Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1049)

Fever (651)

Cough (525)

Hypertension (362)

Anxiety (286)


age categories (2647)

Transmission (2432)

gender (1227)

fomite (1108)

contact tracing (876)

    displaying 5921 - 5930 records in total 12932
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    Efficacy and Safety of Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine for COVID-19: A systematic review

    Authors: Sonal Singh; Thomas J Moore

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20106906 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are widely used to treat hospitalized COVID-19 patients primarily based on antiviral activity in in vitro studies. Our objective was to systematically evaluate their efficacy and safety in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically reviewed PubMed,, and Medrxviv for studies of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 hospitalized patients on April 26, 2020. We evaluated the quality of trials and observational studies using the Jadad criteria and Newcastle Ottawa Scale, respectively. RESULTS: After a review of 175 citations, we included 5 clinical trials (total of 345 patients), 9 observational studies (n = 2529), and 6 additional studies (n = 775) reporting on the QT interval. Three studies reported treatment benefits including two studies reporting benefit on virologic outcomes, which was statistically significant in one study, and another reported significant improvement on cough MESHD cough HP symptoms. Three studies reported that treatment was potentially harmful, including an significantly increased risk of mortality in two studies and increased need for respiratory support in another. Eight studies were unable to detect improvements on virologic outcomes (n = 3) or pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP or transfer to ICU/ death MESHD (n = 5). The proportion of participants with critical QTc intervals of [≥] 500 ms or an increase of [≥] 60 ms from baseline ranged from 8.3% to 36% (n = 8). One clinical trial and six observational studies were of good quality. The remaining studies were of poor quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review of reported clinical studies did not identify substantial evidence to support the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and raises questions about potential harm from QT prolongation and increased mortality.

    Outdoor Air Pollutant Concentration and COVID-19 Infection MESHD in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Yang Han; Jacqueline C.K. Lam; Victor O.K. Li; Peiyang Guo; Qi Zhang; Andong Wang; Jon Crowcroft; Illana Gozes; Jinqi Fu; Zafar Gilani; Shanshan Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20106484 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 infection MESHD, first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has become a global pandemic, causing significantly high infections MESHD and mortalities in Italy, the UK, the US, and other parts of the world. Based on the statistics reported by John Hopkins University, 4.7M people worldwide and 84,054 people in China have been confirmed positive and infected with COVID-19, as of 18 May 2020. Motivated by the previous studies which show that the exposures to air pollutants may increase the risk of influenza infection MESHD, our study examines if such exposures will also affect Covid-19 infection MESHD. To the best of our understanding, we are the first group in the world to rigorously explore the effects of outdoor air pollutant concentrations, meteorological conditions and their interactions, and lockdown interventions, on Covid-19 infection MESHD in China. Since the number of confirmed cases TRANS is likely to be under-reported due to the lack of testing capacity, the change in confirmed case TRANS definition, and the undiscovered and unreported asymptotic cases TRANS, we use the rate of change in the daily number of confirmed infection TRANS infection MESHD cases instead as our dependent variable. Even if the number of reported infections MESHD is under-reported, the rate of change will still accurately reflect the relative change in infection MESHD, provided that the trend of under-reporting remains the same. In addition, the rate of change in daily infection MESHD cases can be distorted by the government imposed public health interventions, including the lockdown policy, inter-city and intra-city mobility, and the change in testing capacity and case definition. Hence, the effects of the lockdown policy and the inter-city and intra-city mobility, and the change in testing capacity and case definition are all taken into account in our statistical modelling. Furthermore, we adopt the generalized linear regression models covering both the Negative Binomial Regression and the Poisson Regression. These two regression models, when combined with different time-lags (to reflect the COVID-19 incubation period TRANS and delay due to official confirmation) in air pollutant exposure (PM2.5), are used to fit the COVID-19 infection MESHD model. Our statistical study has shown that higher PM2.5 concentration is significantly correlated with a higher rate of change in the daily number of confirmed infection TRANS infection MESHD cases in Wuhan, China (p < 0.05). We also determine that a higher dew point interacting with a higher PM2.5 concentration is correlated with a higher rate of change in the daily number of confirmed infection TRANS infection MESHD cases, while a higher UV index and a higher PM2.5 concentration are correlated with a lower rate of change. Furthermore, we find that PM2.5 concentration eight days ago has the strongest predictive power for COVID-19 Infection MESHD. Our study bears significance to the understanding of the effect of air pollutant (PM2.5) on COVID-19 infection MESHD, the interaction effects of both the air pollutant concentration (PM2.5) and the meteorological conditions on the rate of change in infection MESHD, as well as the insights into whether lockdown should have an effect on COVID-19 infection MESHD.

