Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes


age categories (4237)

Transmission (3651)

gender (1909)

fomite (1442)

contact tracing (1365)

    displaying 19151 - 19160 records in total 19597
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    Infection Dynamics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( Covid-19 MESHD)Modeled with the Integration of the Eyring Rate ProcessTheory and Free Volume Concept

    Authors: Tian Hao

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.26.20028571 Date: 2020-02-29 Source: medRxiv

    The Eyrings rate process theory and free volume concept, two very popular theories in chemistry and physics fields, are employed to treat infectious disease MESHD transmissions TRANS. The susceptible individ- uals are assumed to move stochastically from one place to another. The virus particle transmission TRANS rate is assumed to obey the Eyring rate process theory and also controlled by how much free volume available in a system. The transmission TRANS process is considered to be a sequential chemical reaction, and the concentrations or fractions of four epidemiological compartments, the susceptible, the exposed, the infected, and the removed, can be derived and calculated. The obtained equations show that the basic reproduction number TRANS, R0 TRANS, is not a constant, dependent on the volume frac- tion of virus particles, virus particle size, and virus particle packing structure, the energy barrier associated with susceptible individuals, and environment temperature. The developed models are applied to treat coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( Covid-19 MESHD) transmission TRANS and make predictions on peak time, peak infected, and R0 TRANS. Our work provides a simple and straightforward approach to estimate how infection diseases MESHD evolve and how many people may be infected MESHD.

    Host susceptibility to severe COVID-19 MESHD: a retrospective analysis of 487 case outside Wuhan

    Authors: Yu Shi; Xia Yu; Hong Zhao; Hao Wang; Ruihong Zhao; Qun Cai; Shanshan Sun; Hong Fang; Yijie Wang; Zhangmin Hu; Jinnan Duan; Xiaoman Lin; Huilan Tu; Sheng Tu; jifang sheng

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-02-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD results in a considerable morbidity and mortality, mainly in China. The study is to investigate the intrinstic features of infected MESHD patients that associated with severe type of this disease. Method: A total of 487 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD patients were included in analysis. The demographic and epidemiological of patients representing as mild and severe at admission were compared. A step-wise multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 MESHD . A score systemc incorporating risk factors was established for risk stratification and validated in a small cohort during in-hospital follow-up. Results: Of all patients, 49 (10.1%) cases are severe at admission. Severe cases are elder [56(17) vs. 45(19), P<0.001), with more male TRANS (73.5% vs. 50.9%, P=0.003). They have a higher incidence of hypertension MESHD (53.1% vs. 16.7%, P<0.001), diabetes MESHD (14.3% vs. 5.0%, P=0.009), cardiovascular diseases MESHD (8.2% vs. 1.6%, P=0.003) and malignancy MESHD (4.1% vs. 0.7%, P=0.025), and less exposure to epidemic area (49.0% vs. 65.1%, P=0.027), but more infected familiy members(P=0.031). On multivariate analysis, elder age TRANS, male TRANS and presence of hypertension MESHD are independently associated with severe disease at admission. A host risk score, incorporating age TRANS, sex and hypertension MESHD history, clearly stratifies risk of developing severe type of COVID-19 MESHD both in patients at admission and during in-hospital follow-up. Conclusions: Elder age TRANS, male TRANS and presence of hypertension MESHD are associated with host susceptibility to developing severe COVID-19 MESHD. The host risk score may be a useful tool to identify high risk indiviuals but requires validation.

