Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1389)

Fever (829)

Cough (689)

Hypertension (489)

Anxiety (486)


Transmission

age categories (3897)

Transmission (3404)

gender (1792)

fomite (1391)

contact tracing (1267)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 18267
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    Clinical symptoms among ambulatory patients tested for SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Jessie Chung; Sara S Kim; Michael L Jackson; Lisa A. Jackson; Edward A. Belongia; Jennifer P. King; Richard K. Zimmerman; Mary Patricia Nowalk; Emily Toth Martin; Arnold Monto; Manjusha Gaglani; Michael E. Smith; Manish Patel; Brendan Flannery; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20213272 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    We compared symptoms and characteristics of 4961 ambulatory patients with and without laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Findings indicate that clinical symptoms alone would be insufficient MESHD to distinguish between COVID-19 and other respiratory infections MESHD (e.g., influenza) and/or to evaluate the effects of preventive interventions (e.g., vaccinations).

    Characteristics and outcomes of clinically diagnosed RT-PCR swab negative COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Paul Middleton; Pablo N Perez-Guzman; Alexandra Cheng; Naveenta Kumar; Mara Kont; Anna Daunt; Sujit Mukherjee; Graham Cooke; Timothy B Hallett; Katharina D Hauck; Peter J White; Mark R Thursz; Shevanthi Nayagam; Brendan Flannery; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20204651 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Patients with strong clinical features of COVID-19 with negative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 testing are not currently included in official statistics. The scale, characteristics and clinical relevance of this group are thus unknown. We performed a retrospective cohort study in two large London hospitals to characterize the demographic, clinical, and hospitalization outcome characteristics of swab-negative clinical COVID-19 patients. We found 1 in 5 patients with a negative swab and clinical suspicion of COVID-19 received a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 within clinical documentation, discharge summary or death MESHD certificate. We compared this group to a similar swab positive cohort and found similar demographic composition, symptomology and laboratory findings. Swab-negative clinical COVID-19 patients had better outcomes, with shorter length of hospital stay, reduced need for >60% supplementary oxygen and reduced mortality. Patients with strong clinical features of COVID-19 that are swab-negative are a common clinical challenge. Health systems must recognize and plan for the management of swab-negative patients in their COVID-19 clinical management, infection control policies and epidemiological assessments.

    Tocilizumab is associated with reduction in inflammation MESHD and improvement in P/F ratio in critically sick COVID19 patients

    Authors: Muhammad Asim Rana; Mubashar Sultan Hashmi; Muhammad Muneeb Ullah Saif; Muhammad Faisal Munir; Ahad Qayyum; Rizwan Pervaiz; Muhammad Mansoor Hafeez; Graham Cooke; Timothy B Hallett; Katharina D Hauck; Peter J White; Mark R Thursz; Shevanthi Nayagam; Brendan Flannery; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20210195 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 was initially detected in China and has been declared a global pandemic by World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. In the majority of patients, SARS-CoV-2 causes a mild to moderate illness characterized by fever HP fever MESHD and respiratory symptoms MESHD, with or without evidence of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. The recent studies suggest that anti-cytokine targeted therapies might be associated with benefit for patients with severe COVID-19 especially in improving respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD. Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody SERO against interleukin 6 (IL6) receptor, is associated with clinical benefit for COVID-19 patients as it inhibits IL6 and decreases inflammation MESHD. Methods: As Tocilizumab has been an important part of our treatment and a strict criterion was followed to administer Tocilizumab, a retrospective study design used to assess the beneficial effects of Tocilizumab in improvement of ratio partial pressure of arterial Oxygen and fraction of inspired Oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 or P/F ratio) and C- reactive protein (CRP) in COVID19 patients has been done. 60 patients were taken for this study by using convenient sampling technique the data of demographics, laboratory results, and clinical outcomes i.e. improvement of respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD depicted in the form of PF Ratio were obtained from the medical records, Statistical analysis was done with SPSS, version 21.0. Results: Sixty patients (47 males TRANS and 13 females TRANS) with COVID-19 were included in this study, the mean age TRANS of patients was 53.83 (14-81) years. After administration of Tocilizumab the lab parameters were changed as CRP decreased down to .40 (9.6-73) mg/L but other parameters were not affected. The PF ratio improved in COVID-19 patients after administration of Tocilizumab the median of PF Ratio before treatment was 108 (52-362) and improved up to 128 (37-406) after Tocilizumab therapy. Conclusion: In summary, Tocilizumab appears to be associated with improvement in P/F Ratio and CRP in COVID19 patients but other markers did not improve in response to Tocilizumab therapy in severely ill COVID-19 patients.

    Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in a population from Veracruz (Southeastern Mexico).

    Authors: Jose Maria Remes-Troche; Antonio Ramos-de-la-Medina; Marisol Manriquez-Reyes; Laura Martinez-Perez Maldonado; Maria Antonieta Solis-Gonzalez; Karina Hernandez-Flores; Hector Vivanco-Cid; Graham Cooke; Timothy B Hallett; Katharina D Hauck; Peter J White; Mark R Thursz; Shevanthi Nayagam; Brendan Flannery; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215558 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction/Aim: Recent studies have shown that seroprevalence SERO is quite variable depending on the country, the population and the time of the pandemic in which the serological tests SERO are performed. Here, we investigated the prevalence SERO of IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in a population living in Veracruz City, Mexico. Methods: From of June 1 to July 31, 2020, the consecutive adult TRANS patients that attended 2 ambulatory diagnostic private practice centers for testing were included. Samples were run on the Abbott Architect instrument using the commercial Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay. The main outcome was seroprevalence SERO. Demographics, previous infection MESHD to SARS-CoV-2 (according to a previous positive polymerase-chain reaction nasopharyngeal swab), self-suspicious of virus of infection MESHD (according to have in the previous 4 weeks either fever HP fever MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD, respiratory symptoms but not a confirmatory PCR) or no having symptoms were also evaluated. Results: A total of 2174 subjects were tested, included 53.6% women (mean age TRANS 41.8, range 18-98 years). One thousand and forty-one (52.5%) subjects were asymptomatic TRANS, 722 (33.2%) had suspicious of infection MESHD and 311 (14.3%) had previous infection MESHD. Overall, 642 of 2174 (29.5% [95% CI 27.59%-31.47%]) of our population were seropositive. Seropositivity among groups was 21.3% in asymptomatic TRANS, 23.4% in self-suspicious patients and 73.9% in previous infection MESHD patients. Conclusions: We found one of the highest seroprevalences SERO reported for SARS-CoV-2 worldwide in asymptomatic TRANS subjects (21.3%) as well in subjects with self-suspicious of COVID-19 (23.4%). The number of infected subjects in our population is not encouraging and it should be interpreted with caution.

    Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in France: results from nationwide serological surveillance

    Authors: Stephane Le Vu; Gabrielle Jones; Francois Anna; Thierry Rose; Jean-Baptiste Richard; Sibylle Bernard-Stoecklin; Sophie Goyard; Caroline Demeret; Olivier Helynck; Corinne Robin; Virgile Monnet; Louise Perrin de Facci; Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer; Lucie Leon; Yvonnick Guillois; Laurent Filleul; Pierre Charneau; Daniel Levy-Bruhl; Sylvie van der Werf; Harold Noel; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20213116 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background Assessment of cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD is critical for monitoring the course and the extent of the epidemic. As asymptomatic TRANS or mild cases were typically not captured by surveillance data in France, we implemented nationwide serological surveillance. We present estimates for prevalence SERO of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in the French population and the proportion of infected individuals who developed potentially protective neutralizing antibodies SERO throughout the first epidemic wave. Methods We performed serial cross-sectional sampling of residual sera over three periods: prior to (9-15 March), during (6-12 April) and following (11-17 May) a nationwide lockdown. Each sample was tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 SERO IgG antibodies SERO targeting the Nucleoprotein and Spike using two Luciferase-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays, and for neutralising antibodies SERO using a pseudo-neutralisation assay. We fitted a general linear mixed model of seropositivity in a Bayesian framework to derive prevalence SERO estimates stratified by age TRANS, sex and region. Findings In total, sera from 11 021 individuals were analysed. Nationwide seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO was estimated at 0.41% [0.05;0.88] mid-March, 4.14% [3.31;4.99] mid-April and 4.93% [4.02;5.89] mid-May. Approximately 70% of seropositive individuals had detectable neutralising antibodies SERO. Seroprevalence SERO was higher in regions where circulation occurred earlier and was more intense. Seroprevalence SERO was lowest in children TRANS under 10 years of age TRANS (2.72% [1.10;4.87]). Interpretation Seroprevalence SERO estimates confirm that the nationwide lockdown substantially curbed transmission TRANS and that the vast majority of the French population remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Low seroprevalence SERO in school age TRANS children TRANS suggests limited susceptibility and/or transmissibility TRANS in this age group TRANS. Our results show a clear picture of the progression of the first epidemic wave and provide a framework to inform the ongoing public health response as viral transmission TRANS is picking up again in France and globally.

