Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1389)

Fever (829)

Cough (689)

Hypertension (489)

Anxiety (486)


Transmission

age categories (3897)

Transmission (3404)

gender (1792)

fomite (1391)

contact tracing (1267)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 11 - 20 records in total 18267
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    Basrah experience among 6404 patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Saad S. Hamadi Al-Taher; Abbas K AlKanan; Mohammad N. Fares; Nihad Q. Mohammed; Ali Raheem Al-Jabery; Awatif A. Habeeb; Abbas Ali Mansour; Kerstin Klaser; Michela Antonelli; Liane S Canas; Erika Molteni; Marc Modat; M. Jorge Cardoso; Anna May; Sajaysurya Ganesh; Richard Davies; Long H Nguyen; David Alden Drew; Christina M Astley; Amit D. Joshi; Jordi Merino; Neli Tsereteli; Tove Fall; Maria F Gomez; Emma Duncan; Christina Menni; Frances MK Williams; Paul W Franks; Andrew T Chan; Jonathan Wolf; Sebastien Ourselin; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215384 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The first case of COVID-19 report in Basrah was in early March 2020. This study aimed to assess some of the characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Basrah for the period from March ,4th to September ,8th 2020. Methods: Retrospective database analysis of the University of Basrah database. All RT-PCR positive patients during the study period were enrolled. Results: Of 6404 patients included , male TRANS constituted 54.8%. Healthcare workers constituted 11.4% of the infected people. Of health care workers 16.1% were physicians . The mean age TRANS for the whole cohort was 39{+/-}16.7 years; adolescents and children TRANS younger than 20 years constituted 12.4%. The peak age TRANS was 31-40 years, those aged TRANS 61 years or more constituted 9.8% only. The case fatality rate was 3% ( males TRANS 55.2% and females TRANS 44.8%) . No death MESHD was reported in adolescents or children TRANS. The highest death rate was among those age TRANS 61 years or more. Conclusion: The situation of COVID-19 infection MESHD in Basrah is evolving like other countries. Furthers studies are needed to assess associated comorbidities, treatment lines, outcomes and variables associated with mortality.

    City-level SARS-CoV-2 sewage surveillance

    Authors: Karin Yaniv; Marilou Shagan; Esti Kramarsky-Winter; Victoria Indenbaum; Merav Weil; Michal Elul; Oran Erster; Alin Sela Brown; Ella Mendelson; Batya Mannasse; Rachel Shirazi; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215244 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic created a global crisis impacting not only healthcare systems, but also world economies and society. Recent data have indicated that fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 is common, and that viral RNA can be detected in wastewater. This suggests that wastewater monitoring is a potentially efficient tool for both epidemiological surveillance, and early warning for SARS-CoV-2 circulation at the population level. In this study we sampled an urban wastewater infrastructure in the city of Ashkelon, Israel, during the end of the first COVID-19 wave in May 2020 when the number of infections MESHD seemed to be waning. We were able to show varying presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater from several locations in the city during two sampling periods. This was expressed as a new index, Normalized Viral Load (NVL), which can be used in different area scales to define levels of virus activity such as red (high) or green (no), and to follow morbidity in the population at tested area. Our index showed the rise in viral load between the two sampling periods (one week apart) and indicated an increase in morbidity that was evident a month later in the population. Thus, this methodology may provide an early indication for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD outbreak in a population before an outbreak is clinically apparent.

    On nonlinear incidence rate of Covid-19

    Authors: Swarna Kamal Paul; Saikat Jana; Parama Bhaumik; Victoria Indenbaum; Merav Weil; Michal Elul; Oran Erster; Alin Sela Brown; Ella Mendelson; Batya Mannasse; Rachel Shirazi; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215665 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Classical Susceptible-Infected-Removed model with constant transmission TRANS rate and removal rate may not capture real world dynamics of epidemic due to complex influence of multiple external factors on the spread. On top of that transmission TRANS rate may vary widely in a large region due to non-stationarity of spatial features which poses difficulty in creating a global model. We modified discrete global Susceptible-Infected-Removed model by using time varying transmission TRANS rate, recovery rate and multiple spatially local models. No specific functional form of transmission TRANS rate has been assumed. We have derived the criteria for disease-free equilibrium within a specific time period. A single Convolutional LSTM model is created and trained to map multiple spatiotemporal features to transmission TRANS rate. The model achieved 8.39% mean absolute percent error in terms of cumulative infection MESHD cases in each locality in a 10-day prediction period. Local interpretations of the model using perturbation method reveals local influence of different features on transmission TRANS rate which in turn is used to generate a set of generalized global interpretations. A what-if scenario with modified recovery rate illustrates rapid dampening of the spread when forecasted with the trained model. A comparative study with current normal scenario reveals key necessary steps to reach baseline.