    SARS-CoV-2 entry related genes are comparably expressed in children TRANS's lung as adults TRANS

    Authors: Yue Tao; Ruwen Yang; Chen Wen; Jue Fan; Jing Ma; Qiao He; Zhiguang Zhao; Xinyu Song; Hao Chen; Guocheng Shi; Minzhi Yin; Nan Fang; Hao Zhang; Huiwen Chen; Xi Mo

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.25.20110890 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    To explore whether the expression levels of viral-entry associated genes might contribute to the milder symptoms in children TRANS, we analysed the expression of these genes in both children TRANS and adults TRANS' lung tissues by single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Both scRNA-seq and IHC analyses showed comparable expression of the key genes for SARS-CoV-2 entry in children TRANS and adults TRANS, including ACE2, TMPRSS2 and FURIN, suggesting that instead of lower virus intrusion rate, other factors are more likely to be the key reasons for the milder symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infected children TRANS.

    COVID-19 in Latin America: Contrasting phylodynamic inference with epidemiological surveillance.

    Authors: Diana M. Rojas-Gallardo; Sandra C. Garzon-Castano; Natalia Millan; Erika V. Jimenez-Posada; Marlen Martinez-Gutierrez; Julian Ruiz-Saenz; Jaime A. Cardona-Ospina

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20111443 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 revealed important gaps in infectious disease MESHD surveillance. Molecular epidemiology can help monitor and adapting traditional surveillance to surpass those limitations. This work aims to contrast data-driven from traditional surveillance with parameters inferred from molecular epidemiology in Latin America (LATAM) Methods: We obtained epidemiological data up to 4th June 2020. We estimated Effective Reproductive Number TRANS (Re) and epidemic curves using maximum likelihood (ML). SARS-CoV-2 genomes were obtained from GISAID up to June 4th 2020. We aligned sequences and generated ML phylogenetic tree, and ran a coalescent model Birth Death MESHD SIR. The phylodynamic analysis was performed for inferring Re, the number of infections MESHD and the date of introduction. Findings: A total of 1,144,077 cases were reported up to 4th June 2020. Countries with the largest cumulative cases were Chile, Peru and Panama. We found at least 18 different lineages circulating, with a predominance of B.1 and B.1.1. We inferred an underestimation of the daily incident cases. When contrasting observed and inferred Re, we did not find statistically significant differences except for Chile and Mexico. Temporal analysis of the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 suggested a detection lag of at least 21 days. Interpretation: Our results support that epidemiological and genomic surveillance are two complementary approaches. Even with a low number of genomes, proper estimations of Re could be performed. We suggest that countries, especially developing countries, should consider adding genomic surveillance to their systems for monitoring and adapting epidemiological control of SARS-CoV-2. Funding: None.

    Paradigms about the COVID-2 pandemic: knowledge, attitudes and practices from medical students

    Authors: Eddy Lincango-Naranjo; Paola Solis-Pazmino; Santiago Rodriguez-Villafuerte; Jose Lincango-Naranjo; Paul Vinueza-Moreano; Giuseppe Barberis-Barcia; Carlos Ruiz-Sosa; Giovanni Rojas-Velasco; Derek Gravholt; Nataly Espinoza-Suarez; Elizabeth Golembiewski; Percy Soto-Becerra

