Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1049)

Fever (651)

Cough (525)

Hypertension (362)

Anxiety (286)


Transmission

age categories (2647)

Transmission (2432)

gender (1227)

fomite (1108)

contact tracing (876)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 6381 - 6390 records in total 12932
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    National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) on admission predicts severe disease MESHD and in-hospital mortality from Covid-19 - A prospective cohort study

    Authors: Marius Myrstad; Håkon Ihle-Hansen; Anders Aune Tveita; Elizabeth Lyster Andersen; Ståle Nygård; Arnljot Tveit; Trygve Berge

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30869/v2 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background There is a need for validated clinical risk scores to identify patients at risk of severe disease MESHD and to guide decision-making during the covid-19 pandemic. The National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) is widely used in emergency MESHD medicine, but so far, no studies have evaluated its use in patients with covid-19. We aimed to study the performance SERO of NEWS2 and compare commonly used clinical risk stratification tools at admission to predict risk of severe disease MESHD and in-hospital mortality in patients with covid-19. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in a public non-university general hospital in the Oslo area, Norway, including a cohort of all 66 patients hospitalised with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD from the start of the pandemic; 13 who died during hospital stay and 53 who were discharged alive. Data were collected consecutively from March 9th to April 27th 2020. The main outcome was the ability of the NEWS2 score and other clinical risk scores at emergency MESHD department admission to predict severe disease MESHD and in-hospital mortality in covid-19 patients. We calculated sensitivity SERO and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NEWS2 scores ≥5 and ≥6, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score ≥2, ≥2 Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome MESHD (SIRS) criteria, and CRB-65 score ≥2. Areas under the curve (AUCs) for the clinical risk scores were compared using DeLong’s test.Results In total, 66 patients (mean age TRANS 67.9 years) were included. Of these, 23% developed severe disease MESHD. In-hospital mortality was 20%. Tachypnoea, hypoxemia HP and confusion MESHD confusion HP at admission were more common in patients developing severe disease MESHD. A NEWS2 score ≥6 at admission predicted severe disease MESHD with 80.0% sensitivity SERO and 84.3% specificity (Area Under the Curve (AUC) 0.822, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.690-0.953). NEWS2 was superior to qSOFA score ≥2 (AUC 0.624, 95% CI 0.446-0.810, p<0.05) and other clinical risk scores for this purpose.Conclusion NEWS2 score at hospital admission predicted severe disease MESHD and in-hospital mortality, and was superior to other widely used clinical risk scores in patients with covid-19.

    The SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effect is blocked with autophagy modulators

    Authors: Kirill Gorshkov; Catherine Z. Chen; Robert Bostwick; Lynn Rasmussen; Miao Xu; Manisha Pradhan; Bruce Nguyen Tran; Wei Zhu; Khalida Shamim; Wenwei Huang; Xin Hu; Min Shen; Carleen Klumpp-Thomas; Zina Itkin; Paul Shinn; Anton Simeonov; Sam Michael; Matthew D. Hall; Donald C. Lo; Wei Zheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.16.091520 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of coronavirus capable of rapid transmission TRANS and causing severe clinical symptoms; much of which has unknown biological etiology. It has prompted researchers to rapidly mobilize their efforts towards identifying and developing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. Discovering and understanding the virus’ pathways of infection MESHD, host-protein interactions, and cytopathic effects will greatly aid in the design of new therapeutics to treat COVID-19. While it is known that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, extensively explored as clinical agents for COVID-19, have multiple cellular effects including inhibiting autophagy, there are also dose-limiting toxicities in patients that make clearly establishing their potential mechanisms-of-action problematic. Therefore, we evaluated a range of other autophagy modulators to identify an alternative autophagy-based drug repurposing opportunity. In this work, we found that 6 of these compounds blocked the cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero-E6 cells with EC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 13 µM and selectivity indices ranging from 1.5 to >10-fold. Immunofluorescence staining for LC3B and LysoTracker dye staining assays in several cell lines indicated their potency and efficacy for inhibiting autophagy correlated with the measurements in the SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effect assay. Our data suggest that autophagy pathways could be targeted to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD and become an important component of drug combination therapies to improve the treatment outcomes for COVID-19.One Sentence Summary Blocking SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effects with selective autophagy inhibitors underlying the clinical benefits of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

    Prediction of the coronavirus epidemic prevalence SERO inquarantine conditions based on an approximate calculation model

    Authors: Denis Below; Felix Mairanowski

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20104810 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    A calculation model for predicting the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic under quarantine conditions is proposed. The obtained simple analytical ratios allow estimating the factors determining the intensity of the infection MESHD spread, including changing requirements for quarantine severity. The presented method of forecasting allows to calculate both the total number of infected persons and the number of active infections MESHD. Comparison of the results of calculations according to the proposed model with the statistics for a number of cities shows their satisfactory qualitative and quantitative compliance. The proposed simple model can be useful in preliminary assessment of possible consequences of changing quarantine conditions.

