Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (465)

Fever (273)

Cough (217)

Hypertension (192)

Respiratory distress (119)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Addition of Tocilizumab to the standard of care reduces mortality in severe COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Umesha Boregowda; Abhilash Perisetti; Arpitha Nanjappa; Mahesh Gajendran; Hemant Goyal

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150680 Date: 2020-07-11

    Introduction: Tocilizumab is an anti-interleukin-6 antibody SERO that has been used for the treatment of severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). However, the concrete evidence of its benefit in reducing the mortality in severe COVID-19 is lacking. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies that compared the efficacy of Tocilizumab in severe COVID-19 vs. standard of care alone. Methods: Literature search for studies that compared Tocilizumab and Standard of care in the treatment of COVID-19 was done using major online databases from December 2019 to June 14th, 2020. Search words Tocilizumab, anti-interleukin-6 antibody SERO, and COVID-19 or coronavirus 2019 in various combinations were used. Articles in the form of abstracts, letters without original data, case reports, and reviews were excluded. Data was gathered on an excel sheet, and statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3. Results: Five studies were eligible from 693 initial studies, including 3,641 patients (>2283 males TRANS). There were thirteen retrospective studies and three prospective studies. There were 2,488 patients in the standard of care group and 1,153 patients in the Tocilizumab group. The death MESHD rate in the tocilizumab group, 22.4% (258/1153), was lower than the standard of care group, 26.21% (652/2,488) (Pooled odds ratio 0.57 [95% CI 0.36-0.92] p=0.02). There was a significant heterogeneity (Inconsistency index= 80%) among the included studies. Conclusion: The addition of Tocilizumab to the standard of care reduces mortality in severe COVID-19. Larger randomized clinical trials are needed to validate these findings.

    A Highly Immunogenic Measles MESHD Virus-based Th1-biased COVID-19 Vaccine

    Authors: Cindy Hoerner; Christoph Schuermann; Arne Auste; Aileen Ebenig; Samada Muraleedharan; Maike Herrmann; Barbara Schnierle; Michael D Muehlebach

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.198291 Date: 2020-07-11

    The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has spread world-wide with millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths MESHD to date. The gravity of the situation mandates accelerated efforts to identify safe and effective vaccines. Here, we generated measles MESHD virus (MeV)-based vaccine candidates expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S). Insertion of the full-length S protein gene in two different MeV genomic positions resulted in modulated S protein expression. The variant with lower S protein expression levels was genetically stable and induced high levels of effective Th1-biased antibody SERO and T cell responses in mice after two immunizations. In addition to neutralizing IgG antibody SERO responses in a protective range, multifunctional CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses with S protein-specific killing activity were detected. These results are highly encouraging and support further development of MeV-based COVID-19 vaccines. Significance: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths MESHD, yet. Therefore, effective vaccine concepts are urgently needed. In search for such a concept, we have analysed a measles MESHD virus-based vaccine candidate targeting SARS-CoV-2. Using this well known, safe vaccine backbone, we demonstrate here induction of functional immune responses in both arms of adaptive immunity with the desired immune bias. Therefore, occurrence of immunopathologies such as antibody SERO-dependent enhancement or enhanced respiratory disease MESHD is rather unlikely. Moreover, the candidate still induces immunity against the measles MESHD, recognized as a looming second menace, when countries are entrapped to stop routine vaccination campaigns in the face of COVID-19. Thus, a bivalent measles MESHD-based COVID-19 vaccine could be the solution for two significant public health threats.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.

    Epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Authors: Swandari Paramita; Ronny Isnuwardana; Anton Rahmadi; Osa Rafshodia; Ismid Kusasih

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20151175 Date: 2020-07-11

    Introduction. Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Indonesia announced the first COVID-19 case on 2 March 2020. East Kalimantan has been determined as the new capital of Indonesia since 2019. This makes Samarinda as the capital of East Kalimantan has been focused for its capability of handling COVID-19 patients. We report the epidemiological characteristics and immunofluorescence assay results of these patients. Methods. All patients with positive confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR were admitted to hospitals and quarantine center in Samarinda. We retrospectively analyzed data from the daily report of the Samarinda City and East Kalimantan Health Office information system. Results. By June 25, 2020, 64 patients had been identified as having positive confirmed COVID-19. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 37.3 {+/-} 13.8 years. Most of the patients were men (57 [90.6%] patients). Thirty-nine COVID-19 patients were imported cases with a history of traveling TRANS from South Sulawesi. Most of the patients were admitted to the Quarantine Center of Samarinda City. The mean duration from the first hospital admission for isolation to discharge was 25.6 {+/-} 13.1 days. There was only one death MESHD case of COVID-19 patients in Samarinda. There were the highest confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 in Samarinda in early June 2020. There was a declining trend in the age TRANS of COVID-19 patients and the duration of isolation time in the hospital. Discussion. Imported cases still contributed to the increase of COVID-19 cases in Samarinda. Younger age TRANS of COVID-19 patients was more involved in frequent mobility which makes them cause the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD. Activation of the national reference laboratory for the COVID-19 examination in Samarinda has reduced the length of time patients treated in hospitals. Conclusion. The epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients show the ability of local governments to deal with this pandemic. This can be seen from the low case fatality rate in Samarinda.

