### Overview

MeSH Disease

COVID-19 (24261)

Coronavirus Infections (2379)

Death (2134)

Pneumonia (1346)

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (2227)

ProteinN (575)

NSP5 (418)

ComplexRdRp (253)

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### A Note on NCP PROTEIN Diagnosis Number Prediction Model

Authors:

doi:10.1101/2020.02.19.20025262 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: medRxiv

Importance: To predict the diagnosed COVID-19 MESHD patients and the trend of the epidemic in China. It may give the public some scientific information to ease the fear of the epidemic. Objective: In December 2019, pneumonia infected MESHD with the novel coronavirus burst in Wuhan, China. We aimed to use a mathematical model to predict number of diagnosed patients in future to ease anxiety MESHD on the emergent situation. Design: According to all diagnosis number from WHO website and combining with the transmission mode of infectious diseases MESHD, the mathematical model was fitted to predict future trend of outbreak. Setting: Our model was based on the epidemic situation in China, which could provide referential significance for disease prediction in other countries, and provide clues for prevention and intervention of relevant health authorities. Participants: In this retrospective, all diagnosis number from Jan 21 to Feb 10, 2020 reported from China was included and downloaded from WHO website. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): We develop a simple but accurate formula to predict the next day diagnosis number:N_i/N_( i-1 HGNC) =[(N_( i-1 HGNC)/N_(i-2) )]^where Ni is the total diagnosed patient till the ith day, and was estimated as 0.904 at Feb 10. Results: Based on this model, it is predicted that the rate of disease infection will decrease exponentially. The total number of infected people MESHD is limited; thus, the disease will have limited impact. However, new diagnosis will last to March. Conclusions and Relevance: Through the establishment of our model, we can better predict the trend of the epidemic in China.

### SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD does not significantly cause acute renal injury: an analysis of 116 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 MESHD in a single hospital, Wuhan, China

Authors: Lunwen Wang; Xun Li; Hui Chen; Shaonan Yan; Yan Li; Dong Li; Zuojiong Gong

doi:10.1101/2020.02.19.20025288 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: medRxiv

Summary Background Whether the patients with COVID-19 MESHD infected by SARS-CoV-2 would commonly develop acute renal function damage MESHD is a problem worthy of clinical attention. This study aimed to explore the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on renal function through analyzing the clinical data of 116 hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD-confirmed patients. Methods 116 hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD-confirmed patients enrolled in this study were hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases MESHD, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 14 to February 13, 2020. The recorded information includes demographic data, medical history, contact history, potential comorbidities, symptoms, signs, laboratory test results, chest computer tomography (CT) scans, and treatment measures. SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 53 urine sediments of enrolled patients was examined by real-time RT-PCR. Findings 12 (10.8%) and 8 (7.2%) patients showed mild elevation of blood urea nitrogen or creatinine, and trace or 1+ albuminuria MESHD respectively in 111 COVID-19 MESHD-confirmed patients without basic kidney disease MESHD. In addition, 5 patients with chronic renal failure MESHD ( CRF HGNC CRF MESHD) were undergone regular continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) were confirmed infection of SARS-CoV-2, and diagnosed as COVID-19 MESHD. Beside the treatment of COVID-19 MESHD, CRRT was also applied three times weekly. The course of treatment, the renal function indicators showed stable, without exacerbation of CRF HGNC CRF MESHD, and pulmonary inflammation MESHD was gradually absorbed. All 5 patients with CRF MESHD CRF HGNC were survived. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urine sediments was positive only in 3 patients from 48 cases without renal illness MESHD before, and one patient had a positive for SARS-CoV-2 ORF 1ab from 5 cases with CRF MESHD CRF HGNC. Interpretation Acute renal impairment MESHD was uncommon in COVID-19 MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD does not significantly cause obvious acute renal injury MESHD, or aggravate CRF MESHD CRF HGNC in the COVID-19 MESHD patients.