    Cognitive deficits MESHD in people who have recovered from COVID-19 relative to controls: An N=84,285 online study

    Authors: Adam Hampshire; William Trender; Samuel Chamberlain; Amy Jolly; Jon E Grant; Fiona Patrick; Ndaba Mazibuko; Steve Williams; Joe M Barnby; Peter Hellyer; Mitul A Mehta; Louise Perrin de Facci; Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer; Lucie Leon; Yvonnick Guillois; Laurent Filleul; Pierre Charneau; Daniel Levy-Bruhl; Sylvie van der Werf; Harold Noel; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20215863 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Case studies have revealed neurological problems in severely affected COVID-19 patients. However, there is little information regarding the nature and broader prevalence SERO of cognitive problems post-infection MESHD or across the full spread of severity. We analysed cognitive test data from 84,285 Great British Intelligence Test participants who completed a questionnaire regarding suspected and biologically confirmed COVID-19 infection MESHD. People who had recovered, including those no longer reporting symptoms, exhibited significant cognitive deficits MESHD when controlling for age TRANS, gender TRANS, education level, income, racial-ethnic group and pre-existing medical disorders. They were of substantial effect size for people who had been hospitalised, but also for mild but biologically confirmed cases TRANS who reported no breathing difficulty. Finer grained analyses of performance SERO support the hypothesis that COVID-19 has a multi-system impact on human cognition.

    Epidemic Curve of Contamination in a Hospital That Served as Sentinel of the Spread of the SARS-Cov-2 Epidemic in the City of Rio de Janeiro

    Authors: Marisa Santos; Tereza Fellipe Guimaraes; Helena Cramer Rey; Fabiana Mucillo; Adriana Carvalho; Izabella Bezerra; Raiana Barbosa; Tais Hanae Kasai Brunswick; Glauber Monteiro Dias; Aurora Issa; Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho; Louise Perrin de Facci; Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer; Lucie Leon; Yvonnick Guillois; Laurent Filleul; Pierre Charneau; Daniel Levy-Bruhl; Sylvie van der Werf; Harold Noel; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215079 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on the operation of Brazilian hospital units, even those dedicated to non-infectious diseases. This study aims to describe the Covid-19 epidemic curve from a cardiovascular specialized nosocomial unit. All symptomatic employees were submitted to RT-qPCR. A total of 613 tests were performed on 548 employees between March 23, 2020, and June 4, 2020; with 45.7% positivity from the samples, representing 11.9% of the total employees. The epidemic curve showed a profound drop after the first week of May. The data showed a high contamination rate despite the widespread availability of personal protective equipment and employees training.

    Analytical evaluation and critical appraisal of early commercial SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays SERO for routine use in a diagnostic laboratory.

    Authors: Amanda Cramer; Nigel Goodman; Timothy Cross; Vanya A Gant; Magdalena Dziadzio; Izabella Bezerra; Raiana Barbosa; Tais Hanae Kasai Brunswick; Glauber Monteiro Dias; Aurora Issa; Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho; Louise Perrin de Facci; Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer; Lucie Leon; Yvonnick Guillois; Laurent Filleul; Pierre Charneau; Daniel Levy-Bruhl; Sylvie van der Werf; Harold Noel; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20215970 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance SERO characteristics of early commercial SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO assays in mild and asymptomatic TRANS subjects to enable the selection of suitable serological assays SERO for routine diagnostic use within HCA Healthcare UK. METHODS We used serum samples SERO from a pre-Covid era patient cohort (n=50, pre-December 2019), designated SARS-CoV-2 negative, and serum samples SERO from a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive cohort (n=90) taken > 14 days post symptom onset TRANS (April-May 2020). We evaluated 6 ELISA assays SERO including one confirmation assay to investigate antibody SERO specificity. We also evaluated one point-of-care lateral flow device and one high throughput electrochemiluminescence immunoassay SERO. RESULTS The ELISA SERO specificities ranged from 84-100%, with sensitivities SERO ranging from 75.3-90.0%. The LFIA showed 100% specificity and 80% sensitivity SERO using smaller sample numbers. The Roche CLIA immunoassay SERO showed 100% specificity and 90.7% sensitivity SERO. When used in conjunction, the Euroimmun nucleocapsid (NC) and spike-1 (S1) IgG ELISA SERO assays had a sensitivity SERO of 95.6%. The confirmation IgG assay showed 92.6% of samples tested contained both NC and S1 antibodies SERO, 32.7% had NC, S1 and S2 and 0% had either S1 or S2 only. CONCLUSIONS These first generation assays were not calibrated against reference material and the results are reported qualitatively. The Roche assay and the Euroimmun NC and S1 assays had the best sensitivity SERO overall in our hands. Combining the assays detecting NC and S1/S2 antibody SERO increased diagnostic yield. A portfolio of next generation SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays SERO will be necessary in any future studies of herd and vaccine induced immunity.