    Heart injury MESHD signs are associated with higher and earlier mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD)

    Authors: Chaomin Wu; Xianglin Hu; Jianxin Song; Chunling Du; Jie Xu; Dong Yang; Dechang Chen; Ming Zhong; Jinjun Jiang; Weining Xiong; Ke Lang; Yuye Zhang; Guohua Shi; Lei Xu; Yuanlin Song; Xin Zhou; Ming Wei; Junhua Zheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.26.20028589 Date: 2020-02-29 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Heart injury MESHD can be easily induced by viral infection MESHD such as adenovirus and enterovirus. However, whether coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) causes heart injury MESHD and hereby impacts mortality has not yet been fully evaluated. Objective: To explore whether heart injury MESHD occurs in COVID-19 MESHD on admission and hereby aggravates mortality later. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-center retrospective cohort study including 188 COVID-19 MESHD patients admitted from December 25, 2019 to January 27, 2020 in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, China; follow up was completed on February 11, 2020. Exposures: High levels of heart injury MESHD indicators on admission (hs-TNI; CK; CK-MB; LDH; -HBDH). Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality in hospital and days from admission to mortality (survival days). Results: Of 188 patients with COVID-19 MESHD, the mean age TRANS was 51.9 years (standard deviation: 14.26; range: 21~83 years) and 119 (63.3%) were male TRANS. Increased hs-TnI levels on admission tended to occur in older patients and patients with comorbidity (especially hypertension MESHD). High hs-TnI on admission ([≥] 6.126 pg/mL), even within the clinical normal range (0~28 pg/mL), already can be associated with higher mortality. High hs-TnI was associated with increased inflammatory levels (neutrophils, IL-6 HGNC, CRP, and PCT) and decreased immune levels (lymphocytes, monocytes, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells). CK was not associated with mortality. Increased CK-MB levels tended to occur in male TRANS patients and patients with current smoking. High CK-MB on admission was associated with higher mortality. High CK-MB was associated with increased inflammatory levels and decreased lymphocytes. Increased LDH and -HBDH levels tended to occur in older patients and patients with hypertension MESHD. Both high LDH and -HBDH on admission were associated with higher mortality. Both high LDH and -HBDH were associated with increased inflammatory levels and decreased immune levels. hs-TNI level on admission was negatively correlated with survival days (r= -0.42, 95% CI= -0.64~-0.12, P=0.005). LDH level on admission was negatively correlated with survival days (r= -0.35, 95% CI= -0.59~-0.05, P=0.022). Conclusions and Relevance: Heart injury MESHD signs arise in COVID-19 MESHD, especially in older patients, patients with hypertension MESHD and male TRANS patients with current smoking. COVID-19 MESHD virus might attack heart via inducing inflammatory storm. High levels of heart injury MESHD indicators on admission are associated with higher mortality and shorter survival days. COVID-19 MESHD patients with signs of heart injury MESHD on admission must be early identified and carefully managed by cardiologists, because COVID-19 MESHD is never just confined to respiratory injury MESHD.

    Rapid Molecular Detection of SARS-CoV-2 ( COVID-19 MESHD) Virus RNA Using Colorimetric LAMP

    Authors: Yinhua Zhang; Nelson Odiwuor; Jin Xiong; Luo Sun; Raphael Ohuru Nyaruaba; Hongping Wei; Nathan A Tanner

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.26.20028373 Date: 2020-02-29 Source: medRxiv

    The ability to detect an infectious agent in a widespread epidemic is crucial to the success of quarantine efforts in addition to sensitive and accurate screening of potential cases of infection from patients in a clinical setting. Enabling testing outside of sophisticated laboratories broadens the scope of control and surveillance efforts, but also requires robust and simple methods that can be used without expensive instrumentation. Here we report a method to identify SARS-CoV-2 ( COVID-19 MESHD) virus RNA from purified RNA or cell lysis using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) using a visual, colorimetric detection. This test was additionally verified using RNA samples purified from respiratory swabs collected from COVID-19 MESHD patients in Wuhan, China with equivalent performance SERO to a commercial RT-qPCR test while requiring only heating and visual inspection. This simple and sensitive method provides an opportunity to facilitate virus detection in the field without a requirement for complex diagnostic infrastructure.

