resulting in psychological distress MESHD, so further actions should be taken.

    Early Chest CT Features of Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia HP: Relationship to Diagnosis and Prognosis

    Authors: Hui Juan Chen; Jie Qiu; Biao Wu; Tao Huang; Yunsuo Gao; Zhen Ping Wang; Yang Chen; Feng Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-16702/v1 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To elucidate the consistency between CT findings and real time reverse-transcription–polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR) results and investigate the relationship between CT features and clinical prognosis in COVID-19.Methods: The clinical manifestations, laboratory parameters and CT imaging findings were analyzed in thirty-four patients with COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR from January 20 to February 4 in Hainan province. CT score was compared between the discharged patients and ICU patients.Results: Fever HP Fever MESHD (85%) and cough HP cough MESHD (79%) were most commonly seen. 10 (29%) patients demonstrated negative results on their first RT-PCR.22/34(65%) patients showed pure ground glass opacity (GGO). 17/34 (50%) patients had five lobes of lung involvement MESHD, while the 23(68%) patients had lower lobes were involved and 24/34 (71%) were subpleural. Lesions of 24 (71%) patients were distributed mainly in the subpleural. During follow-up, the initial CT lesions of ICU patients are distributed in both subpleural and parenchyma (80%) and the lesions are scattered. 60% of ICU patients had five lobes involved, while this was seen in only 25% discharged patients. Lesions of discharged patients are mainly in the subpleural (75%). 62.5% of discharged patients showed pure ground-glass opacity. 80% ICU demonstrated progressive stage on their first CT scan. 75 % discharged patients were at an early stage. CT score of ICU patients were significantly higher than that of the discharged patients.Conclusion: Chest CT plays a crucial role in the early diagnosis of COVID-19, particularly for those patients with negative RT-PCR. The initial features in CT may be associated with prognosis.Authors Hui Juan Chen and Jie Qiu contributed equally to this work.

    68 Consecutive patients assessed for COVID-19 infection; experience from a UK regional infectious disease MESHD unit

    Authors: Nicholas Easom; Peter Moss; Gavin Barlow; Anda Samson; Tom Taynton; Kate Adams; Monica Ivan; Phillipa Burns; Kavitha Gajee; Kirstine Eastick; Patrick Lillie

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.29.20029462 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Clinical assessment of possible infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus responsible for the outbreak of COVID-19 respiratory illness MESHD, has been a major activity of infectious diseases services in the UK and elsewhere since the first report of cases in December 2019. We report our case series of 68 patients, reviewed by Infectious Diseases Consultants at a Regional Infectious Diseases Unit in the UK. We prospectively evaluated our service between the 29th Jan 2020 and 24th Feb 2020. Demographic, clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data were collected. We have compared clinical features and subsequent diagnosis between well patients not requiring admission for clinical reasons or antimicrobials with those assessed as needing either admission or antimicrobial treatment. Final microbiological diagnoses included SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), Mycoplasma pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, influenza A, RSV, non SARS/MERS coronaviruses, rhinovirus/enterovirus. 9/68 were treated with antimicrobials, 15/68 were admitted to a negative pressure room of whom 5/68 were admitted solely due to an inability to isolate at home. Patients requiring either admission on clinical grounds or antimicrobials (14/68) were similar to those not requiring admission or antimicrobials, with modestly more fever HP fever MESHD and shortness of breath MESHD in the clinically admitted / antimicrobial group. The most commonly prescribed antimicrobials were doxycycline, moxifloxacin and oseltamivir. The majority of patients had mild illness which did not require a clinical intervention to manage. This finding supports a community testing approach supported by clinicians to review the proportion of more unwell patients.

    Human Kidney is a Target for Novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) Infection

