Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1024)

Fever (631)

Cough (507)

Hypertension (349)

Anxiety (277)


age categories (2567)

Transmission (2371)

gender (1183)

fomite (1083)

contact tracing (854)

    displaying 5931 - 5940 records in total 12533
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    Vasculitis MESHD Vasculitis HP-Associated Auto- antibodies SERO and Complement Levels in patients with COVID-19 Infection 

    Authors: Maryam Mobini; Roya Ghasemian; Laleh Vahedi Larijani; Maeede Mataji; Iradj Maleki

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction / objectives: The cause of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are evidences of involvement of immune system in pathogenesis of this disease MESHD. We investigated the presence of various vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP-associated auto- antibodies SERO and complement levels in a series of patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD admitted to our hospital.Methods: Forty patients with severe or critical type of COVID 19 were evaluated for symptoms, signs MESHD and laboratory tests of vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP syndromes MESHD including rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-nuclear antibody SERO (ANA), anti dsDNA, c and p anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody SERO (c ANCA and p ANCA) and complement levels. Descriptive statistics methods were used to describe the clinical / laboratory findings.Results: Forty patients with severe to critical illness MESHD were enrolled in the study. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 48.5 ± 9.8 years. All patients had pulmonary involvement in lung CT scan. Lymphopenia MESHD Lymphopenia HP in 19 (47.5%), raised creatinine in 8(20%) and hyperbilirubinemia MESHD hyperbilirubinemia HP in 19(47.5%) of patients were seen. Vasculitis MESHD Vasculitis HP laboratory test results included: RF in 2 patients, ANA in 3 patients and ANCA in one patient. 17(42.5%) of patients had hypocomplementemia in one or more complement tests. Of the four patients who were expired, three had a decrease in complement.Conclusion: In 17 of patients (42.5%) we detected low complement levels. A decrease in complement levels may predict a critical state of the disease MESHD. Therefore, measuring its levels may be helpful in making earlier decisions to initiate disease MESHD-suppressing treatments, including corticosteroids and IVIG.

    LaCulturaNonSiFerma -- Report su uso e la diffusione degli hashtag delle istituzioni culturali italiane durante il periodo di lockdown

    Authors: Carola Carlino; Gennaro Nolano; Maria Pia di Buono; Johanna Monti

    id:2005.10527v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: arXiv

    This report presents an analysis of #hashtags used by Italian Cultural Heritage institutions to promote and communicate cultural content during the COVID-19 lock-down period in Italy. Several activities to support and engage users' have been proposed using social media. Most of these activities present one or more #hashtags which help to aggregate content and create a community on specific topics. Results show that on one side Italian institutions have been very proactive in adapting to the pandemic scenario and on the other side users' reacted very positively increasing their participation in the proposed activities.

    The characteristics of overseas imported COVID-19 cases and the effectiveness of screening strategy in Beijing, China

    Authors: Li Li; Cheng-Jie Ma; Yu-Fei Chang; Si-Yuan Yang; Yun-Xia Tang; Rong-Meng Jiang

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background While great success in the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) control has been achieved in China, imported cases have become a major challenge. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases and to assess the effectiveness of screening strategy in Beijing, China.Methods This retrospective study included all imported COVID-19 cases from Beijing Ditan Hospital from 29 February to 20 March 2020, who were screened by both chest computed tomography (CT) and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at initial presentation. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, in addition to chest CT imaging were were collected and analyzed.Results A total of 71 imported cases were finally diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The cases were mainly acquired from Europe (63 cases, 88.73%). The main clinical manifestations were fever MESHD fever HP and cough MESHD cough HP, which accounted for 30 cases (42.25%) and 35 cases (49.30%), respectively. Only 4 cases (5.63%) had lymphocytopenia and 13 (18.31%) cases demonstrated elevated levels of C-reactive protein HP (CRP). All cases had normal serum SERO levels of procalcitonin (PCT). 35 cases (49.30%) had abnormal CT findings at initial presentation, whereas 36 cases (50.70%) had a normal CT. Using RT-PCR, 59 cases (83.10%) were tested positive at initial presentation.Conclusions The number of overseas imported COVID-19 cases continues to rise in China. The combination of screening tools, particularly CT and RT-PCR, can detect imported COVID-19 cases efficiently.