    Modifiable lifestyle factors and severe COVID-19 risk: Evidence from Mendelian randomization analysis

    Authors: Shuai Li; Saikat Jana; Parama Bhaumik; Victoria Indenbaum; Merav Weil; Michal Elul; Oran Erster; Alin Sela Brown; Ella Mendelson; Batya Mannasse; Rachel Shirazi; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215525 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background Lifestyle factors including obesity HP obesity MESHD and smoking are suggested to be related to increased risk of COVID-19 severe illness MESHD or related death. However, little is known about whether these relationships are causal, or the relationships between COVID-19 severe illness and other lifestyle factors, such as alcohol consumption and physical activity. Methods Genome-wide significant genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI), lifetime smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity identified by large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were selected as instrumental variables. GWAS summary statistics of these genetic variants for relevant lifestyle factors and severe illness of COVID-19 were obtained. Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were conducted. Results Both genetically predicted BMI and lifetime smoking were associated with about 2-fold increased risks of severe respiratory COVID-19 and COVID-19 hospitalization (all P<0.05). Genetically predicted physical activity was associated with about 5-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4, 20.3; P=0.02) decreased risk of severe respiratory COVID-19, but not with COVID-19 hospitalization, though the majority of the 95% CI did not include one. No evidence of association was found for genetically predicted alcohol consumption, but associations were found when using pleiotropy robust methods. Conclusion Evidence is found that BMI and smoking causally increase and physical activity causally decreases the risk of COVID-19 severe illness. This study highlights the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle in protecting from COVID-19 severe illness and its public health value in fighting against COVID-19 pandemic.

    What predicts adherence to COVID-19 government guidelines? Longitudinal analyses of 51,000 UK adults TRANS.

    Authors: Liam Wright; Andrew Steptoe; Daisy Fancourt; Victoria Indenbaum; Merav Weil; Michal Elul; Oran Erster; Alin Sela Brown; Ella Mendelson; Batya Mannasse; Rachel Shirazi; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215376 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    In the absence of a vaccine, governments have focused on social distancing, self-isolation, and increased hygiene procedures to reduce the transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Compliance with these measures requires voluntary cooperation from citizens. Yet, compliance is not complete, and existing studies provide limited understanding of what factors influence compliance; in particular modifiable factors. We use weekly panel data from 51,000 adults TRANS across the first three months of lockdown in the UK to identify factors that are related to compliance with COVID-19 guidelines. We find evidence that increased confidence in government to tackle the pandemic is longitudinally related to higher compliance, but little evidence that factors such as mental health and wellbeing, worries about future adversities, and social isolation and loneliness are related to changes in compliance. Our results suggest that to effectively manage the pandemic, governments should ensure that confidence is maintained, something which has not occurred in all countries.

    PREVALENCE SERO OF ANTIBODIES SERO AGAINST SARS-CoV-2 IN MESHD PROFESSIONALS OF A PUBLIC HEALTH LABORATORY AT SAO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL

    Authors: Valeria Oliveira Silva; Elaine Lopes de Oliveira; Marcia Jorge Castejon; Rosemeire Yamashiro; Cintia Mayumi Ahagon; Giselle Ibette Lopez-Lopes; Edilene Peres Real da Silveira; Marisa Ailin Hong; Maria do Carmo Timenetsky; Carmem aparecida de Freitas Oliveira; Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20213421 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Covid-19 Serology may document exposure and perhaps protection to the virus, and serological test SERO may help understand epidemic dynamics. To evaluate previous exposure to the virus we estimated the prevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against-SARS-CoV-2 among HPs in Adolfo Lutz Institute, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: This study was performed among professionals of Adolfo Lutz Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil and some administrative areas of the Secretary of Health that shares common areas with the institute. We used a lateral flow immunoassay SERO ( rapid test SERO) to detect IgG and IgM for SARS-CoV-2; positive samples were further evaluated using Roche Electrochemiluminescence assay and SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was also offered to participants. Results: A total of 406 HPs participated. Thirty five (8.6%) tested positive on rapid test SERO and 32 these rapid test SERO seropositive cases were confirmed TRANS by ECLIA.. 43 HPs had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected at a median of 33 days, and the three cases not reactive at Roche ECLIA had a previous positive RNA. Outsourced professionals (34% seropositive), males TRANS (15%) workers referring COVID-19 patients at home (22%) and those living farther form the institute tended to have higher prevalence SERO of seropositivity, but in multivariable logistic analysis only outsourced workers and those with COVID patients at home remained independently associated to seropositivity. We observed no relation of seropositivity to COVID samples handling. Presence of at least one symptom was common but some clinical manifestations as anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/dysgeusia. Fatigue HP, cough HP cough MESHD and fever HP fever MESHD were associated to seropositivity. Conclusions: We documented a relatively high (8.6%) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological reactivity in this population, with higher rates among outsourced workers and those with referring cohabitation with COVID-19 patients. COVID samples handling was not related to increased seropositivity. Some symptoms how strong association to COVID-19 serology and may be used in scoring tools for screening or diagnosis in resort limited settings.

