Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (465)

Fever (273)

Cough (217)

Hypertension (192)

Respiratory distress (119)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Bibliometric Analysis of COVID-19 in the Context of Migration Health: A Study Protocol

    Authors: Sweetmavourneen Pernitez-Agan; Mary Ann Bautista; Janice Lopez; Margaret Sampson; Kolitha Wickramage

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20149401 Date: 2020-07-11

    Introduction: Human mobility has been pivotal to the spread of COVID-19 through travel TRANS and migration.To mitigate the spread, most countries have imposed strict travel TRANS restrictions that have severely affected both the wellbeing and livelihoods of many migrant and mobile populations (both internally and internationally), particularly those from impoverished communities, those affected by humanitarian crises, including populations displaced and/or living in camps and camp-like settings. The need to include migrants (both regular and irregular or undocumented) in national strategic response plans for disease MESHD prevention and control has been increasingly recognized. Better understanding of the existing scientific evidence in migration health is crucial in designing effective response measures. In this paper, we present a protocol for a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on COVID-19 and migration health. Expected study findings aim to provide valuable information to support evidence mapping on COVID-19 and migration health, particularly the identification of important research gaps. Methods and analysis: Using Elseviers Scopus abstract and citation database, a comprehensive search strategy will be applied to map scientific publications on COVID-19 and migration health. The current analysis will focus on research published from 1 January 2020 to 4 May 2020. The search query on migration health will largely focus on migration, migrant and human mobility-related terms. Three reviewers will screen publications for eligibility. The extracted bibliographic information will be analysed to determine the dominant research themes, country coverage and migrant groups. Collaboration networks will be analysed using VosViewer, a network analysis software. A deep dive on dominant research themes or migrant health-related topics will be done by creating visualization network maps of keywords from the retrieved publications.

    Serology in Children TRANS with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19

    Authors: Christina A. Rostad; Ann Chahroudi; Grace Mantus; Stacey A. Lapp; Mehgan Teherani; Lisa Macoy; Bradley S. Rostad; Sarah S. Milla; Keiko M. Tarquinio; Rajit K. Basu; Carol Kao; W. Matthew Linam; Matthew G. Zimmerman; Pei-Yong Shi; Vineet D. Menachery; Matthew E. Oster; Sri Edupuganti; Evan J. Anderson; Mehul S Suthar; Jens Wrammert; Preeti Jaggi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150755 Date: 2020-07-11

    Objectives: We aimed to measure SARS-CoV-2 serologic responses in children TRANS hospitalized with multisystem inflammatory syndrome MESHD (MIS-C) compared to COVID-19, Kawasaki Disease MESHD (KD) and other hospitalized pediatric controls. Methods: From March 17, 2020 - May 26, 2020, we prospectively identified hospitalized children TRANS at Children TRANS's Healthcare of Atlanta with MIS-C (n=10), symptomatic PCR-confirmed COVID-19 (n=10), KD (n=5), and hospitalized controls (n=4). With IRB approval, we obtained prospective and residual blood SERO samples from these children TRANS and measured SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor binding domain (RBD) IgM and IgG binding antibodies SERO by quantitative ELISA SERO and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO by live-virus focus reduction neutralization assay. We statistically compared the log-transformed antibody SERO titers among groups and performed correlation analyses using linear regression. Results: All children TRANS with MIS-C had high titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies SERO, which correlated strongly with neutralizing antibodies SERO (R2=0.667, P<0.001). Children TRANS with MIS-C had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibody SERO titers (geometric mean titer [GMT] 6800, 95%CI 3495-13231) than children TRANS with COVID-19 (GMT 626, 95%CI 251-1563, P<0.001), children TRANS with KD (GMT 124, 95%CI 91-170, P<0.001) and other hospitalized pediatric controls (GMT 85 [all below assay limit of detection], P<0.001). All children TRANS with MIS-C also had detectable RBD IgM antibodies SERO, indicating recent SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. RBD IgG titers correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (R2=0.512, P<0.046) and with hospital and ICU lengths of stay (R2=0.590, P=0.010). Conclusion: Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibody SERO titers may have a role in establishing the diagnosis of MIS-C, distinguishing it from other similar clinical entities, and stratifying risk for adverse outcomes.

    Negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep quantitative parameters, quality, and circadian alignment: Implications for psychological well-being and emotional regulation

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Salehinejad; Maryam Majidinezhad; Elham Ghanavati; Sahar Kouestanian; Carmelo M. Vicario; Michael A. Nitsche; Vahid Nejati

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20149138 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, affecting millions of people and exposing them to home quarantine, isolation, and social distancing. While recent reports showed increased distress and depressive/ anxiety HP state related to COVID-19 crisis, we investigated how home quarantine affected sleep parameters in healthy individuals. Methods 160 healthy individuals who were in home quarantine in April 2020 for at least one month participated in this study. Participants rated and compared their quantitative sleep parameters (time to go to bed, sleep duration, getting-up time) and sleep quality factors, pre-and during home quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, participants chronotype was determined to see if sleep parameters are differentially affected in different chronotypes. Results The time to fall HP asleep and get-up in the morning were significantly delayed in all participants, indicating a significant circadian misalignment. Sleep quality was reported to be significantly poorer in all participants and chronotypes, and included more daily disturbances (more sleep disturbances HP, higher daily dysfunctions due to low quality of sleep) and less perceived sleep quality (lower subjective sleep quality, longer time taken to fall HP asleep at night, more use of sleep medication for improving sleep quality) during home quarantine. Conclusions Home quarantine due to COVID-19 pandemic has a detrimental impact on sleep quality. Online interventions including self-help sleep programs, stress management, relaxation practices, stimulus control, sleep hygiene, and mindfulness training are available interventions in the current situation.

    Serum SERO-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 after mild and severe COVID-19 infection MESHD and analysis of IgG non-responders

    Authors: Emelie Marklund; Susannah Leach; Hannes Axelsson; Kristina Nordström; Heléne Norder; Mats Bemark; Davide Angeletti; Anna Lundgren; Staffan Nilsson; Lars-Magnus Andersson; Aylin Yilmaz; Magnus Lindh; Jan-Åke Liljeqvist; Magnus Gisslén

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151324 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: To accurately interpret COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO surveys, knowledge of serum SERO-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 with a better understanding of patients who do not seroconvert, is imperative. This study aimed to describe serum SERO-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of patients with both severe and mild COVID-19, including extended studies of patients who remained seronegative more than 90 days post symptom onset TRANS. Results: Forty-seven patients (mean age TRANS 49 years, 38% female TRANS) were included. All (15/15) patients with severe symptoms and 29/32 (90.6%) patients with mild symptoms of COVID-19 developed SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO in serum SERO. Time to seroconversion was significantly shorter (median 11 vs. 22 days, P=0.04) in patients with severe compared to mild symptoms. Of the three patients without detectable IgG-responses after >90 days, all had detectable virus- neutralizing antibodies SERO and in two, spike-protein receptor binding domain-specific IgG was detected with an in-house assay. Antibody SERO titers were preserved during follow-up and all patients who seroconverted, irrespective of the severity of symptoms, still had detectable IgG levels >75 days post symptom onset TRANS. Conclusions: Patients with severe COVID-19 both seroconvert earlier and develop higher concentrations of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG than patients with mild symptoms. Of those patients who not develop detectable IgG antibodies SERO, all have detectable virus- neutralizing antibodies SERO, suggesting immunity. Our results showing that not all COVID-19 patients develop detectable IgG using two validated commercial clinical methods, even over time, are vital for the interpretation of COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO surveys and for estimating the true infection MESHD prevalence SERO in populations.

    Diagnosis of COVID-19 using CT scan images and deep learning techniques

    Authors: Vruddhi Shah; Rinkal Keniya; Akanksha Shridharani; Manav Punjabi; Jainam Shah; Ninad Mehendale

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151332 Date: 2020-07-11

    Early diagnosis of the coronavirus disease MESHD in 2019 (COVID-19) is essential for controlling this pandemic. COVID-19 has been spreading rapidly all over the world. There is no vaccine available for this virus yet. Fast and accurate COVID-19 screening is possible using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The deep learning techniques used in the proposed method was based on a convolutional neural network (CNN). Our manuscript focuses on differentiating the CT scan images of COVID-19 and non-COVID 19 CT using different deep learning techniques. A self developed model named CTnet-10 was designed for the COVID-19 diagnosis, having an accuracy of 82.1 %. Also, other models that we tested are DenseNet-169, VGG-16, ResNet-50, InceptionV3, and VGG-19. The VGG-19 proved to be superior with an accuracy of 94.52 % as compared to all other deep learning models. Automated diagnosis of COVID-19 from the CT scan pictures can be used by the doctors as a quick and efficient method for COVID-19 screening.