    Activating organ’s immunizing power against COVID–19–learning from SARS

    Authors: Yi Wang; Chuanxin Xia

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-02-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Coronaviruses cause respiratory diseases MESHD in many animals, including humans. Spike protein is an important component of coronavirus structure and the formation of ACE2 HGNC ( angiotensin converting enzyme 2 HGNC)–spike complex mediates virus entry to host cells. C–type lectin family are widely distribute on the surface of human cells and have been shown to activate the immune system. In this article, we first illustrate why we can “learn from SARS” with phylogenetic analysis. Then, we use SARS spike protein structure, to inferring our molecular docking experiment, revealing the potential capacity of C–type lectin to directly interact with spike protein obstructs the formation of spike– ACE2 HGNC complex. Considering the expression profile of C–type lectin family changing significantly during infection, we predict certain members of this kind of protein as potential therapeutic target and verify their assumed function by inferring an C–type lectin–dependent CD4/CD28 T cell survival molecular network with endogenous molecular network theory (EMT) and comparing the predicted expression trend corresponding to each molecular with experiment data. Methods Alignments are inferred by MAFFT V7 ( G–ins–i, Blosom). Maximum likelihood analyses and bootstrap test carried out by RAXML V8.2 ML+BP online platform. Protein structure is predicted by SWISSMODELLING online platform. Molecular docking experiment is carried out by Z–dock Version 3.0.2. C–type lectin–dependent CD4/CD28 T cell Network is inferred by EMT theory. Result Our molecular docking experiment revealing the potential capacity of C–type lectin to directly interact with spike protein obstructs the formation of spike– ACE2 HGNC complex. Based on the expression profile of C–type lectin family during infection, we predicting certain member of this kind of protein as potential therapeutic target such as Clec7a, Clec12a and Clec11a, corresponding immune cell types such as CD4/CD28 T cell simulated by EMT theory and verified by experiment data, antigen adjuvant with similar C–type lectin receptor–TDM and some immune–boosting drugs–radix sophorae, lactoferrin and Astragalus membranaceus, for future testing.  Conclusions C–type lectin and their corresponding immune cells predicted in this work may be the potential therapeutic targets for the disease caused by COVID–19. C–lectin with the capacity of directly interact with spike protein inhibiting the formation of ACE2 HGNC–spike complex may be the way they execute anti–virus function. The corresponding cell type such as CD4/CD28 T cell may participate and against virus while Clec7a, Clec12a and Clec11a presumed capacity for facilitating CD4/CD28 T cell survival during infection being verified by EMT combining with experiment data. Our prediction at least suggest the possibility of activating organ’s immunizing power to prevent from COVID–19 and the drugs we suggested are all need to be further tested.  Trial registration Retrospectively registered. Keywords C–type lectin, spike protein, coronavirus, COVID–19, TDM.

    Evaluation of the clinical characteristics of suspected or confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 MESHD during home care with isolation: A new retrospective analysis based on O2O

    Authors: Hui Xu; Sufang Huang; Shangkun Liu; Juan Deng; Bo Jiao; Ling Ai; Yaru Xiao; Li Yan; Shusheng Li

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.26.20028084 Date: 2020-02-29 Source: medRxiv

    Summary Background The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus in December 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) has activated top-level response nationwide. We developed a new treatment model based on the online-to-offline (O2O) model for the home isolated patients, because in the early stages the medical staff were insufficient to cope with so many patients. Methods In this single-centered, retrospective study, we enrolled 48 confirmed/suspected COVID-19 MESHD patients who underwent home isolation in Wuhan between January 6 and January 31, 2020. By WeChat and online document editing all patients were treated with medical observation scale. The clinical indications such as Fever MESHD, Muscle soreness MESHD, Dyspnea MESHD and Lack of strength were collected with this system led by medical staff in management, medicine, nursing, rehabilitation and psychology. Findings The mean(SD) age TRANS of 48 patients was 39.08(13.88) years, 35(72.9%) were women. Compared with non-hospitalized patients, inpatients were older([≥]8805;70years, 2.4% vs 33.3%, P<0.04). All inpatients had fever MESHD, 50% inpatients had coughs HP and showed infiltration in both lungs at the time of diagnosis. 33.3% inpatients exhibited negative changes in their CT results at initial diagnosis. The body temperature of non-hospitalized patients with mild symptoms returned to normal by day 4-5. While dyspnea MESHD peaked on day 6 for non-hospitalized patients with mild symptoms, it persisted in hospitalized patients and exacerbated over time. The lack of strength and muscle soreness MESHD were both back to normal by day 4 for non-hospitalized patients. Interpretation Monitoring the trends of symptoms is more important for identifying severe cases. Excessive laboratory data and physical examination are not necessary for the evaluation of patients with mild symptoms. The system we developed is the first to convert the subjective symptoms of patients into objective scores. This type of O2O, subjective-to-objective strategy may be used in regions with similar highly infectious diseases to minimize the possibility of infection among medical staff.