    Analytical solution of equivalent SEIR and agent-based model of COVID-19; showing the bounds of contact tracing TRANS

    Authors: Huseyin Tunc; Fatma Zehra Sari; Busra Darendeli; Ramin Nashebi; Murat Sari; Seyfullah Enes Kotil; Edilene Peres Real da Silveira; Marisa Ailin Hong; Maria do Carmo Timenetsky; Carmem aparecida de Freitas Oliveira; Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20212522 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Mathematical models not only forecast the possible future but also is used to find hidden parameters of the COVID-19 pandemic. Numerical estimates can inform us of both goals. Still, the interdependencies of parameters stay obscure. Many numerical solutions have been proposed so far; however, the analytical relationship between the outbreak growth, decay and equilibrium are much less studied. In this study, we have employed both an equivalent agent-based model and a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR)-like model to prove that the growth rate can be determined analytically in terms of other model parameters, including contact tracing TRANS rate. We identify the most sensitive parameters as undocumented transmission TRANS rate and documentation ratio. Unfortunately, these are the parameters we have the least knowledge. We derived an identity that predicts the effectiveness of contact tracing TRANS in a country from observable parameters. We underline an unavoidable dilemma: that even in the case of high contact tracing TRANS, we cannot bring the outbreak to stalemate without applying substantial quarantine; however, some countries are benefiting from contact tracing TRANS. Besides, we have shown that the seemingly same parameters of the SEIR models and agent-based models are not equivalent. We propose a correction to bridge both models.

    Changes of evening exposure to electronic devices during the COVID-19 lockdown affect the time course of sleep disturbances HP sleep disturbances MESHD

    Authors: Federico Salfi; Giulia Amicucci; Domenico Corigliano; Aurora D'Atri; Lorenzo Viselli; Daniela Tempesta; Michele Ferrara; Marisa Ailin Hong; Maria do Carmo Timenetsky; Carmem aparecida de Freitas Oliveira; Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20215756 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Study Objectives: During the COVID-19 lockdown, there was a worldwide increase in electronic devices' daily usage. The exposure to backlit screens before falling HP asleep leads to negative consequences on sleep health through its influence on the circadian system. We investigated the relationship between the changes in evening screen exposure and the time course of sleep disturbances HP sleep disturbances MESHD during the home confinement period due to COVID-19. Methods: 2123 Italians were longitudinally tested during the third and the seventh week of lockdown. The web-based survey evaluated sleep quality and insomnia HP insomnia MESHD symptoms through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia HP Severity Index. During the second assessment, respondents reported the changes in the backlit screen exposure in the two hours before falling HP asleep. Results: Participants who increased electronic device usage showed decreased sleep quality, exacerbated insomnia HP insomnia MESHD symptoms, reduced sleep duration, higher sleep onset latency, and delayed bedtime and rising time. In this subgroup, the prevalence SERO of poor sleepers and clinical insomniacs increased. Conversely, respondents reporting decreased screen exposure exhibited improved sleep quality and insomnia HP insomnia MESHD symptoms. In this subgroup, the prevalence SERO of poor sleepers and clinical insomniacs decreased. Respondents preserving their screen time habits did not show any change in the sleep parameters. Conclusions: Our investigation demonstrated a strong relationship between the modifications of the evening electronic device usage and the time course of sleep disturbances HP sleep disturbances MESHD during the lockdown period. Interventions to raise public awareness about the risks of excessive exposure to backlit screens are necessary to prevent sleep disturbances HP and foster well-being during the home confinement due to COVID-19.