    Validation of expert system enhanced deep learning algorithm MESHD for automated screening for COVID- Pneumonia HP on chest X-rays

    Authors: Prashant Sadashiv Gidde; Shyam Sunder Prasad; Ajay Pratap Singh; Nitin Batheja; Satyartha Prakash; Prateek Singh; Aakash Saboo; Rohit Thakar; Salil Gupta; Sumeet Saurav; M V Raghunandan; Amritpal Singh; Viren Sardana; Harsh Mahajan; Arjun Kalyanpur; Atanendu Shekhar Mandal; Vidur Mahajan; Anurag Agrawal; Anjali Agrawal; Vasantha Kumar Venugopal; Sanjay Singh; Debasis Dash; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20213793 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic exposed a limitation of artificial intelligence (AI) based medical image interpretation systems. Early in the pandemic, when need was greatest, the absence of sufficient training data prevented effective deep learning (DL) solutions. Even now, there is a need for Chest-X-ray (CxR) screening tools in low and middle income countries (LMIC), when RT-PCR is delayed, to exclude COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (Cov-Pneum) requiring transfer to higher care. In absence of local LMIC data and poor portability of CxR DL algorithms, a new approach is needed. Axiomatically, it is faster to repurpose existing data than to generate new datasets. Here, we describe CovBaseAI, an explainable tool which uses an ensemble of three DL models and an expert decision system (EDS) for Cov-Pneum diagnosis, trained entirely on datasets from the pre-COVID-19 period. Portability, performance SERO, and explainability of CovBaseAI was primarily validated on two independent datasets. First, 1401 randomly selected CxR from an Indian quarantine-center to assess effectiveness in excluding radiologic Cov-Pneum that may require higher care. Second, a curated dataset with 434 RT-PCR positive cases of varying levels of severity and 471 historical scans containing normal studies and non-COVID pathologies, to assess performance SERO in advanced medical settings. CovBaseAI had accuracy of 87% with negative predictive value SERO of 98% in the quarantine-center data for Cov-Pneum. However, sensitivity SERO varied from 0.66 to 0.90 depending on whether RT-PCR or radiologist opinion was set as ground truth. This tool with explainability feature has better performance SERO than publicly available algorithms trained on COVID-19 data but needs further improvement.

    Preclinical study of DNA vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Hiroki Hayashi; Jiao Sun; Yuka Yanagida; Takako Otera; Ritsuko Kubota-Kotetsu; Tatsuo Shioda; Chikako Ono; Yoshiharu Matsuura; Hisashi Arase; Shota Yoshida; Ryo Nakamaru; Ryoko Ide; Akiko Tenma; Sotaro Kawabata; Takako Ehara; Makoto Sakaguchi; Hideki Tomioka; Munehisa Shimamura; Sachiko Okamoto; Yasunori Amaishi; Hideto Chono; Junichi Mineno; Takao Komatsuno; Yoshimi Saito; Hiromi Rakugi; Ryuichi Morishita; Hironori Nakagami; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.21.347799 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: bioRxiv

    To fight against the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, the development of an effective and safe vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is required. As potential pandemic vaccines, DNA or RNA vaccines, viral vector vaccines and protein-based vaccines have been rapidly developed to prevent pandemic spread worldwide. In this study, we designed plasmid DNA vaccine targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD glycoprotein (S protein) as pandemic vaccine, and the humoral, cellular, and functional immune responses were characterized to support proceeding to initial human clinical trials. After intramuscular injection of DNA vaccine encoding S protein with alum adjuvant (three times at 2-week intervals), the humoral immunoreaction, as assessed by anti-S protein or anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody SERO titers, and the cellular immunoreaction, as assessed by antigen-induced IFN-g expression, were up-regulated. In IgG subclass analysis, IgG2b was induced as the main subclass. Based on these analyses, DNA vaccine with alum adjuvant preferentially induced Th1-type T cell polarization. We confirmed the neutralizing action of DNA vaccine-induced antibodies SERO via two different methods, a binding assay of RBD recombinant protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, and pseudovirus assay. Further B cell epitope mapping analysis using a peptide array showed that most vaccine-induced antibodies SERO recognized the S2 and RBD subunits, but not the S1 subunit. In conclusion, DNA vaccine targeting the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 might be an effective and safe approach to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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