    Authors: Bo Diao; Chenhui Wang; Rongshuai Wang; Zeqing Feng; Yingjun Tan; Huiming Wang; Changsong Wang; Liang Liu; Ying Liu; Yueping Liu; Gang Wang; Zilin Yuan; Liang Ren; Yuzhang Wu; Yongwen Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.04.20031120 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV) since December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has become an emergency of major international concern. Apart from the respiratory system, it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 can also directly infect MESHD other tissues such as the kidney or induce acute renal failure MESHD. METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) along with other clinical parameters from 85 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to a hospital in Wuhan from January 17, 2020 to March 3, 2020. Kidney tissues from six patients with postmortem examinations were analyzed by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and in situ expression of viral nucleocaspid protein (NP) antigen, immune cell markers (CD8, CD68 and CD56) and the complement C5b-9 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the viral particles in kidneys were also investigated by transmission TRANS electronic microscope (EM). RESULTS 27.06% (23/85) patients exhibited acute renal failure MESHD ( ARF MESHD). The eldery patients and cases with comorbidities such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and heart failure MESHD more easily developed ARF MESHD (65.22% vs 24.19%, p< 0.001; 69.57% vs 11.29%, p< 0.001, respectively). H&E staining demonstrated kidney tissues from postmortems have severe acute tubular necrosis HP acute tubular necrosis MESHD and lymphocyte infiltration. Immunohistochemistry showed that SARS-CoV-2 NP antigen was accumulated in kidney tubules. EM observation also demonstrated that viruses- like particles are visible in the kidneys. Viral infection MESHD not only induces CD68+ macrophages infiltrated into tubulointerstitium, but also enhances complement C5b-9 deposition on tubules. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 induces ARF MESHD in COVID-19 patients. Viruses directly infect MESHD human kidney tubules to induce acute tubular damage MESHD. The viruses not only have direct cytotoxicity MESHD, but also initiate CD68+ macrophage together with complement C5b-9 deposition to mediate tubular pathogenesis.

    SOCRATES: An online tool leveraging a social contact data TRANS sharing initiative to assess mitigation strategies for COVID-19

    Authors: Lander Willem; Thang Van Hoang; Sebastian Funk; Pietro Coletti; Philippe Beutels; Niel Hens

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030627 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Establishing a social contact data TRANS sharing initiative and an interactive tool to assess mitigation strategies for COVID-19. Results: We organized data sharing of published social contact surveys via online repositories and formatting guidelines. We analyzed this social contact data TRANS in terms of weighted social contact matrices, next generation matrices, relative incidence and R0 TRANS. We incorporated location-specific isolation measures (e.g. school closure or telework) and capture their effect on transmission TRANS dynamics. All methods have been implemented in an online application based on R Shiny and applied to COVID-19 with age TRANS-specific susceptibility and infectiousness. Using our online tool with the available social contact data TRANS, we illustrate that social distancing could have a considerable impact on reducing transmission TRANS for COVID-19. The effect itself depends on assumptions made about disease-specific characteristics and the choice of intervention(s). Keywords: social contact data TRANS, user interface, transmission TRANS dynamics, infectious diseases MESHD, epidemics, social distancing, behavioral changes, data sharing initiative, open-source, COVID-19

    Space-time dependence of corona virus (COVID-19) outbreak

    Authors: Kathakali Biswas; Parongama Sen

    id:2003.03149v1 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: arXiv

    We analyse the data for the global corona virus (COVID-19) outbreak using the results of a previously studied Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model of epidemic spreading on Euclidean networks. We also directly study the correlation of the distance from the epicenter and the number of cases. An inverse square law is seen to exist approximately. The studies are made for China and the rest of the world separately.

    The impact of social distancing and epicenter lockdown on the COVID-19 epidemic in mainland China: A data-driven SEIQR model study

    Authors: Yuzhen Zhang; Bin Jiang; Jiamin Yuan; Yanyun Tao

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.04.20031187 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    The outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) which originated in Wuhan, China, constitutes a public health emergency of international concern with a very high risk of spread and impact at the global level. We developed data-driven susceptible-exposed-infectious-quarantine-recovered (SEIQR) models to simulate the epidemic with the interventions of social distancing and epicenter lockdown. Population migration data combined with officially reported data were used to estimate model parameters, and then calculated the daily exported infected individuals by estimating the daily infected ratio and daily susceptible population size. As of Jan 01, 2020, the estimated initial number of latently infected individuals was 380.1 (95%-CI: 379.8~381.0). With 30 days of substantial social distancing, the reproductive number TRANS in Wuhan and Hubei was reduced from 2.2 (95%-CI: 1.4~3.9) to 1.58 (95%-CI: 1.34~2.07), and in other provinces from 2.56 (95%-CI: 2.43~2.63) to 1.65 (95%-CI: 1.56~1.76). We found that earlier intervention of social distancing could significantly limit the epidemic in mainland China. The number of infections could be reduced up to 98.9%, and the number of deaths could be reduced by up to 99.3% as of Feb 23, 2020. However, earlier epicenter lockdown would partially neutralize this favorable effect. Because it would cause in situ deteriorating, which overwhelms the improvement out of the epicenter. To minimize the epidemic size and death MESHD, stepwise implementation of social distancing in the epicenter city first, then in the province, and later the whole nation without the epicenter lockdown would be practical and cost-effective.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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