    The potential effect of the African population age TRANS structure on COVID-19 mortality

    Authors: Fabrice Mougeni; Ance Mangaboula; Bertrand Lell

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20106914 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    Currently (mid May 2020), most active cases of COVID-19 are found in Europe and North America while it is still in the initial phases in Africa. As COVID-19 mortality occurs mainly in elderly TRANS and as Africa has a comparably young population, the death MESHD rates should be lower than on other continents. We calculated standardised mortality ratios (SMR) using age TRANS-specific case fatality rates for COVID-19 and the age TRANS structure of the population of Africa and of other continents. Compared to a European or Northern American population, the standardised mortality ratio was only 0.22 and 0.25, respectively, corresponding to reduction of deaths MESHD rates to a quarter. Compared to the Asian and Latin American & Caribbean population, the SMR was 0.43 and 0.44, respectively, corresponding to half the death MESHD rate for Africa. It is useful to quantify the isolated effect of the African age TRANS-structure on potential COVID-19 mortality for illustrative and communication purposes, keeping in mind the importance of public health measures that have been shown to be effective in reducing cases and deaths MESHD. The different aspect of age TRANS pyramids of a European and an African population are striking and the potential implications for the pandemic are often discussed but rarely quantified.

    Production networks and epidemic spreading: How to restart the UK economy?

    Authors: Anton Pichler; Marco Pangallo; R. Maria del Rio-Chanona; François Lafond; J. Doyne Farmer

    id:2005.10585v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: arXiv

    We analyse the economics and epidemiology of different scenarios for a phased restart of the UK economy. Our economic model is designed to address the unique features of the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing measures affect both supply and demand, and input-output constraints play a key role in restricting economic output. Standard models for production functions are not adequate to model the short-term effects of lockdown. A survey of industry analysts conducted by IHS Markit allows us to evaluate which inputs for each industry are absolutely necessary for production over a two month period. Our model also includes inventory dynamics and feedback between unemployment and consumption. We demonstrate that economic outcomes are very sensitive to the choice of production function, show how supply constraints cause strong network effects, and find some counter-intuitive effects, such as that reopening only a few industries can actually lower aggregate output. Occupation-specific data and contact TRANS surveys allow us to estimate how different industries affect the transmission TRANS rate of the disease MESHD. We investigate six different re-opening scenarios, presenting our best estimates for the increase in R0 TRANS and the increase in GDP. Our results suggest that there is a reasonable compromise that yields a relatively small increase in R0 TRANS and delivers a substantial boost in economic output. This corresponds to a situation in which all non-consumer facing industries reopen, schools are open only for workers who need childcare, and everyone who can work from home continues to work from home.

    Statistical Design of Phase II/III Clinical Trials for Testing Therapeutic Interventions in COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Shesh Rai; Chen Qian; Jianmin Pan; Anand Seth; Deo Kumar Srivastava; Aruni Bhatnagar

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Due to unknown features of the COVID-19 disease MESHD and complexity of the patient population, traditional clinical trial designs on treatments may not be optimal in such patients. We propose two independent clinical trials designs based on careful grouping of patient and outcome measures.Methods Using the World Health Organization ordinal scale on patient status, we classify treatable patients (Stages 3-7) into two risk groups. Patients in Stages 3, 4 and 5 are categorized as the intermediate-risk group while patients in Stages 6 and 7 are categorized as the high-risk group. To ensure that an intervention, if deemed efficacious, is promptly made available to vulnerable patients, we propose a group sequential design incorporating four factors stratification, two interim analyses, and a toxicity monitoring rule for the intermediate-risk group. The primary response variable (binary variable) is based on the proportion of patients discharged from hospital by the 15th day. The goal is to detect a meaningful improvement in this response rate. For the high-risk group, we propose a group sequential design incorporating three factors stratification, two interim analyses, and without toxicity monitoring. The primary response variable for this design is the 30 days mortality, and the goal is to detect a meaning reduction in mortality rate.Results Required sample size and toxicity boundaries are calculated for each scenario. Sample size requirements for the designs with interim analyses are marginally greater than the ones without. In addition, for both the intermediate-risk group and the high-risk group, conducting two interim analyses have almost identical required sample size compared with just one interim analysis. Conclusions We recommend using composite endpoints, with binary outcome for those in Stages 3, 4 and 5 with a power of 90% to detect an improvement of 20% in response rate, and 30 days mortality rate outcome for those in Stages 6 and 7 with a power of 90% to detect 15% (effect size) reduced mortality rate, in the trial design. For the intermediate-risk group, two interim analyses for efficacy evaluation along with toxicity monitoring are encouraged. For the high-risk group, two interim analyses without toxicity monitoring is advised.

