Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


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    Vitamin D status and seroconversion for COVID-19 in UK healthcare workers who isolated for COVID-19 like symptoms during the 2020 pandemic.

    Authors: Aduragbemi A Faniyi; Sebastian T Lugg; Sian E Faustini; Craig Webster; Joanne E Duffy; Martin Hewison; Adrian Shields; Peter Nightingale; Alex G Richter; David R Thickett

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.05.20206706 Date: 2020-10-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: It is clear that in UK healthcare workers, COVID-19 infections MESHD and deaths MESHD were more likely to be in staff who were of BAME origin. This has led to much speculation about the role of vitamin D in healthcare worker COVID-19 infections. We aimed to determine the prevalence SERO of vitamin D deficiency MESHD in NHS staff who have isolated with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and relate this to vitamin D status. Methods: We recruited NHS healthcare workers between 12th to 22nd May 2020 as part of the COVID-19 convalescent immunity study (COCO). We measured anti-SARS-Cov-2 antibodies SERO using a combined IgG, IgA and IgM ELISA SERO (The Binding Site). Vitamin D status was determined by measurement of serum SERO 25(OH)D3 using the AB SCIEX Triple Quad 4500 mass spectrometry system. Findings: Of the 392 NHS healthcare workers, 214 (55%) had seroconverted for COVID-19. A total of 61 (15{middle dot}6%) members of staff were vitamin D deficient (<30 nmol/l) with significantly more staff from BAME backgrounds or in a junior doctor role being deficient. Vitamin D levels were lower HP in those who were younger, had a higher BMI (>30 kg/m2), and were male TRANS. Multivariate analysis revealed that BAME and COVID-19 seroconversion were independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency MESHD. Staff who were vitamin D deficient were more likely to self-report symptoms of body aches and pains HP but importantly not the respiratory symptoms of cough HP cough MESHD and breathlessness. Vitamin D levels were lower HP in those COVID-19 positive staff who reported fever HP fever MESHD, but this did not reach statistical significance. Within the whole cohort there was an increase in seroconversion in staff with vitamin D deficiency MESHD compared to those without vitamin D deficiency MESHD (n=44/61, 72% vs n=170/331, 51%; p=0{middle dot} 003); this was particularly marked in the proportion of BAME males TRANS who were vitamin D deficient compared to non-vitamin D deficient BAME males TRANS (n=17/18, 94% vs n=12/23, 52%; p=0{middle dot}005). Multivariate analysis revealed that vitamin D deficiency MESHD was an independent risk factor for seroconversion (OR 2{middle dot}6, 95%CI 1{middle dot}41- 4{middle dot} 80; p=0{middle dot}002). Interpretation: In those healthcare workers who have isolated due to symptoms of COVID-19, those of BAME ethnicity are at the highest risk of vitamin D deficiency MESHD. Vitamin D deficiency MESHD is a risk factor for COVID-19 seroconversion for NHS healthcare workers especially in BAME male TRANS staff.

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG at the epidemic peak in French Guiana

    Authors: Claude Flamand; Antoine Enfissi; Sarah Bailly; Christelle ALVES SARMENTO; Emmanuel Beillard; Melanie Gaillet; Celine Michaud; Veronique Servas; Nathalie Clement; Anais Perilhou; Thierry Carage; Didier Musso; Jean-Francois Carod; Stephanie Eustache; Celine Tourbillon; Elodie Boizon; Samantha James; Felix Djossou; Henrik Salje; Simon Cauchemez; Dominique Rousset; Ana F. Bernardes; Thyago A. Nunes; Luciana C. Ribeiro; Marcus V. Agrela; Maria Luiza Moretti; Lucas I. Buscaratti; Fernanda Crunfli; Raissa . G Ludwig; Jaqueline A. Gerhardt; Renata Seste-Costa; Julia Forato; Mariene . R Amorin; Daniel A. T. Texeira; Pierina L. Parise; Matheus C. Martini; Karina Bispo-dos-Santos; Camila L. Simeoni; Fabiana Granja; Virginia C. Silvestrini; Eduardo B. de Oliveira; Vitor M. Faca; Murilo Carvalho; Bianca G. Castelucci; Alexandre B. Pereira; Lais D. Coimbra; Patricia B. Rodrigues; Arilson Bernardo S. P. Gomes; Fabricio B. Pereira; Leonilda M. B. Santos; Andrei C. Sposito; Robson F. Carvalho; Andre S. Vieira; Marco A. R. Vinolo; Andre Damasio; Licio A. Velloso; Helder I. Nakaya; Henrique Marques-Souza; Rafael E. Marques; Daniel Martins-de-Souza; Munir S. Skaf; Jose Luiz Proenca-Modena; Pedro M. Moraes-Vieira; Marcelo A. Mori; Alessandro S. Farias

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.27.20202465 Date: 2020-09-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO studies are crucial for clarifying dynamics in affected countries and determining the route that has already been achieved towards herd immunity. While Latin America has been heavily affected by the pandemic, only a few seroprevalence SERO studies have been conducted there. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed between 15 July 2020 and 23 July 2020 in 4 medical biology laboratories and 5 health centers of French Guiana, representing a period shortly after the epidemic peak. Samples were screened for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG directed against domain S1 of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using the anti-SARS-CoV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) from Euroimmun. Results The overall seroprevalence SERO was 15.4% [9.3%-24.4%] among 480 participants, ranging from 4.0% to 25.5% across the different municipalities. The seroprevalence SERO did not differ according to gender TRANS (p=0.19) or age TRANS (p=0.51). Among SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals, we found that 24.6% [11.5%-45.2%] reported symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Conclusions Our findings revealed high levels of infection across the territory but a low number of resulting deaths MESHD, which can be explained by the young population structure.