### Epidemiological characteristics of 1212 COVID-19 MESHD patients in Henan, China

Authors: Pei Wang; Junan Lu; Yanyu Jin; Mengfan Zhu; Lingling Wang; Shunjie Chen

doi:10.1101/2020.02.21.20026112 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: medRxiv

Based on publicly released data for 1212 patients, we investigated the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD in Henan of China. The following findings are obtained: 1) COVID-19 MESHD patients in Henan show gender (55% vs 45%) and age (81% aged between 21 and 60) preferences, possible causes were explored; 2) Statistical analysis on 483 patients reveals that the estimated average, mode and median incubation periods are 7.4, 4 and 7 days; Incubation periods of 92% patients were no more than 14 days; 3) The epidemic of COVID-19 MESHD in Henan has undergone three stages and showed high correlations with the numbers of patients that recently return from Wuhan; 4) Network analysis on the aggregate outbreak phenomena of COVID-19 MESHD revealed that 208 cases were clustering infected, and various people's Hospital are the main force in treating patients. The related investigations have potential implications for the prevention and control of COVID-19 MESHD.

### Early Prediction of Disease Progression in 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Patients Outside Wuhan with CT and Clinical Characteristics

Authors: Zhichao Feng; Qizhi Yu; Shanhu Yao; Lei Luo; Junhong Duan; Zhimin Yan; Min Yang; Hongpei Tan; Mengtian Ma; Ting Li; Dali Yi; Ze Mi; Huafei Zhao; Yi Jiang; Zhenhu He; Huiling Li; Wei Nie; Yin Liu; Jing Zhao; Muqing Luo; Xuanhui Liu; Pengfei Rong; Wei Wang

doi:10.1101/2020.02.19.20025296 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: medRxiv

Objective: To determine the predictive value of CT and clinical characteristics for short-term disease progression in patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( NCP PROTEIN). Materials and Methods: 224 patients with confirmed 2019 novel coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD) infection outside Wuhan who had chest CT examinations were retrospectively screened. Clinical data were obtained from electronic medical records. CT images were reviewed and scored for lesion distribution, lobe and segment involvement, ground-glass opacities, consolidation, and interstitial thickening. All included patients with moderate NCP PROTEIN were observed for at least 14 days from admission to determine whether they exacerbated to severe NCP PROTEIN (progressive group) or not (stable group). CT and clinical characteristics between the two groups were compared, and multivariate logistic regression and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for developing severe NCP PROTEIN. Results: A total of 141 patients with moderate NCP PROTEIN were included, of which 15 (10.6%) patients developed severe NCP PROTEIN during hospitalization and assigned to the progressive group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 [1.04-1.53]; P = 0.018) and CT severity score (OR and 95% CI, 1.25 [1.08-1.46]; P = 0.004) on admission were independent predictors for progression to severe NCP PROTEIN, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the consistent results in nonimported patients but not in imported patients. However, no significant difference in lung involvement was found on CT between imported and nonimported patients (all P > 0.05). Patients who were admitted more than 4 days from symptom onset tended to have more severe lung involvement. Spearman correlation analysis showed the close association between CT severity score and inflammatory indexes (r = 0.17~0.47, all P < 0.05). Conclusion: CT severity score was associated with inflammatory levels and higher NLR and CT severity score on admission were independent risk factors for short-term progression in patients with NCP PROTEIN outside Wuhan. Furthermore, early admission and surveillance by CT should be recommended to improve clinical outcomes.

### Clinical Characteristics of 24 Asymptomatic Infections with COVID-19 MESHD Screened among Close Contacts in Nanjing, China

Authors: Zhiliang Hu; Ci Song; Chuanjun Xu; Guangfu Jin; Yaling Chen; Xin Xu; Hongxia Ma; Wei Chen; Yuan Lin; Yishan Zheng; Jianming Wang; zhibin hu; Yongxiang Yi; Hongbing Shen

doi:10.1101/2020.02.20.20025619 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: medRxiv

Background: Previous studies have showed clinical characteristics of patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) and the evidence of person-to-person transmission. Limited data are available for asymptomatic infections. This study aims to present the clinical characteristics of 24 cases with asymptomatic infection screened from close contacts and to show the transmission potential of asymptomatic COVID-19 MESHD virus carriers. Methods: Epidemiological investigations were conducted among all close contacts of COVID-19 MESHD patients (or suspected patients) in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, from Jan 28 to Feb 9, 2020, both in clinic and in community. Asymptomatic carriers were laboratory-confirmed positive for the COVID-19 MESHD virus by testing the nucleic acid of the pharyngeal swab samples. Their clinical records, laboratory assessments, and chest CT scans were reviewed. Findings: None of the 24 asymptomatic cases presented any obvious symptoms before nucleic acid screening. Five cases (20.8%) developed symptoms ( fever MESHD, cough, fatigue MESHD and etc.) during hospitalization. Twelve (50.0%) cases showed typical CT images of ground-glass chest and five (20.8%) presented stripe shadowing in the lungs. The remaining seven (29.2%) cases showed normal CT image and had no symptoms during hospitalization. These seven cases were younger (median age: 14.0 years; P = 0.012) than the rest. None of the 24 cases developed severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD or died. The median communicable period, defined as the interval from the first day of positive nucleic acid tests to the first day of continuous negative tests, was 9.5 days (up to 21 days among the 24 asymptomatic cases). Through epidemiological investigation, we observed a typical asymptomatic transmission to the cohabiting family members, which even caused severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD. Interpretation: The asymptomatic carriers identified from close contacts were prone to be mildly ill during hospitalization. However, the communicable period could be up to three weeks and the communicated patients could develop severe illness. These results highlighted the importance of close contact tracing and longitudinally surveillance via virus nucleic acid tests. Further isolation recommendation and continuous nucleic acid tests may also be recommended to the patients discharged.