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.20105858 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: As the disease MESHD caused by the new coronavirus has spread globally, economic instability in healthcare systems has been significant, and the lack of knowledge, attitudes and practices among people has led the magnification of this disease MESHD. This reality is more accentuated especially in Ecuador, where, although many healthcare workers have been called to help in the regions most affected; the shortage of them combined with cultural and macroeconomic factors have led Ecuador to face the most aggressive outbreak in Latin America. In this context, the participation on the front line of the last year medical students are indispensable. For that reason, appropriate training on COVID-19 to last year medical students is an urgent need that universities and health systems must guarantee. We aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Ecuadorian last year medical students in order to identify the knowledge gaps, perceptions and behavior patterns, which could guide the design of better medical educational curricula on COVID-19. Methods: This was a cross-sectional 33-item online survey conducted between April 6 to April 20 assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis toward COVID-19 in Ecuadorian last year medical students. It was sent by email and by Facebook and WhatsApp. Results: A total of 309 students answered the survey. 88% (274/309) of students scored high about knowledge of the disease MESHD (more than 16 points). The majority of students were pessimistic about possible government actions, which is reflected in the negative attitude towards the control of the COVID-19 in Ecuador and volunteering during the outbreak in 77% (238/309) and 58% (179/309) of the students, respectively. Moreover 91% (280/309) of students said they did not have adequate protective equipment, neither training in their health facilities (49%, 152/309). Conclusions: The high level of students knowledge is an important opportunity to strengthen, improve and advance their training toward COVID-19. Creating a national curriculum may be one of the most effective ways for all students to be trained. Hopefully with this, negative attitudes will change and students will be better qualified. Keywords: Ecuador, medical students, COVID-19.

    Age TRANS, gender TRANS and COVID-19 infections MESHD

    Authors: Tomáš Sobotka; Zuzanna Brzozowska; Raya Muttarak; Kryštof Zeman; Vanessa di Lego

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20111765 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Data for ten European countries which provide detailed distribution of COVID-19 cases by sex and age TRANS show that among people of working age TRANS, women diagnosed with COVID-19 substantially outnumber infected men. This pattern reverses around retirement: infection MESHD rates among women fall HP at age TRANS 60-69, resulting in a cross-over with infection MESHD rates among men. The relative disadvantage of women peaks at ages TRANS 20-29, whereas the male TRANS disadvantage in infection MESHD rates peaks at ages TRANS 70-79. The elevated infection MESHD rates among women of working age TRANS are likely tied to their higher share in health- and care-related occupations. Our examination also suggests a link between women's employment profiles and infection MESHD rates in prime working ages TRANS. The same factors that determine women's higher life expectancy account for their lower fatality and higher male TRANS disadvantage at older ages TRANS.

    SARS-CoV-2 genome evolution exposes early human adaptations

    Authors: Erik Scott Wright; Seema S Lakdawala; Vaughn S Cooper

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.26.117069 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: bioRxiv

    The set of mutations observed at the outset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may illuminate how the virus will adapt to humans as it continues to spread. Viruses are expected to quickly acquire beneficial mutations upon jumping to a new host species. Advantageous nucleotide substitutions can be identified by their parallel occurrence in multiple independent lineages and are likely to result in changes to protein sequences. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 is acquiring mutations more slowly than expected for neutral evolution, suggesting purifying selection is the dominant mode of evolution during the initial phase of the pandemic. However, several parallel mutations arose in multiple independent lineages and may provide a fitness advantage over the ancestral genome. We propose plausible reasons for several of the most frequent mutations. The absence of mutations in other genome regions suggests essential components of SARS-CoV-2 that could be the target of drug development. Overall this study provides genomic insights into how SARS-CoV-2 has adapted and will continue to adapt to humans. SUMMARYIn this study we sought signals of evolution to identify how the SARS-CoV-2 genome has adapted at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that the genome is largely undergoing purifying selection that maintains its ancestral sequence. However, we identified multiple positions on the genome that appear to confer an adaptive advantage based on their repeated evolution in independent lineages. This information indicates how SARS-CoV-2 will evolve as it diversifies in an increasing number of hosts.

