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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (1623)

ProteinN (452)

NSP5 (380)

ComplexRdRp (216)

ProteinE (121)


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    Clinical Features of COVID-19 MESHD Related Liver Damage

    Authors: Zhenyu Fan; Liping Chen; Jun Li; Cheng Tian; Yajun Zhang; Shaoping Huang; Zhanju Liu; Jilin Cheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.26.20026971 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: A recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD occurs mainly in China, with rapidly increasing the number of cases (namely COVID-19 MESHD). Abnormal liver functions MESHD are frequently present in these patients, here we aimed to clarify the clinical features of COVID-19 MESHD-related liver damage to provide some references for the clinical treatment. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included all confirmed COVID-19 MESHD cases in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from January 20 to January 31, 2020. The outcomes were followed up until February 19, 2020. A total of 148 cases were analyzed for clinical features, laboratory parameters (including liver function tests), medications and the length of stay. FINDINGS: Of 148 confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD patients, 49.3% were females and 50.7% were males. The median age was 50.5 years (interquartile range, 36-64). Patients had clinical manifestations of fever MESHD (70.1%), cough (45.3%), expectoration (26.7%) at admission. 75 patients (50.7%) showed abnormal liver functions at admission. Patients (n = 75) who had elevated liver function index were more likely to have a moderate-high degree fever MESHD (44% vs 27.4%; p = 0.035) and significantly present in male patients (62.67% vs 38.36%; p = 0.005). The numbers of CD4 HGNC+ and CD8 HGNC+ T cells were significantly lower in abnormal liver function group than those in normal liver function group. There was no statistical difference in prehospital medications between normal and abnormal liver function groups, while the utilization rate of lopinavir/ritonavir after admission was significantly higher in patients with emerging liver injury MESHD than that in patients with normal liver functions. Importantly, the emerging abnormal liver functions MESHD after admission caused a prolonged length of stay. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 may cause the liver function damage MESHD and the Lopinavir/ritonavir should be applied carefully for the treatment of COVID-19 MESHD.

    Spread and control of COVID-19 MESHD in China and their associations with population movement, public health emergency measures, and medical resources

    Authors: Songmin Ying; Fei Li; Xinwei Geng; Zhouyang Li; Xufei Du; Haixia Chen; Sisi Chen; Min Zhang; Zhehua Shao; Yinfang Wu; Madiha Zahra Syeda; Fugui Yan; Luanqing Che; Bin Zhang; Jian Lou; Shaobin Wang; Zhengming Chen; Wen Li; Ye Shen; Zhihua Chen; Huahao Shen

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.24.20027623 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND The COVID-19 MESHD epidemic, first emerged in Wuhan during December 2019, has spread globally. While the mass population movement for Chinese New Year has significantly influenced spreading the disease, little direct evidence exists about the relevance to epidemic and its control of population movement from Wuhan, local emergency response, and medical resources in China. METHODS Spearman's correlation analysis was performed between official data of confirmed COVID-19 MESHD cases from Jan 20th to Feb 19th, 2020 and real-time travel data and health resources data. RESULTS There were 74,675 confirmed COVID-19 MESHD cases in China by Feb 19th, 2020. The overall fatality rate was 2.84%, much higher in Hubei than in other regions (3.27% vs 0.73%). The index of population inflow from Hubei was positively correlated with total (Provincial r=0.9159, p<0.001; City r=0.6311, p<0.001) and primary cases (Provincial r=0.8702, p<0.001; City r=0.6358, p<0.001). The local health emergency measures (eg, city lockdown and traffic control) were associated with reduced infections nationwide. Moreover, the number of public health employees per capita was inversely correlated with total cases (r=-0.6295, p<0.001) and infection rates (r=-0.4912, p<0.01). Similarly, cities with less medical resources had higher fatality (r=-0.4791, p<0.01) and lower cure rates (r=0.5286, p<0.01) among the confirmed cases. CONCLUSIONS The spread of the COVID-19 MESHD in China in its early phase was attributed primarily to population movement from Hubei, and effective governmental health emergency measures and adequate medical resources played important roles in subsequent control of epidemic and improved prognosis of affected individuals.