    An acceptable method to evaluate the analytical performance SERO of real-time fluorescent RT-PCR targeting SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Xiao-dong Ren; Qi-Mei Tang; Min Chen; Qian Huang; Heng-Liu Huang; Liu Wang; Ning Su; Xian-Ge Sun; Kun Wei; Wei-Ping Lu; Shao-Li Deng; Qing Huang

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105247 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    It was necessary to carry out methodologies evaluations of real-time fluorescent reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Considering biosafety issues and lack of positive specimens in some special locations in China, the routine specimens from healthy individuals were used to perform methodologies evaluations, in which the indexes were the differences of quantification cycle values ({Delta}Cq) between human derived internal reference control (IRC) genes of a specimen and quality control (QC). Serial experiments were carried out to evaluate various factors that might affect aforementioned methodologies, such as types of virus transport mediums, methods of specimen pretreatment and template preparation, specimen vortex strength, specimen storage temperature and duration. The results showed that using {Delta}Cq values as indexes, among various factors that might affect analytical performance SERO, it was better to store specimens in the normal saline transport mediums, inactivate pathogens using water or metal bath, release more virus particles from swabs by vortex mixing, extract nucleic acids with centrifuge methods, and perform amplification assays timely. Aforementioned opinions and optimum conditions were further confirmed by SRAS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and clinical positive specimens. Altogether, the results of this study indicated that the routine specimens from healthy individuals could be used to evaluate the analytical performance SERO of real-time fluorescent RT-PCR targeting SRAS-CoV-2, of which the indexes were the {Delta}Cq values between IRC genes of a specimen and QC. This acceptable method was extremely valuable in both theoretical and practical significance under current pandemic of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19).

    A Machine Learning Solution Framework for Combatting COVID-19 in Smart Cities from Multiple Dimensions

    Authors: Ibrahim Abaker Targio Hashem; Absalom E Ezugwu; Mohammed A. Al-Garadi; Idris N. Abdullahi; Olumuyiwa Otegbeye; Queeneth O Ahman; Godwin C. E. Mbah; Amit K Shukla; Haruna Chiroma

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105577 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    The spread of COVID-19 across the world continues as efforts are being made from multi-dimension to curtail its spread and provide treatment. The COVID-19 triggered partial and full lockdown across the globe in an effort to prevent its spread. COVID-19 causes serious fatalities with United States of America recording over 3,000 deaths MESHD within 24 hours, the highest in the world for a single day. In this paper, we propose a framework integrated with machine learning to curtail the spread of COVID-19 in smart cities. A novel mathematical model is created to show the spread of the COVID-19 in smart cities. The proposed solution framework can generate, capture, store and analyze data using machine learning algorithms to detect, prevent the spread of COVID-19, forecast next epidemic, effective contact tracing TRANS, diagnose cases, monitor COVID-19 patient, COVID-19 vaccine development, track potential COVID-19 patients, aid in COVID-19 drug discovery and provide better understanding of the virus in smart cities. The study outlined case studies on the application of machine learning to help in the fight against COVID-19 in hospitals in smart cities across the world. The framework can provide a guide for real world execution in smart cities. The proposed framework has the potential for helping national healthcare systems in curtailing the COVID-19 pandemic in smart cities.

    Reproduction ratio and growth rates: measures for an unfolding pandemic

    Authors: Maira Aguiar; Joseba Bidaurrazaga Van-Dierdonck; Nico Stollenwerk

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105528 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    The initial exponential growth rate of an epidemic is an important measure that follows directly from data at hand, commonly used to infer the basic reproduction number TRANS. As the growth rates {lambda}(t) of tested positive COVID-19 cases have crossed the threshold in many countries, with negative numbers as surrogate for disease MESHD transmission TRANS deceleration, lockdowns lifting are linked to the behavior of the momentary reproduction numbers TRANS r(t), often called R0 TRANS. Important to note that this concept alone can be easily misinterpreted as it is bound to many internal assumptions of the underlying model and significantly affected by the assumed recovery period. Here we present our experience, as part of the Basque Country Modeling Task Force (BMTF), in monitoring the development of the COVID-19 epidemic, by considering not only the behaviour of r(t) estimated for the new tested positive cases - significantly affected by the increased testing capacities, but also the momentary growth rates for hospitalizations, ICU admissions, deceased and recovered cases, in assisting the Basque Health Managers and the Basque Government during the lockdown lifting measures. Two different data sets, collected and then refined during the COVID-19 responses, are used as an exercise to estimate the momentary growth rates and reproduction numbers TRANS over time in the Basque Country, and the implications of using those concepts to make decisions about easing lockdown and relaxing social distancing measures are discussed. These results are potentially helpful for task forces around the globe which are now struggling to provide real scientific advice for health managers and governments while the lockdown measures are relaxed.