    Stochastic discrete epidemic modeling of COVID-19 MESHD transmission TRANS in the Province of Shaanxi incorporating public health intervention and case importation

    Authors: Sanyi Tang; Biao Tang; Nicola Luigi Bragazzi; Fan Xia; Tangjuan Li; Sha He; Pengyu Ren; Xia Wang; Zhihang Peng; Yanni Xiao; Jianhong Wu

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.25.20027615 Date: 2020-02-29 Source: medRxiv

    Before the lock-down of Wuhan/Hubei/China, on January 23rd 2020, a large number of individuals infected by COVID-19 MESHD moved from the epicenter Wuhan and the Hubei province due to the Spring Festival, resulting in an epidemic in the other provinces including the Shaanxi province. The epidemic scale in Shaanxi was comparatively small and with half of cases being imported from the epicenter. Based on the complete epidemic data including the symptom onset TRANS time and transmission chains TRANS, we calculate the control reproduction number TRANS (1.48-1.69) in Xian. We could also compute the time transition, for each imported or local case, from the latent, to infected, to hospitalized compartment, as well as the effective reproduction number TRANS. This calculation enables us to revise our early deterministic transmission TRANS model to a stochastic discrete epidemic model with case importation and parameterize it. Our model-based analyses reveal that the newly generated infections decay to zero quickly; the cumulative number of case-driven quarantined individuals via contact tracing TRANS stabilize at a manageable level, indicating that the intervention strategies implemented in the Shaanxi province have been effective. Risk analyses, important for the consideration of resumption of work, show that a large second outbreak is expected if the level of case importation remains at the same level as between January 10th and February 4th 2020. However, if the case importation decreases by 30%, 60% and 90%, the second outbreak if happening will be of small-scale assuming contact tracing TRANS and quarantine/isolation remain as effective as before. Finally, we consider the effects of intermittent inflow with a Poisson distribution on the likelihood of multiple outbreaks. We believe the developed methodology and stochastic model provide an important model framework for the evaluation of revising travel TRANS restriction rules in the consideration of resuming social-economic activities while managing the disease control with potential case importation.

    Transmission TRANS potential of COVID-19 MESHD in South Korea

    Authors: Eunha Shim; Amna Tariq; Wongyeong Choi; Yiseul Lee; Gerardo Chowell

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.27.20028829 Date: 2020-02-29 Source: medRxiv

    Since the first identified individual of 2019 novel coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD) infection on Jan 20, 2020 in South Korea, the number of confirmed cases TRANS rapidly increased. As of Feb 26, 2020, 1,261 cases of COVID-19 MESHD including 12 deaths MESHD were confirmed in South Korea. Using the incidence data of COVID-19 MESHD, we estimate the reproduction number TRANS at 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.6), which indicates sustained transmission TRANS and support the implementation of social distancing measures to rapidly control the outbreak.