    The definition and risks of Cytokine Release Syndrome-Like in 11 COVID-19 MESHD-Infected Pneumonia critically ill patients: Disease Characteristics and Retrospective Analysis

    Authors: Wenjun Wang Jr.; Jianxing He; puyi Lie; liyan Huang; Sipei Wu; yongping lin; xiaoqing liu

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.26.20026989 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: medRxiv

    IMPORTANCE: COVID-19 MESHD- infected pneumonia MESHD patients with severe immune abnormalities MESHD and risk of cytokine release syndrome. The definition, prevention, and treatment of COVID-19 MESHD-infected pneumonia in critically ill MESHD patients with cytokine release syndrome symptoms is an important problem.

    Increasing Host Cellular Receptor--Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 ( ACE2 HGNC) Expression by Coronavirus may Facilitate 2019-nCoV Infection MESHD

    Authors: Pei-Hui Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.24.963348 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: bioRxiv

    The ongoing outbreak of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causes an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome MESHD in humans. 2019-nCoV rapidly spread to national regions and multiple other countries, thus, pose a serious threat to public health. Recent studies show that spike (S) proteins PROTEIN of 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV MESHD may use the same host cell receptor called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ( ACE2 HGNC) for entering into host cells. The affinity between ACE2 HGNC and 2019-nCoV S is much higher than ACE2 HGNC binding to SARS-CoV S protein MESHD S protein PROTEIN, explaining that why 2019-nCoV seems to be more readily transmitted from the human to human. Here, we reported that ACE2 HGNC can be significantly upregulated after infection of various viruses including SARS-CoV MESHD and MERS-CoV. Basing on findings here, we propose that coronavirus infection MESHD can positively induce its cellular entry receptor to accelerate their replication and spread, thus drugs targeting ACE2 HGNC expression may be prepared for the future emerging infectious diseases MESHD caused by this cluster of viruses.

    An R package and a website with real-time data on the COVID-19 MESHD coronavirus outbreak

    Authors: Tianzhi Wu; Xijin Ge; Guangchuang Yu; Erqiang Hu

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.25.20027433 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: medRxiv

    To provide convenient access to epidemiological data on the coronavirus outbreak, we developed an R package, nCov2019 (https://github.com/GuangchuangYu/nCov2019). Besides detailed real-time statistics, it offers access to three data sources with detailed daily statistics from December 1, 2019, for 43 countries and more than 500 Chinese cities. We also developed a web app (http://www.bcloud.org/e/) with interactive plots and simple time-series forecasts. These analytics tools could be useful in informing the public and studying how this and similar viruses spread in populous countries.

    Clinical features and sexual transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 infected female patients: a descriptive study in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Pengfei Cui; Zhe Chen; Tian Wang; Jun Dai; Jinjin Zhang; Ting Ding; Jingjing Jiang; Jia Liu; Cong Zhang; Wanying Shan; Sheng Wang; Yueguang Rong; Jiang Chang; Xiaoping Miao; Xiangyi Ma; Shixuan Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.26.20028225 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background: As of March 2, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 80174 people and caused 2915 deaths in China. This virus rapidly spreads to 56 countries worldwide. Thus, in order to effectively block its transmission, it is urgent to uncover all the possible transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: From January 28 to February 18, 2020, 35 female patients diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD in Tongji Hospital were included in this descriptive study. The gynecologic history, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and chest computed tomography (CT) of all patients were recorded in detail. To examine whether there is sexual transmission through vaginal from female to her partner, we employed real-time polymerase chain reaction testing (RT-PCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2 in vaginal environment (including vaginal discharge, cervical or vaginal residual exfoliated cells) and anal swab samples, and inquired recent sexual behaviors from the patients. Findings: The age range of the 35 patients with COVID-19 MESHD was 37-88 years. Over 50% patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 had chronic diseases. We tested the vaginal environment and anal swabs from the 35 female patients with COVID-19 MESHD and found that only an anal swab sample from one patient was positive for SARS-CoV-2. All the samples from vaginal environment were negative for SARS-CoV-2. The infection rate of the patients' sexual partner was 42.9%. Additionally, two female patients admitted having sex with their partners during a possible infection incubation period, while one patient's partner was uninfected and the other patient's partner was diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD (after the diagnosis of the female patient). Conclusion: No positive RT-PCR result was found in the vaginal environment perhaps due to the lack of ACE2 HGNC expression, which is the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, in the vagina MESHD and cervix tissues (human protein atlas). The results from this study show no evidence of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through vaginal sex from female to her partner. However, the risk of infection of non vaginal sex and other intimate contacts during vaginal sex should not be ignored.