    What cost decisiveness? A cost benefit analysis of the lockdown to contain COVID-19 in India

    Authors: Mousumi Dutta; Zakir Husain

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20148338 Date: 2020-07-11

    On 24th March, 2020 the Government of India announced a national level lockdown to contain the spread of COVID. The lockdown policy has generated considerable controversy, with critics arguing that it was done without adequate notice or planning, exposed vulnerable section of the population to a humanitarian crisis, and failed to contain the spread of COVID. In response, the Government has claimed that lockdown slowed the transmission TRANS process of COVID, thereby reducing the number of cases and deaths MESHD substantially. The consequent pressure on the health infrastructure was also much less. To judge between competing claims, this study has undertaken the first cost-benefit analysis of the worlds biggest lockdown. Although the data for a proper cost-benefit analysis is currently not available, we have made a ball point estimate of the net benefit of the lockdown under alternative scenarios. Our estimates reveal the net benefits of lockdown to be negative; moreover, the results are robust under all scenarios.

    Decreased serum SERO levels of inflammaging marker miR-146a are associated with clinical response to tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Jacopo Sabbatinelli; Angelica Giuliani; Giulia Matacchione; Silvia Latini; Noemi Laprovitera; Giovanni Pomponio; Alessia Ferrarini; Silvia Svegliati Baroni; Marianna Pavani; Marco Moretti; Armando Gabrielli; Antonio Domenico Procopio; Manuela Ferracin; Massimiliano Bonafè; Fabiola Olivieri

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151365 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background. Current COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented threat to global health and healthcare systems. At least in western countries, the most amount of the death MESHD toll is accounted by old people affected by age TRANS-related diseases MESHD. In this regard, we proposed that COVID-19 severity may be tightly related to inflammaging, i.e. the age TRANS-related onset of inflammation MESHD, which is responsible for age TRANS-related diseases MESHD. It has been reported that systemic hyper- inflammation MESHD may turn to be detrimental in COVID-19 patients. Objective. Here, we exploited a recently closed clinical trial (NCT04315480) on the anti-IL-6 drug tocilizumab to assess whether microRNAs regulating inflammaging can be assessed as biomarkers of drug response and outcome. Methods. Serum SERO levels of miR-146a-5p, -21-5p, and -126-3p were quantified by RT-PCR and Droplet Digital PCR by two independent laboratories on 30 patients with virologically confirmed COVID-19, characterized by multifocal interstitial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP confirmed by CT-scan and requiring oxygen therapy, and 29 age TRANS- and gender TRANS-matched healthy control subjects. COVID-19 patients were treated with a single-dose intravenous infusion of 8 mg/kg tocilizumab and categorized into responders and non-responders. Results. We showed that COVID-19 patients who did not respond to tocilizumab have lower serum SERO levels of miR-146a-5p after the treatment (p=0.007). Moreover, among non-responders, those with the lowest serum SERO levels of miR-146a-5p experienced the most adverse outcome (p=0.008). Conclusion. Our data show that blood SERO-based biomarkers, such as miR-146a-5p, can provide a molecular link between inflammaging and COVID-19 clinical course, thus allowing to enlarge the drug armory against this worldwide health threat.

    Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: case series in Sinaloa

    Authors: Giordano Perez Gaxiola; Rosalino Flores Rocha; Julio Cesar Valadez Vidarte; Melissa Hernandez Alcaraz; Gilberto Herrera Mendoza; Miguel Alejandro Del Real Lugo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20146332 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus may affect both adults TRANS and children TRANS. Although the disease MESHD, named COVID-19, has a lower prevalence SERO in infancy and has been described as mild, the clinical characteristics may vary and there is a possibility of complications. Objectives: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric cases confirmed TRANS in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, during the first three months of the pandemic, and of children TRANS admitted with COVID-19 to a secondary hospital. Methods: This case series includes all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS confirmed by PCR testing, identified in the state epidemiological surveillance system between March 1 and May 31, 2020. Confirmed patients admitted to the Sinaloa Pediatric Hospital (HPS) during the same dates are also described. Results: Fifty one children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 were included, 10 of the admitted to HPS. The median age TRANS was 10 years. The more frequent symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (78%), cough MESHD cough HP (67%) and headache MESHD headache HP (57%). Most cases were mild or asymptomatic TRANS. Three patients with comorbidities died. Only 4 of 10 patients identified in HPS had been admitted with the diagnosis of possible COVID-19. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS was mostly mild or asymptomatic TRANS, but with a wide range of clinical presentations.

    The Age TRANS Pattern of the Male TRANS- to- Female TRANS Ratio in Mortality from COVID-19 Mirrors that of Cardiovascular Disease MESHD but not Cancer in the General Population

    Authors: Ila Nimgaonkar; Linda Valeri; Ezra S. Susser; Sabiha Hussain; Jag Sunderram; Abraham Aviv

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20149013 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: Males TRANS are at a higher risk of dying from COVID-19. Older age TRANS and cardiovascular disease MESHD are also associated with COVID-19 mortality. We compared the male TRANS-to- female TRANS (sex) ratios in mortality by age TRANS for COVID-19 with cardiovascular mortality and cancer mortality in the general population. Methods: We obtained data from official government sources in the US and five European countries: Italy, Spain, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. We analyzed COVID-19 deaths MESHD by sex and age TRANS in these countries and similarly analyzed their deaths MESHD from cardiovascular disease MESHD (coronary heart disease MESHD or stroke MESHD stroke HP) and cancer, the two leading age TRANS-related causes of death MESHD in middle-to-high income countries. Findings: In both the US and European countries, the sex ratio of deaths MESHD from COVID-19 exceeded one throughout adult TRANS life. The sex ratio increased up to a peak in midlife, and then declined markedly in later life. This pattern was also observed for the sex ratio of deaths MESHD from cardiovascular disease MESHD, but not cancer, in the general populations of the US and European countries. Interpretation: The sex ratios of deaths MESHD from COVID-19 and from cardiovascular disease MESHD exhibit similar patterns across the adult TRANS life course. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, but could stem partially from sex-related biological differences that underlie the similar pattern for cardiovascular disease MESHD. These include, we propose, comparatively longer telomeres in females TRANS, ovarian hormones, and X chromosome mosaicism.

    A simple protein-based SARS-CoV-2 surrogate neutralization assay

    Authors: Kento T Abe; Zhijie Li; Reuben Samson; Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani; Emelissa J Valcourt; Heidi Wood; Patrick Budylowski; Alan Dupuis; Roxie C Girardin; Bhavisha Rathod; Karen Colwill; Allison McGeer; Samira Mubareka; Jennifer L. Gommerman; Yves Durocher; Mario A Ostrowski; Kathleen McDonough; Michael A. Drebot; Steven J. Drews; James M Rini; Anne-Claude Gingras

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.197913 Date: 2020-07-11

    With the COVID-19 pandemic surpassing 12M confirmed cases TRANS and 550K deaths MESHD worldwide, defining the key components of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is critical. Of particular importance is the identification of immune correlates of infection MESHD that would support public health decision-making on treatment approaches, vaccination strategies, and convalescent plasma SERO therapy. While ELISA SERO-based assays to detect and quantitate antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in patient samples have been developed, the detection of neutralizing antibodies SERO typically requires more demanding cell-based viral assays. Here, we present and validate a safe and efficient protein-based assay for the detection of serum SERO and plasma SERO antibodies SERO that block the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein receptor binding domain (RBD) with its receptor, angiotensin converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2). This test is performed on the same platform and in parallel with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) for the detection of antibodies SERO against the RBD and serves as a surrogate neutralization assay.Competing Interest StatementSteven J Drews has acted as a content expert for respiratory viruses for Johnson & Johnson (Janssen). Work in the Gingras lab was partially funded by a contribution from QuestCap through the Sinai Health Foundation. The other authors declare no relevant conflicts of interest.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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