    Rapid Isothermal Amplification and Portable Detection System for SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Anurup Ganguli; Ariana Mostafa; Jacob Berger; Mehmet Aydin; Fu Sun; Enrique Valera; Brian T. Cunningham; William P. King; Rashid Bashir

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.108381 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: bioRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic provides an urgent example where a gap exists between availability of state-of-the-art diagnostics and current needs. As assay details and primer sequences become widely known, many laboratories could perform diagnostic tests using methods such as RT-PCR or isothermal RT-LAMP amplification. A key advantage of RT-LAMP based approaches compared to RT-PCR is that RT-LAMP is known to be robust in detecting targets from unprocessed samples. In addition, RT-LAMP assays are performed at a constant temperature enabling speed, simplicity, and point-of-use testing. Here, we provide the details of an RT-LAMP isothermal assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus with performance SERO comparable to currently approved tests using RT-PCR. We characterize the assay by introducing swabs in virus spiked synthetic nasal fluids, moving the swab to viral transport medium (VTM), and using a volume of that VTM for performing the amplification without an RNA extraction kit. The assay has a Limit-of-Detection (LOD) of 50 RNA copies/L in the VTM solution within 20 minutes, and LOD of 5000 RNA copies/L in the nasal solution. Additionally, we show the utility of this assay for real-time point-of-use testing by demonstrating detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in less than 40 minutes using an additively manufactured cartridge and a smartphone-based reader. Finally, we explore the speed and cost advantages by comparing the required resources and workflows with RT-PCR. This work could accelerate the development and availability of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics by proving alternatives to conventional laboratory benchtop tests. Significance StatementAn important limitation of the current assays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 stem from their reliance on time- and labor-intensive and laboratory-based protocols for viral isolation, lysis, and removal of inhibiting materials. While RT-PCR remains the gold standard for performing clinical diagnostics to amplify the RNA sequences, there is an urgent need for alternative portable platforms that can provide rapid and accurate diagnosis, potentially at the point-of-use. Here, we present the details of an isothermal amplification-based detection of SARS-CoV-2, including the demonstration of a smartphone-based point-of-care device that can be used at the point of sample collection.

    Towards Seamless Authentication for Zoom-Based Online Teaching and Meeting

    Authors: Manoranjan Mohanty; Waheeb Yaqub

    id:2005.10553v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: arXiv

    The lockdowns and travel TRANS restrictions in current coronavirus pandemic situation has replaced face-to-face teaching and meeting with online teaching and meeting. Recently, the video conferencing tool Zoom has become extremely popular for its simple-to-use feature and low network bandwith requirement. However, Zoom has serious security and privacy issues. Due to weak authentication mechanisms, unauthorized persons are invading Zoom sessions and creating disturbances (known as Zoom bombing). In this paper, we propose a preliminary work towards a seamless authentication mechanism for Zoom-based teaching and meeting. Our method is based on PRNU (Photo Response Non Uniformity)-based camera authentication, which can authenticate the camera of a device used in a Zoom meeting without requiring any assistance from the participants (e.g., needing the participant to provide biometric). Results from a small-scale experiment validates the proposed method.

    Understanding the spreading patterns of COVID-19 in UK and its impact on exit strategies

    Authors: Maziar Nekovee

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105445 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    Prior to lockdown the spread of COVID-19 in UK is found to be exponential, with an exponent 0.207. In case of COVID-19 this spreading behaviour is quantitatively better described with a mobility-driven SIR-SEIR model [2] rather than the homogenous mixing models. Lockdown has dramatically slowed down the spread of COVID-19 in UK, and even more significantly, has changed the growth in the total number of infected from exponential to quadratic. This significant change is due to a transition from a mobility-driven epidemic spreading to a spatial epidemic which is dominated by slow growth of spatially isolated clusters of infected population. Our results strongly indicate that, to avoid a return to exponential growth of COVID-19 (also known as second wave), mobility restrictions should not be prematurely lifted. Instead mobility should be kept restricted while new measures, such as wearing of masks and contact tracing TRANS, get implemented in order to prevent health services becoming overwhelmed due to a resurgence of exponential growth.

    Community Research Amid COVID-19 Pandemic: Genomics Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 over Public GALAXY server

    Authors: Ambarish Kumar; Ali Haider Bangash; Bjoern Gruening

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0343.v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source:

    Citizen Science has come up to perform analytics over the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Public GALAXY servers provide an automated platform for genomics analysis. Study includes design of GALAXY workflows for RNASEQ assembly and annotation as well as genomic variant discovery and perform analysis across four samples of SARS-CoV-2 infected humans obtained from the local population of Wuhan, China. It provides information about transcriptomics and genomic variants across the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Study can be extended to perform evolutionary and comparative study across each species of coronaviruses. Augmented and integrated study with cheminformatics and immunoinformatics will be a way forward for drug discovery and vaccine development.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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