    Clinical Characteristics of Patients with 2019 Coronavirus disease in a non-Wuhan area of Hubei Province, China: a retrospective study

    Authors: Xin-Ying Zhao; Xuan-Xuan Xu; Hai-Sen Yin; Qin-Ming Hu; Tao Xiong; Yuan-Yan Tang; Ai-Ying Yang; Bao-Ping Yu; Zhi-Ping Huang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-15734/v2 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Since December, 2019, the 2019 Coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) from Wuhan, China, has caused worldwide outbreak with more than 200, 000 people infected MESHD and thousands of deaths. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD patients in non-Wuhan areas of Hubei province have not been described. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and treatment progress of 91 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD in Jingzhou Central Hospital. Results: Of the 91 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD, 30 (33.0%) cases were severe and two (2.2%) patients died. The severe patients tended to be older (50.5 vs 42.0, P=0.049), and have more chronic disease (40% vs 14.75%, P=0.009), compared to mild group. Only 73.6% of the patients were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) positive on their first tests, while typical chest computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained for each patient. The most common complaints were cough (75, 82.4%), fever (59, 64.8%), fatigue (35, 38.5%), and diarrhea (14, 15.4%). Non-respiratory injur y was identified by elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (18, 19.8%), creatinine (5, 5.5%) and creatine kinase (14, 15.4%) in laboratory tests. In sum, 28 (30.8%) cases suffered non-respiratory injury, including 50% of the critically ill patients and 21.3% of the mild patients. Conclusions: Overall, the mortality rate of patients in Jingzhou is lower than that of Wuhan. Importantly, we discovered liver, kidney, digestive tract and heart injury in COVID-19 MESHD cases besides respiratory problems. Combining Chest CT images with qPCR of throat swab samples would improve the accuracy of COVID-19 MESHD diagnose.

    Analysis of Potential Risk of COVID-19 MESHD Infections in China Based on a Pairwise Epidemic Model

    Authors: Xiaofeng Luo; Shanshan Feng; Junyuan Yang; Xiao-Long Peng; Xiaochun Cao; Juping Zhang; Meiping Yao; Huaiping Zhu; Michael Y. Li; Hao Wang; Zhen Jin

    id:10.20944/preprints202002.0398.v1 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: Preprints.org

