Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1049)

Fever (651)

Cough (525)

Hypertension (362)

Anxiety (286)


age categories (2647)

Transmission (2432)

gender (1227)

fomite (1108)

contact tracing (876)

    displaying 6371 - 6380 records in total 12932
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    Structure-Based Virtual Screening and Molecular Dynamics of Phytochemicals Derived from Saudi Medicinal Plants to Identify Potential COVID-19 Therapeutics

    Authors: MUBARAK ALAMRI; Ali Altharawi; Alhumaidi B. Alabbas; Manal A. Alossaimi; Safar M. Alqahtani

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12336635.v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ChemRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has affected almost every country in the world by causing a global pandemic with a high mortality rate. Lack of an effective vaccine and/or antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent, has severely hampered the response to this novel coronavirus. Natural products have long been used in traditional medicines to treat various diseases MESHD, and purified phytochemicals from medicinal plants provide a valuable scaffold for the discovery of new drug leads. In the present study, we performed a computational screening of an in-house database composed of ~1000 phytochemicals derived from traditional Saudi medicinal plants with recognised antiviral activity. Structure-based virtual screening was carried out against three druggable SARS-CoV-2 targets, viral RNAdependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) and papain like protease (PLpro) to identify putative inhibitors that could facilitate the development of potential anti-COVID-19 drug candidates. Computational analyses identified three compounds inhibiting each target, with binding affinity scores ranging from-9.9 to -6.5 kcal/mol. Among these, luteolin 7-rutinoside, chrysophanol 8-(6-galloylglucoside) and kaempferol 7-(6’’-galloylglucoside) bound efficiently to RdRp, while chrysophanol 8-(6galloylglucoside), 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylquinic acid and mulberrofuran G interacted strongly with 3CLpro, and withanolide A, isocodonocarpine and calonysterone bound tightly to PLpro. These potential drug candidates will be subjected to further in vitro and in vivo studies and may assist the development of effective anti-COVID-19 drugs.

    Simulating the progression of the COVID-19 disease MESHD in Cameroon using SIR models

    Authors: Ulrich KAMGUEM NGUEMDJO; Freeman MENO; Audric DONGFACK; Bruno VENTELOU

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105551 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    This paper analyses the evolution of COVID 19 disease MESHD in Cameroon over the period March 6 April 2020 using SIR model. Specifically, 1) we evaluate the basic reproduction number TRANS of the virus. 2) Determine the peak of the infection MESHD and the spread-out period of the disease MESHD. 3) Simulate the interventions of public health authorities. Data used in this study is obtained from the Ministry of Health of Cameroon. The results suggest that over the period, the reproduction number TRANS of the COVID 19 in Cameroon is about 1.5 and the peak of the infection MESHD could occur at the end of May 2020 with about 7.7% of the population infected. Besides, implementation of efficient public health policies could help flattens the epidemic curve.

    Who should we test for COVID-19?A triage model built from national symptom surveys

    Authors: Saar Shoer; Tal Karady; Ayya Keshet; Smadar Shilo; Hagai Rossman; Amir Gavrieli; Tomer Meir; Amit Lavon; Dmitry Kolobkov; Iris Kalka; Anastasia Godneva; Ori Cohen; Adam Kariv; Ori Hoch; Mushon Zer-Aviv; Noam Castel; Carole Sudre; Anat Ekka Zohar; Angela Irony; Timothy Spector; Benjamin Geiger; Dorit Hizi; Varda Shalev; Ran Balicer; Eran Segal

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105569 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    The gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis is detection of viral RNA in a reverse transcription PCR test. Due to global limitations in testing capacity, effective prioritization of individuals for testing is essential. Here, we devised a model that estimates the probability of an individual to test positive for COVID-19 based on answers to 9 simple questions regarding age TRANS, gender TRANS, presence of prior medical conditions, general feeling, and the symptoms fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, sore throat and loss of taste or smell, all of which have been associated with COVID-19 infection MESHD. Our model was devised from a subsample of a national symptom survey that was answered over 2 million times in Israel over the past 2 months and a targeted survey distributed to all residents of several cities in Israel. Overall, 43,752 adults TRANS were included, from which 498 self-reported as being COVID-19 positive. We successfully validated the model on held-out individuals from Israel where it achieved a positive predictive value SERO (PPV) of 46.3% at a 10% sensitivity SERO and demonstrated its applicability outside of Israel by further validating it on an independently collected symptom survey dataset from the U.K., U.S. and Sweden, where it achieved a PPV of 34.7% at 10% sensitivity SERO. Moreover, evaluating the model's performance SERO on this latter independent dataset on entries collected one week prior to the PCR test and up to the day of the test we found the highest performance SERO on the day of the test. As our tool can be used online and without the need of exposure to suspected patients, it may have worldwide utility in combating COVID-19 by better directing the limited testing resources through prioritization of individuals for testing, thereby increasing the rate at which positive individuals can be identified and isolated.