### Assessing the impact of a symptom-based mass screening and testing intervention during a novel infectious disease outbreak: The case of COVID-19 MESHD

Authors: Yang Ge; Brian Kenneth McKay; Shengzhi Sun; Feng Zhang; Andreas Handel

doi:10.1101/2020.02.20.20025973 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: medRxiv

A symptom-based mass screening and testing intervention (MSTI) can identify a large fraction of infected individuals during an infectious disease outbreak. China is currently using this strategy for the COVID-19 MESHD outbreak. However, MSTI might lead to increased transmission if not properly implemented. We investigate under which conditions MSTI is beneficial.

### Identification of a Potential Mechanism of Acute Kidney Injury During the Covid-19 MESHD Outbreak: A Study Based on Single-Cell Transcriptome Analysis

Authors: Da Xu; Hao Zhang; Hai-yi Gong; Jia-xin Chen; Jian-qing Ye; Tong Meng; Si-shun Gan; Fa-jun Qu; Chuan-min Chu; Wang Zhou; Xiu-wu Pan; Lin-hui Wang; Xin-gang Cui

id:202002.0331/v1 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: Preprints.org

Purpose: Acute kidney injury MESHD ( AKI MESHD) is a severe symptom of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), especially for patients in a critical condition.This study explored the potential mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on AKI at the single-cell level. Methods: 15 normal human kidney samples were collected and analyzed using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Subsequently, we analyzed the components and proportions of kidney cells expressing the host cellular receptor ACE2 HGNC and the key protease TMPRSSs family, and analyzed the expression differences in Occidental and Asian populations. Results: We drafted the currently available world's largest human kidney cell atlas with 42,589 cells and identified 19 clusters through unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. ACE2 HGNC and TMPRSSs genes were significantly co-expressed in podocytes and proximal convoluted tubules as potential host cells targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Comparative analysis showed that ACE2 HGNC expression in kidney cells was no less than that in the lung, esophagus, small intestine and colon MESHD, suggesting that the kidney may be an important target organ for SARS-CoV-2. In addition, given the high expression of ACE2 HGNC and kidney disease MESHD-related genes in Occidental donors relative to Asian donors, Occidental populations with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD might be a higher risk of of kidney injury MESHD.

### Comparison of throat swabs and sputum specimens for viral nucleic acid detection in 52 cases of novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) infected pneumonia ( COVID-19 MESHD)

Authors: Chenyao Lin; Jie Xiang; Mingzhe Yan; Hongze Li; Shuang Huang; Changxin Shen

doi:10.1101/2020.02.21.20026187 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: medRxiv

Abstract Background: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infected pneumonia MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) occurred in Wuhan, China. Diagnostic test based on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) was the main means of confirmation, and sample collection was mostly throat swabs, which was easy to miss the diagnosis. It is necessary to seek specimen types with higher detection efficiency and accuracy. Methods: Paired specimens of throat swabs and sputum were obtained from 54 cases, and RNA was extracted and tested for 2019-nCoV (equated with SARS-CoV-2) by qRT-PCR assay. Results: The positive rates of 2019-nCoV from sputum specimens and throat swabs were 76.9% and 44.2%, respectively. Sputum specimens showed a significantly higher positive rate than throat swabs in detecting viral nucleic acid using qRT-PCR assay (P=0.001). Conclusions: The detection rates of 2019-nCoV from sputum specimens are significantly higher than throat swabs. We suggest that sputum would benefit for the detection of 2019-nCoV in patients who produce sputum. The results can facilitate the selection of specimens and increase the accuracy of diagnosis.