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in Kenyan blood SERO donors

    Authors: Sophie Uyoga; Ifedayo M.O. Adetifa; Henry K. Karanja; James Nyagwange; James Tuju; Perpetual Wanjiku; Rashid Aman; Mercy Mwangangi; Patrick Amoth; Kadondi Kasera; Wangari Ng'ang'a; Charles Rombo; Christine K. Yegon; Khamisi Kithi; Elizabeth Odhiambo; Thomas Rotich; Irene Orgut; Sammy Kihara; Mark Otiende; Christian Bottomley; Zonia N. Mupe; Eunice W. Kagucia; Katherine Gallagher; Anthony Etyang; Shirine Voller; John Gitonga; Daisy Mugo; Charles N. Agoti; Edward Otieno; Leonard Ndwiga; Teresa Lambe; Daniel Wright; Edwine Barasa; Benjamin Tsofa; Philip Bejon; Lynette I. Ochola-Oyier; Ambrose Agweyu; J. Anthony G. Scott; George M Warimwe

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20162693 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background There are no data on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Africa though the COVID-19 epidemic curve and reported mortality differ from patterns seen elsewhere. We estimated the anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO prevalence SERO among blood SERO donors in Kenya. Methods We measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG prevalence SERO by ELISA SERO on residual blood SERO donor samples obtained between April 30 and June 16, 2020. Assay sensitivity SERO and specificity were 83% (95% CI 59, 96%) and 99.0% (95% CI 98.1, 99.5%), respectively. National seroprevalence SERO was estimated using Bayesian multilevel regression and post-stratification to account for non-random sampling with respect to age TRANS, sex and region, adjusted for assay performance SERO. Results Complete data were available for 3098 of 3174 donors, aged TRANS 15-64 years. By comparison with the Kenyan population, the sample over-represented males TRANS (82% versus 49%), adults TRANS aged TRANS 25-34 years (40% versus 27%) and residents of coastal Counties (49% versus 9%). Crude overall seroprevalence SERO was 5.6% (174/3098). Population-weighted, test-adjusted national seroprevalence SERO was 5.2% (95% CI 3.7, 7.1%). Seroprevalence SERO was highest in the 3 largest urban Counties; Mombasa (9.3% [95% CI 6.4, 13.2%)], Nairobi (8.5% [95% CI 4.9, 13.5%]) and Kisumu (6.5% [95% CI 3.3, 11.2%]). Conclusions We estimate that 1 in 20 adults TRANS in Kenya had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO during the study period. By the median date of our survey, only 2093 COVID-19 cases and 71 deaths had been reported through the national screening system. This contrasts, by several orders of magnitude, with the numbers of cases and deaths MESHD reported in parts of Europe and America when seroprevalence SERO was similar.

    Antibody Testing SERO Documents the Silent Spread of SARS-CoV-2in New York Prior to the First Reported Case

    Authors: Kathrine Meyers; Lihong Liu; Wen-Hsuan Lin; Yang Luo; Michael Yin; Yumeng Wu; Sandeep Wontakal; Alex Rai; Francesca La Carpia; Sebastian Fernando; Mitra Dowlatshahi; Elad Elkayam; Ankur Garg; Leemor Joshua-Tor; John Wolk; Barbara Alpert; Marie-Laure Romney; Brianna Costabile; Edoardo Gelardi; Francesca Vallese; Oliver Clarke; Filippo Mancia; Anne-Catrin Uhlemann; Magdalena Sobieszczyk; Alan Perelson; Yaoxing Huang; Eldad Hod; David Ho

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    We developed and validated serologic assays to determine SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in select patient populations in greater New York City area early during the epidemic. We tested “discarded” serum samples SERO from February 24 to March 29 for antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer and nucleocapsid protein. Using known durations for antibody SERO development, incubation period TRANS, serial interval TRANS, and reproductive ratio for this pandemic, we determined that introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into New York likely occurred between January 23 and February 4, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 spread silently for 4–5 weeks before the first community acquired infection MESHD was reported. A novel coronavirus emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China1,2 and devasted Hubei Province in early 2020 before spreading to every province within China and nearly every country in the world3. This pathogen, now termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic, with ~ 10 million cases and over 500,000 deaths MESHD reported through June 30, 20203. The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the United States was identified on January 19, 2020 in a man who returned to the State of Washington from Wuhan4. In the ensuing months, the U.S. has become a hotspot of the pandemic, presently accounting for almost one third of the total caseload and over one fourth of the deaths3. The first confirmed case TRANS in New York was reported on March 1 in a traveler recently returned from Iran. The first community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was diagnosed on March 3 in a 50-year-old male TRANS who lived in New Rochelle and worked in New York City ( In the ensuing 18 weeks, New York City has suffered a peak daily infection number of ~ 4,500 (Fig. 1a) and a cumulative caseload of ~ 400,000 to date. The time period when SARS-CoV-2 gained entry into this epicenter of the pandemic remains unclear.