    The ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD (also known as COVID-19 MESHD) has triggered a series of stringent control measures in China, such as city closure, traffic restrictions, contact tracing and household quarantine. These containment efforts often lead to changes in the contact pattern among individuals of the population. Many existing compartmental epidemic models fail to account for the effects of contact structure. In this paper, we devised a pairwise epidemic model to analyze the COVID-19 MESHD outbreak in China based on confirmed cases reported during the period February 3rd--17th, 2020. By explicitly incorporating the effects of family clusters and contact tracing followed by household quarantine and isolation, our model provides a good fit to the trajectory of COVID-19 MESHD infections and is useful to predict the epidemic trend. We obtained the average of the reproduction number $R=1.494$ ($95\%$ CI: $1.483-1.507$) for Hubei province and $R=1.178$ ($95\%$ CI: $1.145-1.158$) for China (except Hubei), suggesting that some existing studies may have overestimated the reproduction number by neglecting the dynamical correlations and clustering effects. We forecasted that the COVID-19 MESHD epidemic would peak on February 13th ($95\%$ CI: February $9-17$th) in Hubei and 6 days eariler in the regions outside Hubei. Moreover the epidemic was expected to last until the middle of March in China (except Hubei) and late April in Hubei. The sensitivity analysis shows that ongoing exposure for the susceptible and population clustering play an important role in the disease propagation. With the enforcement of household quarantine measures, the reproduction number $R$ effectively reduces and epidemic quantities decrease accordingly. Furthermore, we gave an answer to the public concern on how long the stringent containment strategies should maintain. Through numerical analysis, we suggested that the time for the resumption of work and production in China (except Hubei) and Hubei would be the middle of March and the end of April, 2020, respectively. These constructive suggestions may bring some immeasurable social-economic benefits in the long run.

    The ACE2 HGNC expression of maternal-fetal interface and fetal organs indicates potential risk of vertical transmission of SARS-COV-2

    Authors: Mengmeng Li; Liang Chen; Chenglong Xiong; Xiangjie Li

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.27.967760 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: bioRxiv

    Recent studies have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on both ACE2 HGNC and TMPRSS2 HGNC genes (DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052), but our current work only focus on ACE2 HGNC, which is insufficient to support the conclusion of this paper. So the authors have withdrawn their manuscript whilst they perform additional experiments and analysis to test some of their conclusions further. Therefore, the authors do not wish this work to be cited as reference for the project.

    Structure-based drug design, virtual screening and high-throughput screening rapidly identify antiviral leads targeting COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Zhenming Jin; Xiaoyu Du; Yechun Xu; Yongqiang Deng; Meiqin Liu; Yao Zhao; Bing Zhang; Xiaofeng Li; Leike Zhang; Chao Peng; Yinkai Duan; Jing Yu; Lin Wang; Kailin Yang; Fengjiang Liu; Rendi Jiang; Xinglou Yang; Tian You; Xiaoce Liu; Xiuna Yang; Fang Bai; Hong Liu; Xiang Liu; Luke W. Guddat; Wenqing Xu; Gengfu Xiao; Chengfeng Qin; Zhengli Shi; Hualiang Jiang; Zihe Rao; Haitao Yang

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.26.964882 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: bioRxiv

    A new coronavirus (CoV) identified as COVID-19 MESHD virus is the etiological agent responsible for the 2019-2020 viral pneumonia MESHD outbreak that commenced in Wuhan1-4. Currently there is no targeted therapeutics and effective treatment options remain very limited. In order to rapidly discover lead compounds for clinical use, we initiated a program of combined structure-assisted drug design, virtual drug screening and high-throughput screening to identify new drug leads that target the COVID-19 MESHD virus main protease PROTEIN ( Mpro PROTEIN). Mpro PROTEIN is a key CoV enzyme, which plays a pivotal role in mediating viral replication and transcription, making it an attractive drug target for this virus5,6. Here, we identified a mechanism-based inhibitor, N3, by computer-aided drug design and subsequently determined the crystal structure of COVID-19 MESHD virus Mpro PROTEIN in complex with this compound. Next, through a combination of structure-based virtual and high-throughput screening, we assayed over 10,000 compounds including approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and other pharmacologically active compounds as inhibitors of Mpro PROTEIN. Six of these inhibit Mpro PROTEIN with IC50 values ranging from 0.67 to 21.4 M. Ebselen also exhibited promising antiviral activity in cell-based assays. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of this screening strategy, which can lead to the rapid discovery of drug leads with clinical potential in response to new infectious diseases where no specific drugs or vaccines are available.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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