### Profiling ACE2 HGNC expression in colon tissue of healthy adults and colorectal cancer patients by single-cell transcriptome analysis

Authors: Haoyan Chen; Baoqin Xuan; Yuqing Yan; Xiaoqiang Zhu; Chaoqin Shen; Gang Zhao; Linhua Ji; Danhua Xu; Hua Xiong; TaChung Yu; Xiaobo Li; Qiang Liu; Yingxuan Chen; Yun Cui; Jie Hong; Jing-Yuan Fang

doi:10.1101/2020.02.15.20023457 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: medRxiv

A newly identified novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has caused numerous acute respiratory syndrome MESHD cases in Wuhan China from December 2019 to Feb 2020. Its fast spreading to other provinces in China and overseas is very likely causing a pandemic. Since the novel coronavirus has been reported to be capable of endangering thousands of lives, it is extremely important to find out how the coronavirus is transmitted in human organs. Apart from fever MESHD and respiratory complications MESHD, gastrointestinal symptoms MESHD are observed in some patients with 2019-nCoV but the significance remains undetermined. The cell receptor angiotensin covering enzyme II ( ACE2 HGNC), which is the major receptor of SARS-nCoV MESHD, has been reported to be a cellular entry receptor of 2019-nCoV as well. Here, to more precisely explore the potential pathogen transmission route of the 2019-nCoV infection MESHDs in the gastrointestinal tract, we analyzed the ACE2 HGNC RNA expression profile in the colon tissue of healthy adults and colorectal cancer MESHD patients of our cohort and other databases. The data indicates that ACE2 HGNC is mainly expressed in epithelial cells of the colon. The expression of ACE2 HGNC is gradually increased from healthy control, adenoma MESHD to colorectal cancer MESHD patients in our cohort as well as in the external Asian datasets. According to the expression profile of ACE2 HGNC in colon epithelial cells, we speculate adenoma MESHD and colorectal cancer MESHD patients are more likely to be infected with 2019-nCoV than healthy people. Our data may provide a theoretical basis for the classification and management of future 2019-nCoV susceptibility people in clinical application.

### Comparative study of the lymphocyte change between COVID-19 MESHD and non- COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia cases suggesting uncontrolled inflammation might not be the main reason of tissue injury

Authors: Yishan Zheng; Zhen Huang; Guoping Ying; Xia Zhang; Wei Ye; Zhiliang Hu; Chunmei Hu; Hongxia Wei; Yi Zeng; Yun Chi; Cong Cheng; Feishen Lin; Hu Lu; Lingyan Xiao; Yan Song; Chunming Wang; Yongxiang Yi; Lei Dong

doi:10.1101/2020.02.19.20024885 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: medRxiv

Background: The corona virus disease 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) shows unusually high transmission rate and unique clinical characteristics, with key pathological mechanism remaining unclear. Here, we analysed the laboratory data based on clinical samples from COVID-19 MESHD patients, in parallel comparison with non- COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD cases, in an attempt to elucidate the key pathological features of COVID-19 MESHD during its infection of the human body. Methods: We analysed biochemical indices and lymphocyte subpopulation in COVID-19 MESHD patients, and compare these data from non- COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD cases. Correlation analysis was performed between leukocyte subgroups count and biochemical indexes in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Results: The study enrolled 110 patients, comprising 88 COVID-19 MESHD patients and 22 non- COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD cases. We observed significant differences, including abnormal biochemical indices ( CRP HGNC, LDH, AST HGNC, eGFR HGNC, and sodium ion concentration) and reduced lymphocyte subsets count, between the COVID-19 MESHD patients and non- COVID-19 MESHD-caused pneumonia MESHD cases. Correlation analysis indicates that the count for lymphocyte subsets-but not that for neutrophils and monocytes-exhibits a significant negative correlation with biochemical indices relating to organ injury, in the COVID-19 MESHD infected MESHD patients. Conclusions: The study indicates significantly different clinical features between 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-caused and non-2019-nCoV-caused pneumonia MESHD, especially in terms of lymphocytopenia MESHD and organ injury. Notably, correlation analysis demonstrates that tissue damage in COVID-19 MESHD patients is attributed to virus infection MESHD itself rather than uncontrolled inflammatory responses ("cytokine storm"). These findings provide new insights for developing efficient therapeutic strategies against COVID-19 MESHD infection.

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