    ReCoNet: Multi-level Preprocessing of Chest X-rays for COVID-19 Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Authors: Sabbir Ahmed; Moi Hoon Yap; Maxine Tan; Md. Kamrul Hasan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20149112 Date: 2020-07-11

    Life-threatening COVID-19 detection from radiomic features has become a dire need of the present time for infection MESHD control and socio-economic crisis management around the world. In this paper, a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture, ReCoNet (residual image-based COVID-19 detection network), is proposed for COVID-19 detection. This is achieved from chest X-ray (CXR) images shedding light on the preprocessing task considered to be very useful for enhancing the COVID-19 fingerprints. The proposed modular architecture consists of a CNN-based multi-level preprocessing filter block in cascade with a multi-layer CNN-based feature extractor and a classification block. A multi-task learning loss function is adopted for optimization of the preprocessing block trained end-to-end with the rest of the proposed network. Additionally, a data augmentation technique is applied for boosting the network performance SERO. The whole network when pre-trained end-to-end on the CheXpert open source dataset, and trained and tested with the COVIDx dataset of 15,134 original CXR images yielded an overall benchmark accuracy, sensitivity SERO, and specificity of 97.48%, 96.39%, and 97.53%, respectively. The immense potential of ReCoNet may be exploited in clinics for rapid and safe detection of COVID-19 globally, in particular in the low and middle income countries where RT-PCR labs and/or kits are in a serious crisis.

    COVID-19 severity is predicted by earlier evidence of accelerated aging

    Authors: Chia-Ling Kuo; Luke C Pilling; Janice C Atkins; Jane Masoli; Joao Delgado; Christopher Tignanelli; George Kuchel; David Melzer; Kenneth B Beckman; Morgan Levine

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20147777 Date: 2020-07-11

    With no known treatments or vaccine, COVID-19 presents a major threat, particularly to older adults TRANS, who account for the majority of severe illness and deaths MESHD. The age TRANS-related susceptibility is partly explained by increased comorbidities including dementia MESHD dementia HP and type II diabetes. While it is unclear why these diseases MESHD predispose risk, we hypothesize that increased biological age TRANS, rather than chronological age TRANS, may be driving disease MESHD-related trends in COVID-19 severity with age TRANS. To test this hypothesis, we applied our previously validated biological age TRANS measure (PhenoAge) composed of chronological age TRANS and nine clinical chemistry biomarkers to data of 347,751 participants from a large community cohort in the United Kingdom (UK Biobank), recruited between 2006 and 2010. Other data included disease MESHD diagnoses (to 2017), mortality data (to 2020), and the UK national COVID-19 test results (to May 31, 2020). Accelerated aging 10-14 years prior to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with test positivity (OR=1.15 per 5-year acceleration, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.21, p=3.2x10-6) and all-cause mortality with test-confirmed COVID-19 (OR=1.25, per 5-year acceleration, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.44, p=0.002) after adjustment for demographics including current chronological age TRANS and pre-existing diseases MESHD or conditions. The corresponding areas under the curves were 0.669 and 0.803, respectively. Biological aging, as captured by PhenoAge, is a better predictor of COVID-19 severity than chronological age TRANS, and may inform risk stratification initiatives, while also elucidating possible underlying mechanisms, particularly those related to inflammaging.

    No Excess Mortality of COVID-19 in Japan until April, 2020

    Authors: Junko Kurita; Tamie Sugawara; Yoshiyuki Sugishita; Yasushi Ohkusa

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20143164 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: As of the end of June, 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak exhibited its highest peak on April 3. Nevertheless, no remarkable excess mortality attributable to COVID-19 has been observed. Object: We sought to quantify excess mortality in April using the National Institute of Infectious Diseases MESHD (NIID) model. Method: We applied the NIID model to deaths MESHD of all causes from 1987 up through April, 2020. Results: Results show no significant excess mortality in March or April, 2020, when the COVID-19 outbreak affected Japan most. Discussion and Conclusion: Because changes in application rule of the International Classification of Diseases MESHD in 2017 affected the number of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP deaths MESHD drastically, we were unable to use pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP deaths MESHD to estimate excess mortality. it might be important to continue to monitor excess mortality of COVID-19 carefully after May 2020.