    Clinical Utility of SARS-CoV-2 Whole Genome Sequencing in Deciphering Source of Infection MESHD

    Authors: Toshiki Takenouchi; Yuka W. Iwasaki; Sei Harada; Hirotsugu Ishizu; Yoshifumi Uwamino; Shunsuke Uno; Asami Osada; Naoki Hasegawa; Mitsuru Murata; Toru Takebayashi; Koichi Fukunaga; Hideyuki Saya; Yuko Kitagawa; Masayuki Amagai; Haruhiko Siomi; Kenjiro Kosaki

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.20107599 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    The novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a major threat to humans. Recently, we encountered two seemingly separate COVID-19 clusters in a tertiary care medical center. Whole viral genome sequencing detected the haplotype of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and the two clusters were successfully distinguished by the viral genome haplotype. Concurrently, there were nine COVID-19 patients clinically unlinked to clusters #1 or #2 that necessitated the determination of the source of infection MESHD. Such patients had similar haplotypes to that in cluster #2 but were devoid of two rare mutations characteristic to cluster #2. This suggested that these nine cases of "probable community infection MESHD" indeed had community infection MESHD and were not derived from cluster #2. Whole viral genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 is a powerful measure not only for monitoring the global trend of SARS-CoV-2 but also for identifying the source of infection MESHD of COVID-19 at a level of institution.

    Diagnostic performance SERO of CT and its key signs for COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Kai Li; Xiuting Wu; Yuhui Zhong; Wanyue Qin; Zhenxi Zhang

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20111773 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of chest CT in 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)as a reference standard. At the same time, the imaging features of CT in confirmed COVID-19 patients would be summarized. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of 5 electronic databases was performed. The pooled sensitivity SERO, specificity, positive predictive value SERO, and negative predictive value SERO were calculated using the random-effects model and the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. We also conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled incidence of the chest CT imaging findings and the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Meta-regression analysis was used to explore the source of heterogeneity. Results: Overall, 25 articles comprising 4,857 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity SERO of CT was 93% (95% CI, 89-96%) and specificity was 44% (95% CI, 27-62%). The area under the SROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91-0.96). For the RT-PCR assay, the pooled sensitivity SERO of the initial test and the missed diagnosis rate after the second-round test were 76% (95% CI: 59-89%; I2=96%) and 26% (95% CI: 14-39%; I2=45%), respectively. According to the subgroup analysis, the diagnostic sensitivity SERO of CT in Hubei was higher than that in other regions. Besides, the most common patterns on CT imaging finding was ground glass opacities (GGO) 58% (95% CI: 49-70%), followed by air bronchogram 51% (95% CI: 31-70%). Lesions were inclined to distribute in peripheral 64% (95% CI: 49-78%), and the incidence of bilateral lung involvement was 69% (95% CI: 58-79%). Conclusions: There were still several cases of missed diagnosis after multiple RT-PCR examinations. In high- prevalence SERO areas, CT could be recommended as an auxiliary screening method for RT-PCR.

    Sample Pooling as a Strategy of SARS-COV-2 Nucleic Acid Screening Increases the False-negative Rate

    Authors: Yichuan Gan; Lingyan Du; Faleti Oluwasijibomi Damola; Jing Huang; Gang Xiao; Xiaoming Lyu

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20106138 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background Identification of less costly and accurate methods for monitoring novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (CoViD-19) transmission TRANS has attracted much interest in recent times. Here, we evaluated a pooling method to determine if this could improve screening efficiency and reduce costs while maintaining accuracy in Guangzhou, China. Methods We evaluated 8097 throat swap samples collected from individuals who came for a health check-up or fever MESHD fever HP clinic in The Third Affiliated Hospital, Southern Medical University between March 4, 2020 and April 26, 2020. Samples were screened for CoViD-19 infection MESHD using the WHO-approved quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) primers. The positive samples were classified into two groups (high or low) based on viral load in accordance with the CT value of COVID-19 RT-qPCR results. Each positive RNA samples were mixed with COVID-19 negative RNA or ddH2O to form RNA pools. Findings Samples with high viral load could be detected in pool negative samples (up to 1/1000 dilution fold). In contrast, the detection of RNA sample from positive patients with low viral load in a pool was difficult and not repeatable. Interpretation Our results show that the COVID-19 viral load significantly influences in pooling efficacy. COVID-19 has distinct viral load profile which depends on the timeline of infection MESHD. Thus, application of pooling for infection MESHD surveillance may lead to false negatives and hamper infection MESHD control efforts. Funding National Natural Science Foundation of China; Hong Kong Scholars Program, Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province; Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou, China.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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