    Vasculitis MESHD Vasculitis HP-Associated Auto- antibodies SERO and Complement Levels in patients with COVID-19 Infection 

    Authors: Maryam Mobini; Roya Ghasemian; Laleh Vahedi Larijani; Maeede Mataji; Iradj Maleki

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction / objectives: The cause of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are evidences of involvement of immune system in pathogenesis of this disease MESHD. We investigated the presence of various vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP-associated auto- antibodies SERO and complement levels in a series of patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD admitted to our hospital.Methods: Forty patients with severe or critical type of COVID 19 were evaluated for symptoms, signs MESHD and laboratory tests of vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP syndromes MESHD including rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-nuclear antibody SERO (ANA), anti dsDNA, c and p anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody SERO (c ANCA and p ANCA) and complement levels. Descriptive statistics methods were used to describe the clinical / laboratory findings.Results: Forty patients with severe to critical illness MESHD were enrolled in the study. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 48.5 ± 9.8 years. All patients had pulmonary involvement in lung CT scan. Lymphopenia MESHD Lymphopenia HP in 19 (47.5%), raised creatinine in 8(20%) and hyperbilirubinemia MESHD hyperbilirubinemia HP in 19(47.5%) of patients were seen. Vasculitis MESHD Vasculitis HP laboratory test results included: RF in 2 patients, ANA in 3 patients and ANCA in one patient. 17(42.5%) of patients had hypocomplementemia in one or more complement tests. Of the four patients who were expired, three had a decrease in complement.Conclusion: In 17 of patients (42.5%) we detected low complement levels. A decrease in complement levels may predict a critical state of the disease MESHD. Therefore, measuring its levels may be helpful in making earlier decisions to initiate disease MESHD-suppressing treatments, including corticosteroids and IVIG.

    Covid-19 Social Distancing Interventions by State Mandate and Their Correlation to Mortality

    Authors: sean mccafferty; sean ashley

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose Evaluate the correlation between state mandated social interventions and Covid-19 mortality Design Prospective design and retrospective analysis of Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) state data. Methods Twelve European Union countries were selected on April 12, 2020 from IHME data which had clearly defined and dated establishment of statewide mandates for social distancing measures to include: School closures, stay at home orders, severe travel TRANS restrictions, and closure of non-essential businesses. The state Covid-19 mortality prevalence SERO was defined as total normalized deaths MESHD to the peak daily mortality rate. The state mortality prevalence SERO was correlated to the total number of mandates-days from their date of establishment to the peak daily mortality date. The slope of the maximum daily mortality rate was also correlated to mandate-days. Results The slope of standardized mortality per country did have a slight negative correlation to the total mandate days (R2 = 0.083, p= 0.36), though the negative correlation was not statistically significant. The standardized mortality prevalence SERO to the peak mortality rate per country exhibited no discernable statistical correlation to the total mandate days (R2 = 0.004,p=0.85). Discussion The analysis appears to suggest a mandate effective reduction in the slope of the mortality rate, but no effective reduction in Covid-19 mortality to its defined initial peak when interpreting the mean-effect of the mandates as present in the data. The study is presented as a potential methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of state mandated social distancing policy.