    The Dynamic Changes of Antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 during the Infection MESHD and Recovery of COVID-19

    Authors: Kening Li; Min Wu; Bin Huang; Aifang Zhong; Lu Li; Yun Cai; Lingxiang Wu; Mengyan Zhu; Jie Li; Ziyu Wang; Wei Wu; Wanlin Li; Bakwatanisa Bosco; Zhenhua Gan; Zhihua Wang; Qinghua Qiao; Jian Wu; qianghu wang; Shukui Wang; Xinyi Xia

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105155 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    Deciphering the dynamic changes of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 is essential for understanding the immune response in COVID-19 patients. By comprehensively analyzing the laboratory findings of 1,850 patients, we describe the dynamic changes of the total antibody SERO, spike protein (S)-, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-, and nucleoprotein (N)- specific IgM and IgG levels during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and recovery. Our results indicate that the S-, RBD-, and N- specific IgG generation of severe/critical COVID-19 patients is one week later than mild/moderate cases, while the levels of these antibodies SERO are 1.5-fold higher in severe/critical patients during hospitalization (P<0.01). The decrease of these IgG levels indicates the poor outcome of severe/critical patients. The RBD- and S-specific IgG levels are 2-fold higher in virus-free patients (P<0.05). Notably, we found that the patients who got re-infected had a low level of protective antibody SERO on discharge. Therefore, our evidence proves that the dynamic changes of antibodies SERO could provide an important reference for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment, and shed new light on the precise management of COVID-19.

    Changes in RT-PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 rates in adults TRANS and children TRANS according to the epidemic stages

    Authors: Corinne Levy; Romain Basmaci; Philippe Bensaid; Cecile Bost bru; Edeline Coinde; Emmanuelle Dessioux; Cecile Fournial; Jean Gashignard; Herve Haas; Veronique Hentgen; Frederic Huet; Muriel Lalande; Alain Martinot; Charlotte Pons; Anne Sophie Romain; Nicoletta Magdalena Ursulescu; Francois Vie Le Sage; Josette Raymond; Stephane Bechet; Julie Toubiana; Robert Cohen

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20098863 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    Aim To describe the trends of RT-PCR positive SARS-CoV-2 rates in children TRANS and adults TRANS according to the time of COVID-19 epidemic. Methods In this prospective multicenter study involving 45 pediatric units, we collected the results of nasopharyngeal swabs in France from March 2, 2020 to April 26, 2020. Results During the study period, 52,588 RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 were performed, 6,490 in children TRANS and 46,098 in adults TRANS. The risk ratio of RT-PCR positive SARS-CoV-2 tests for adults TRANS compared to children TRANS was 3.5 (95% CI [3.2;3.9]) for the whole study period. These rates varied according to the time of the epidemic and were higher at the peak. The lower rates of positive test in children TRANS persisted during the surveillance period but varied according to the time in the epidemic. Conclusion The rate of positive RT-PCR positive SARS-CoV-2 tests for children TRANS was always less than that for adults TRANS but vary according to the epidemic stage.

    Virtual Screening Enabled Selection of Antiviral Agents Against Covid-19 Disease MESHD Targeting Coronavirus Endoribonuclease NendoU: Plausible Mechanistic Interventions in the Treatment of New Virus Strain

    Authors: Gaurav Joshi; Ramarao Poduri

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12198966.v2 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: ChemRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh coronavirus that is reported to cause infection MESHD in Homo sapiens. Considering its pandemic nature, development of newer and effective therapeutic strategies, drug repurposing in combination with target validation approaches has led to the identification of new antiviral molecules. In current work, we performed virtual screening and molecular docking of 8548 ligands on target protein coronavirus endoribonuclease NendoU (6VWW). The molecules selected includes FDA approved drugs along with investigational or experimental drugs recommended for anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, and antiprotozoal properties. The thorough selection and their rationality with Covid-19 led us to propose that FDA approved drug DB00876 (Eprosartan), Investigational drugs DB15063 (Inarigivir soproxil), DB12307 (Foretinib) and DB01813 an experimental drug may be repurposed for treatment of Covid-19 disease MESHD.

    COVID-19 death MESHD rates by age TRANS and sex and the resulting mortality vulnerability of countries and regions in the world

    Authors: Christophe Z Z Guilmoto

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20097410 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    The growing number of series on COVID-19 deaths MESHD classified by age TRANS and sex, released by national health authorities, has allowed us to compute age TRANS and sex patterns of its mortality, based on 183,619 deaths MESHD from Western Europe and the USA. We highlight the specific age TRANS schedule of COVID-19 mortality and its pronounced excess male TRANS mortality and we then apply these COVID-19 death MESHD rates to world populations, in 2020. Our results underscore that considerable variations exist between world regions, as concerns the potential impact of COVID-19 mortality, because of their demographic structures. When compared to younger countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the vulnerability to COVID-19 mortality is shown to be 17 times higher in several industrialized countries of East Asia and Europe. There is a high correlation (r2= .44) between demographic vulnerability to COVID-19 mortality and current COVID-19 death MESHD rates.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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