    Could nutrition modulate COVID-19 susceptibility and severity of disease? A systematic review

    Authors: Federico Salfi; Giulia Amicucci; Domenico Corigliano; Aurora D'Atri; Lorenzo Viselli; Daniela Tempesta; Michele Ferrara; Marisa Ailin Hong; Maria do Carmo Timenetsky; Carmem aparecida de Freitas Oliveira; Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20214395 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Many nutrients have powerful immunomodulatory actions with the potential to alter susceptibility to COVID-19 infection MESHD, progression to symptoms, likelihood of severe disease and survival. The pandemic has fostered many nutrition-related theories, sometimes backed by a biased interpretation of evidence. Objectives: To provide a systematic review of the latest evidence on how malnutrition HP across all its forms (under- and over-nutrition and micronutrient status) may influence both susceptibility to, and progression and severity of, COVID-19. Methods: We synthesised information on 13 nutrition-related components and their potential interactions with COVID-19: overweight HP, obesity HP obesity MESHD and diabetes MESHD; protein-energy malnutrition MESHD malnutrition HP; anaemia MESHD; vitamins A, C, D, and E; poly-unsaturated fatty acids; iron; selenium; zinc; anti-oxidants, and nutritional support. For each section we provide: a) a landscape review of pertinent material; b) a systematic search of the literature in PubMed and EMBASE databases, including a systematic search of a wide range of pre-print servers; and c) a screen of six clinical trial registries. Two reviewers were assigned per section for data extraction. All original research was considered, without restriction to study design, and included if it covered: 1) SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV viruses MESHD and 2) disease susceptibility or 3) disease progression, and 4) the nutritional component of interest. Searches took place between 16th May and 11th August, 2020. PROSPERO registration CRD42020186194. Results: Across the 13 searches, a total of 2732 articles from PubMed and EMBASE, 4164 articles from the pre-print servers, and 433 trials were returned. A total of 288 published articles and 278 pre-print articles were taken to full text screening. In the final narrative synthesis, we cover 22 published articles, 39 pre-print articles and 79 trials. The review highlights a range of mechanistic and observational evidence to highlight the role nutrition can play in susceptibility and progression of COVID-19. However, to date, there is limited evidence that high-dose supplements of micronutrients will either prevent severe disease or speed up recovery, although results of clinical trials are eagerly awaited. Conclusions: To date there is no conclusive evidence supporting adoption of novel nutritional therapies. However, given the known impacts of all forms of malnutrition HP on the immune system, public health strategies to reduce micronutrient deficiencies and undernutrition remain of critical importance. There is strong evidence that prevention of obesity HP obesity MESHD, and its consequent type-2 diabetes MESHD, will reduce the risk of serious COVID-19 outcomes.

    An agent-based model of spread of a pandemic with validation using COVID-19 data from New York State

    Authors: Amitava Datta; Peter Winkelstein; Surajit Sen; Aurora D'Atri; Lorenzo Viselli; Daniela Tempesta; Michele Ferrara; Marisa Ailin Hong; Maria do Carmo Timenetsky; Carmem aparecida de Freitas Oliveira; Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215517 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    We introduce a simple agent based model where each agent carries an effective viral load that captures the instantaneous state of infection of the agent and simulate the spread of a pandemic and subsequently validate it by using publicly available COVID-19 data. Our simulation tracks the temporal evolution of a virtual city or community of agents in terms of contracting infection MESHD, recovering asymptomatically TRANS, or getting hospitalized. The virtual community is divided into family groups with 2-6 individuals in each group. Agents interact with other agents in virtual public places like at grocery stores, on public transportation and in offices. We initially seed the virtual community with a very small number of infected MESHD individuals and then monitor the disease spread TRANS and hospitalization over a period of fifty days, which is a typical time-frame for the initial spread of a pandemic. An uninfected or asymptomatic TRANS agent is randomly selected from a random family group in each simulation step for visiting a random public space. An uninfected agent contracts infection if the public place is occupied by other infected agents. We have calibrated our simulation rounds according to the size of the population of the virtual community for simulating realistic exposure of agents to a contagion. Our simulation results are consistent with the publicly available hospitalization and ICU patient data from different communities of varying sizes in New York state. Our model can predict the trend in epidemic spread and hospitalization from a set of simple parameters and could be potentially useful in exploring strategies to keep a community safe.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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