    Modeling the Epidemic Dynamics and Control of COVID-19 MESHD Outbreak in China

    Authors: Shilei Zhao; Hua Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.27.20028639 Date: 2020-02-29 Source: medRxiv

    The coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) is rapidly spreading over China and more than 30 countries in last two months. COVID-19 MESHD has multiple characteristics distinct from other infectious diseases MESHD, including a high infectivity during incubation, time delay between real dynamics and daily observed case numbers, and the effects from multiple quarantine and control measures. We develop a model SUQC to adequately characterizes the dynamics of COVID-19 MESHD and explicitly model the control by artificial measures, which is more suitable for analysis than other existing epidemic models. The SUQC model is applied to the daily released data of the confirmed infected to analyze the outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD in Wuhan, Hubei (excluding Wuhan), China (excluding Hubei) and four first-tier cities of China. We find that, before January 30, 2020, all these regions except Beijing have a reproductive number R TRANS>1, and after January 30, all regions have a reproductive number R TRANS<1, indicating the effectiveness of the quarantine and control measures in inhibiting COVID-19 MESHD. The confirmation rate of Wuhan is 0.0643, significantly lower than 0.1914 of Hubei (excluding Wuhan) and 0.2189 of China (excluding Hubei), but increases to 0.3229 after Feb 12th when clinical diagnosis was adopted. The un-quarantined infected individuals in Wuhan on February 12, 2020 is as high as 3,509 and decreases to 334 on February 21th, 2020. After fitting the model with recent data, we predict that the end times of COVID-19 MESHD of Wuhan and Hubei are around late-March, of China (excluding Hubei) around mid-March, and of the four tier-one cities before March 2020. A total of 80,511 individuals of the whole country are infected, among which 49,510 are from Wuhan, 17,679 from Hubei(excluding Wuhan), and the rest 13,322 from other regions of China (excluding Hubei). We suggest the rigorous quarantine and control measures should be kept before March in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, and before late-March in Hubei. The model can also be useful to predict the trend of epidemic and provide quantitative guide for other counties in a high risk of outbreak, such as South Korea, Japan and Iran.

    Estimate the incubation period TRANS of coronavirus 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD)

    Authors: Henry Han

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.24.20027474 Date: 2020-02-29 Source: medRxiv

    Motivation: Wuhan pneumonia MESHD is an acute infectious disease MESHD caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD). It is being treated as a Class A infectious disease though it was classified as Class B according to the Infectious Disease MESHD Prevention Act of China. Accurate estimation of the incubation period TRANS of the coronavirus is essential to the prevention and control. However, it remains unclear about its exact incubation period TRANS though it is believed that symptoms of COVID-19 MESHD can appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 or even more after exposure. The accurate incubation period TRANS calculation requires original chain-of-infection data that may not be fully available in the Wuhan regions. In this study, we aim to accurately calculate the incubation period TRANS of COVID-19 MESHD by taking advantage of the chain-of-infection data, which is well-documented and epidemiologically informative, outside the Wuhan regions. Methods: We acquired and collected officially reported COVID-19 MESHD data from 10 regions in China except for Hubei province. To achieve the accurate calculation of the incubation period TRANS, we only involved the officially confirmed cases TRANS with a clear history of exposure and time of onset. We excluded those without relevant epidemiological descriptions, working or living in Wuhan for a long time, or hard to determine the possible exposure time. We proposed a Monte Caro simulation approach to estimate the incubation of COVID-19 MESHD as well as employed nonparametric ways. We also employed manifold learning and related statistical analysis to decipher the incubation relationships between different age TRANS/ gender TRANS groups. Result: The incubation period TRANS of COVID-19 MESHD did not follow general incubation distributions such as lognormal, Weibull, and Gamma distributions. We estimated that the mean and median of its incubation were 5.84 and 5.0 days via bootstrap and proposed Monte Carlo simulations. We found that the incubation periods TRANS of the groups with age TRANS>=40 years and age TRANS<40 years demonstrated a statistically significant difference. The former group had a longer incubation period TRANS and a larger variance than the latter. It further suggested that different quarantine time should be applied to the groups for their different incubation periods TRANS. Our machine learning analysis also showed that the two groups were linearly separable. incubation of COVID-19 MESHD along with previous statistical analysis. Our results further indicated that the incubation difference between males TRANS and females TRANS did not demonstrate a statistical significance.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes

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