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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

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Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Structural and Functional Implications of Non-synonymous Mutations in the Spike protein of 2,954 SARS-CoV-2 Genomes

    Authors: Shijulal Nelson-Sathi; Perunthottathu K Umasankar; Sreekumar Easwaran; Radhakrishnan R Nair; Iype Joseph; Sai Ravi Chandra Nori; Jamiema Sara Philip; Roshny Prasad; Kolaparamba V Navyasree; Shikha Ramesh; Heera Pillai; Sanu Gosh; Santhosh Kumar TR; M Radhakrishna Pillai

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.02.071811 Date: 2020-05-02 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 pandemic, is an RNA virus prone to mutations. Interaction of SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD (S) protein with the host cell receptor, Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is pivotal for attachment and entry of the virus. Yet, natural mutations acquired on S protein during the pandemic and their impact on viral infectivity, transmission TRANS dynamics and disease pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we analysed 2952 SARS-CoV-2 genomes across the globe, and identified a total of 1815 non-synonymous mutations in the S-protein that fall HP into 54 different types. We observed that six of these distinct mutations were located in the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) region that directly engages host ACE2. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that these RBD mutations cluster into distinct phyletic clades among global subtypes of SARS-CoV-2 implying possible emergence of novel sublineages of the strain. Structure-guided homology modelling and docking analysis predicted key molecular rearrangements in the ACE2 binding interface of RBD mutants that could result in altered virus-host interactions. We propose that our findings could be significant in understanding disease dynamics and in developing vaccines, antibodies SERO and therapeutics for COVID-19. ImportanceCOVID-19 pandemic shows considerable variations in disease transmission TRANS and pathogenesis globally, yet reasons remain unknown. Our study identifies key S-protein mutations prevailing in SARS-CoV-2 strain that could alter viral attachment and infectivity. We propose that the interplay of these mutations could be one of the factors driving global variations in COVID-19 spread. In addition, the mutations identified in this study could be an important indicator in predicting efficacies of vaccines, antibodies SERO and therapeutics that target SARS-CoV-2 RBD-ACE2 interface.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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