    Sleeping with Tuberculosis MESHD: Do over-crowded university hostels in Kenya increase TB transmission TRANS among youths - A pilot study

    Authors: Maina Teresia; Willets Annie; Ngari Moses; Osman Abdullahi

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Understanding the magnitude of Tuberculosis MESHD (TB) transmission TRANS among the youth is a global priority as the disease MESHD burden shifts to this population. Learning institutions host overcrowded accommodation and classrooms, especially in resource limited contexts. Understanding the global threat of the youth as an infection MESHD pool on the wider population is highlighted in the global response to COVID 19. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility of recruiting university students’ contacts and demonstrate transmission TRANS of TB in Pwani University, Kilifi County-Kenya.Materials and Methods A pilot study among Pwani University TB index cases receiving treatment at the Kilifi County Hospital was conducted. Index cases who consented provided information about their household and social contacts. Contacts were identified and screened using a World Health Organization (WHO) symptom-based questionnaire. Their sputum samples were analysed using GeneXpert. Multivariate log-binomial regression was used to determine demographic and clinical characteristics associated with TB infection MESHD among contacts with TB index patients.Results A total of 51 index cases were recruited, median (IQR) age TRANS of 21 (20–23) years and 31 (61%) were males TRANS. 156 contacts were screened, median (IQR) age TRANS of 23 (20–23) years, 80 (51%) were males TRANS and 76 (49%) were household contacts TRANS. Among the 156 TB contacts, 5 participants were confirmed positive for TB: prevalence SERO of 3.2% (95% CI 1.0 to 7.3%). 8/156 (5.1%, (95% CI 2.2 to 10%) contacts, had clinical diagnosed TB despite having a negative GeneXpert result. In total 13/156 contacts had either confirmed or clinical diagnosed TB; 8.3% (95% CI 4.5 to 14%). Sharing a bed with an index case was the only factor significantly associated with TB infection MESHD among the five contacts with GeneXpert diagnosed TB.Conclusion Students sleeping in crowded hostels promote TB transmission TRANS within universities informing TB control interventions. Collaborating with existing national TB programme systems is a feasible approach to recruit people with active disease MESHD and their social contacts. Expansion of this approach to a larger population of students with TB infection MESHD may demonstrate the magnitude of TB transmission TRANS within universities, and the wider local communities.

    No evidence for increased transmissibility TRANS from recurrent mutations in SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Lucy van Dorp; Damien Richard; Cedric CS Tan; Liam P. Shaw; Mislav Acman; Francois Balloux

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.108506 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: bioRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which jumped into the human population in late 2019 from a currently uncharacterised reservoir. Due to this extremely recent association with humans, SARS-CoV-2 may not yet be fully adapted to its human host. This has led to speculations that some lineages of SARS-CoV-2 may be evolving towards higher transmissibility TRANS. The most plausible candidate mutations under putative natural selection are those which have emerged repeatedly and independently (homoplasies). Here, we formally test whether any of the recurrent mutations that have been observed in SARS-CoV-2 to date are significantly associated with increased viral transmission TRANS. To do so, we developed a phylogenetic index to quantify the relative number of descendants in sister clades with and without a specific allele. We apply this index to a carefully curated set of recurrent mutations identified within a dataset of over 23,000 SARS-CoV-2 genomes isolated from patients worldwide. We do not identify a single recurrent mutation in this set convincingly associated with increased viral transmission TRANS. Instead, recurrent SARS-CoV-2 mutations currently in circulation appear to be evolutionary neutral. Recurrent mutations also seem primarily induced by the human immune system via host RNA editing, rather than being signatures of adaption to the novel human host. We find no evidence at this stage for the emergence of more transmissible lineages of SARS-CoV-2 due to recurrent mutations.

    Clinical Characteristics of 538 Novel Coronavirus Disease MESHD Patients with Chronic Underlying Diseases MESHD in Wuhan, China: A retrospective Study

    Authors: Wanwan Yi; Xiaqing Yu; Hengwei Fan; Hengmei Zhu; Zhongwei Lv; Xiaohui Fu; Qian Zhang