    Preliminary evaluation of the safety and efficacy of oral human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in the treatment of patients of COVID-19, a small-scale, single-arm, exploratory safety study

    Authors: Hanlin Zhang; Yiming Zhao; Xiaoxiao Jiang; Yuying Zhao; Yang Li; Chen Li; Meng Dong; Zhe Luan; Chunlong Yan; Jianwei Jiao; Chaoyue Zhao; Hongyue Li; Wei Chen; Cong Feng; Le Tian; Enqiang Qin; Jinsong Mu; Congyong Li; Tianshu Zeng; Shibo Feng; Shufeng Wang; Xizhou Guan; Tanshi Li; Haotian Yu; Aihua Zheng; Wanzhu Jin; Gang Sun

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20064584 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background& Aims: The Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global epidemic and has caused a lasting and huge loss of life security, economic development and social stability in more than 180 countries around the world. Unfortunately, there is still no specific treatment for COVID-19 till now, therefore, at this point, all potential therapies need to be critically considered. LL-37 is one of the best-studied human antimicrobial peptide (AMPs) that has a broad-spectrum activity against bacteria and viruses. The use of living, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is an effective approach for delivery of therapeutic proteins. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the Lactococcus lactis which has been genetically modified to produce the therapeutic human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 (herein after referred to cas001) in the patients of COVID-19. Methods: Firstly we constructed genetically modified food-grade probiotic, Lactococcus lactis, with sequence of seven tandem repeats of mature human LL-37 under control of the nisin-inducible nisA promoter to produce the cas001. A total of 20 healthy SD rats, half male TRANS and half female TRANS (There were five male TRANS and five female TRANS in the control group, the same in treatment group) were used to observe the acute toxic reaction and death MESHD after daily administration of cas001 for three weeks, which helps to provide necessary reference basis for clinical dose selection, verificaition of toxic reaction and possible target organs. According to the estimated clinical dosage of 1 x 108CFU /kg/day, considering the conversion of body surface area, the dose for rats should be multiplied by 6.17 to 6 x 108 CFU/kg/day. We administrated 100 times higher dose at 6 x 1010 CFU/kg/day to rats. In order to investigate the pharmacokinetics of cas001, male TRANS SD rats (body weight 250-300g, 1 x 1010 /animal, n=3) were given oral administration of LL-37 bacteria powder. The concentration of LL-37 in the blood SERO before and after gavage was detected by ELISA SERO kit (Hycult biotechnology Cat# HK321). Human clinical study was approved by Ethics committee of Chinese PLA General Hospital (S2020-074-04) and a total of 11 patients with mild symptoms were enrolled in Wuhan hankou hospital and Huoshenshan hospital. They were enrolled voluntarily and all patients signed informed consent. Among them, there were 5 males TRANS and 6 females TRANS, aged TRANS 55 {+/-} 12 (36-70) years old, and the duration from onset to medication enrollment was 35 {+/-} 19 (5-68) days. 6 patients were nucleic acid positive and 5 patients were nucleic acid negative when they were enrolled. All patients received the oral drug cas001 treatment according to requirement(1 x 109 CFU/capsule, 3 capsules/time, three times a day for 3weeks), with an average follow-up time of 33 {+/-} 15 days (see table 1 for the results). Findings: Western blot analysis shows that reasonable amount of LL-37 were induced by different concentrations of nisin, which means we have successfully constructed cas001. In the pre-clinical safety evaluation test, after three weeks administration of cas001, no adverse effects were observed on the rat's body weight, food and water intake, hematological MESHD or serum SERO biochemical parameters. The results showed that the LD50 of cas001 was higher than that of the 100 times of the expected clinical dose of 6 x 1010 CFU/day. These results showed that cas001 could be safe in animal experiments. In addition, rat pharmacokinetics results showed that the serum SERO concentration of LL-37 reached peak 2 hours after gavage of cas001 and returned to basal level 6 hours after gavage. During study period, the volunteers did not feel any discomfort while taking the cas001 capsules, and two hours after oral administration, the concentration of LL-37 were increased in healthy volunteers. cas001 shows definite effect in the improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms MESHD and is possible to have effects in improving the systemic symptoms and respiratory symptoms and may play a role in the improvement of results of nucleic acid test and lung CT test. 11 patients enrolled showed good compliance, tolerance, subjective feeling and actively interacted with the doctors. None of the patients had any adverse reactions. Conclusions Based on above observations, we conclude here that as an oral anti-viral agent, cas001 displayed good safety profiles. It is very hard to reach conclusion of clinical outcomes related to the cas001, although changes of several symptoms indicate encouraging findings.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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