    Perceived preparedness to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic: A study with healthcare workers in Ghana

    Authors: Patience A Afulani; Akua O Gyamerah; Raymond Aborigo; Jerry Nutor; Hawa Malechi; Amos Laar; Mona Sterling; John J.K. Awoonor-Williams

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20151142 Date: 2020-07-11

    Introduction: Healthcare workers' (HCWs) preparedness to respond to pandemics is critical to containing disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread. Low-resource countries, however, experience barriers to preparedness due to limited resources. In Ghana, a country with a constrained healthcare system and high COVID-19 cases, we examined HCWs' perceived preparedness to respond to COVID-19 and associated factors. Methods: 472 HCWs completed questions in a cross-sectional self-administered online survey. Perceived preparedness was assessed using a 15-question scale (Cronbach alpha=0.91) and summative scores were created (range=0-45). Higher scores meant greater perceived preparedness. We used linear regression with robust standard errors to examine associations between perceived preparedness and potential predictors. Results: The average preparedness score was 24 (SD=8.9); 27.8% of HCWs felt prepared. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with higher perceived preparedness were: training ({beta}=3.35, 95%CI: 2.01 to 4.69); having adequate PPE ({beta}=2.27, 95%CI: 0.26 to 4.29), an isolation ward ({beta}=2.74, 95%CI: 1.15 to 4.33), and protocols for screening ({beta}=2.76, 95%CI: 0.95 to 4.58); and good perceived communication from management ({beta}=5.37, 95%CI: 4.03 to 7.90). When added to the model, perceived knowledge decreased the effect of training by 28.0%, although training remained significant, suggesting a partial mediating role. Perceived knowledge was associated with a 6-point increase in perceived preparedness score ({beta}=6.04, 95%CI: 4.19 to 7.90). Conclusion: HCWs reported low perceived preparedness to respond to COVID-19. Training, clear protocols, PPE availability, isolation wards, and communication play an important role in increasing preparedness. Government stakeholders must institute necessary interventions to increase HCWs' preparedness to respond to the ongoing pandemic and prepare for future pandemics.

    Serological Tests SERO for SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus by Commercially Available Point-of-Care and Laboratory Diagnostics in Pre-COVID-19 Samples in Japan

    Authors: Mariko Harada Sassa; Zhaoqing Lyu; Tomoko Fujitani; Kouji H. Harada

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150904 Date: 2020-07-11

    Serological tests SERO for SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in pre-COVID-19 samples in Japan showed 1.5%-1.75% positives, and previous surveys might overestimate COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO in several population of Japan. These false negatives could be excluded by combination of different diagnostics to 0.25%.

    Using simulation to assess the potential effectiveness of implementing screening at national borders during international outbreaks of influenza, SARS, Ebola virus disease MESHD and COVID-19

    Authors: Declan Bays; Emma Bennett; Thomas Finnie

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150664 Date: 2020-07-11

    The effectiveness of screening travellers for signs of infection MESHD during times of international disease MESHD outbreak is contentious, especially as the reduction of the risk of disease MESHD importation can be very small. Border screening typically consists of arriving individuals being thermally scanned for signs of fever MESHD fever HP and/or completing a survey to declare any possible symptoms, and while more thorough testing typically exists, these would generally prove more disruptive to deploy. In this paper, we utilise epidemiological data and Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the potential success rate of deploying border screening for a range of diseases MESHD (including the current COVID-19 pandemic) in varying outbreak scenarios. We negate the issue of testing precision by assuming a perfect test is used; our outputs then represent the best-case scenario. We then use these outputs to briefly explore the types of scenarios where the implementation of border screening could prove most effective. Our models only considers screening implemented at airports, due to air travel TRANS being the predominant method of international travel TRANS. Primary results showed that in the best-case scenario, screening has the potential to detect 46.4%, 12.9% and 4.0% of travellers infected with influenza, SARS and ebola respectively, while screening for COVID-19 could potentially detect 12.0% of infected travellers. We compare our results to those already in the published literature.

    Obesity MESHD Obesity HP, walking pace and risk of severe COVID-19: Analysis of UK Biobank

    Authors: Thomas Yates; Cameron Razieh; Francesco Zaccardi; Samuel Seidu; Melanie J Davies; Kamlesh Khunti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150003 Date: 2020-07-11

    Obesity MESHD Obesity HP is an emerging risk factor for coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19). Simple measures of physical fitness, such as self-reported walking pace, could also be important risk factors, but have not been well documented. This analysis includes 414,201 UK Biobank participants with complete covariate and linked COVID-19 data. We analysed the risk of severe (in-hospital) COVID-19 across categories of obesity MESHD obesity HP status and walking pace. As of June 20th 2020 there were 972 cases of severe COVID-19 that had occurred within the cohort. Compared to normal weight individuals, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for severe COVID-9 in those with obesity MESHD obesity HP was 1.49 (1.24, 1.78). Compared to those with a brisk walking pace, the OR in slow walkers was 1.84 (1.49, 2.27). Slow walkers had the highest risk of severe COVID-19 regardless of obesity MESHD obesity HP status. For example, compared to normal weight brisk walkers, the odds of severe COVID-19 in obese brisk walkers was 1.39 (0.99, 1.98), whereas the odds in normal weight slow walkers was 2.48 (1.56, 3.93). Self-reported walking pace, a simple measure of functional fitness, appears to be a risk factor for severe COVID-19 that is independent of obesity MESHD obesity HP. This may help inform simple pragmatic public health risk stratification and preventative strategies.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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