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 causes the novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) in humans, which has spread rapidly worldwide. Most critical cases of COVID-19 are accompanied by complicated chronic underlying diseases MESHD. This retrospective study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with chronic underlying diseases MESHD.Methods A total of 1,183 COVID-19 patients were divided into the chronic underlying disease MESHD (CUD, n = 538) group and the non-underlying disease MESHD (non-CUD, n = 645) group. The clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected and compared between the two groups.Results There were significant differences in age TRANS, weight, and SPO2 on admission between the CUD and non-CUP groups. The ratio of severe cases in the CUD group was higher than that in the non-CUD group (χ2 = 35.58, p-value < 0.001). The white blood SERO cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, myoglobin, and cardiac troponin in the CUD group were significantly higher than those in the non-CUD group, while the lymphocyte count and albumin in the underlying disease MESHD group were significantly lower than those in the non-underlying disease MESHD group. No significant difference was found in the total number of tests, the number of positive or negative results in nucleic acid tests between the two groups. The negative rate for both IgG- and IgM-antibody tests SERO in the CUD group was higher than that in the non-CUD group (χ2 = 5.57, p-value = 0.018). No statistical difference in mortality between the CUD (n = 18) and non-CUD groups (n = 13). All surviving patients were cured and discharged. A total of 33 patients had a positive re-examination result for nucleic acid test one week after discharge, including 14 patients with underlying diseases MESHD and 19 patients without underlying diseases MESHD. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with underlying diseases MESHD had poorer clinical conditions and had a longer hospital stay, but after active treatment, the mortality had not increased significantly.

    Capillary Electrophoresis of PCR fragments with labelled primers for testing the SARS-Cov-2


    doi:10.1101/2020.05.16.099242 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: bioRxiv

    BackgroundDue to the huge demand for SARS-Cov-2 determination, alternatives to the standard qtPCR tests are potentially useful for increasing the number of samples screened. Our aim was to develop a direct fluorescent PCR capillary-electrophoresis detection of the viral genome. We validated this approach on several SARS-Cov-2 positive and negative samples. Study designWe isolated the naso-pharingeal RNA from 20 positive and 10 negative samples. The cDNA was synthesised and two fragments of the SARS-Cov-2 were amplified. One of the primers for each pair was 5-end fluorochrome labelled. The amplifications were subjected to capillary electrophoresis in ABI3130 sequencers to visualize the fluorescent peaks. ResultsThe two SARS-Cov-2 fragments were successfully amplified in the positive samples, while the negative samples did not render fluorescent peaks. ConclusionWe describe and alternative method to identify the SARS-Cov-2 genome that could be scaled to the analysis of approximately 100 samples in less than 5 hours. By combining a standard PCR with capillary electrophoresis our approach would overcome the limits imposed to many labs by the qtPCR (lack of reactive and real-time PCR equipment) and increase the testing capacity.

    A Composite Index Predicts Disease Progression MESHD in Early Stages of COVID-19: a Propensity Score-matched Cohort Study

    Authors: Jianjun Xu; Shaobo Hu; Suzhen Li; Weimin Wang; Yuzhe Wu; Zhe Su; Xing Zhou; Xiang Cheng; Yang Gao; Qichang Zheng

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Thus far, studies on COVID-19 have focused on the epidemiology of the disease MESHD and clinical characteristics of patients (14-19), as well as on the risk factors associated with mortality during hospitalization in critical COVID-19 cases. However, no research has been performed on the prediction of progression in patients in the early stages of the disease MESHD. The aim of this work was to identify the early predictors of COVID-19 progression.Methods: The study included 338 patients with COVID-19 treated at two hospitals in Wuhan, Chian, from December, 2019 to March, 2020. Predictors of the progression of COVID-19 from mild to severe stages were selected by the logistic regression analysis. The predictive accuracy was evaluated further in the propensity score-matched cohort.Results: COVID-19 progression to severe and critical stages was confirmed in 78(23.1%) patients. The average value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was higher in patients in the disease progression MESHD group than in the improvement group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that elevated NLR, LDH, and IL-10, were independent predictors of disease progression MESHD. The optimal cut-off value of NLR for predicting the progression of COVID-19 was 3.75. In the propensity score-matched cohort, NLR ≥ 3.75 was still an independent predictor of COVID-19 progression after multivariate analysis.Conclusions: The performed analysis demonstrates that NLR qualifies as an independent predictor of disease progression MESHD in COVID-19 patients at the early stage of the disease MESHD. The combined evaluation of NLR and LDH improved the accuracy of the prediction of COVID-19 progression. Assessment of predictors might facilitate early identification of COVID-19 patients at high risk for disease progression MESHD and ensure timely administration of appropriate treatment to prevent mild cases from becoming severe.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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