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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (15)

ComplexRdRp (15)

NSP3 (15)

NSP5 (8)

ORF3a (4)


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    Evolving Infection Paradox of SARS-CoV-2: Fitness Costs Virulence?

    Authors: A. S. M. Rubayet Ul Alam; Ovinu Kibria Islam; Md. Shazid Hasan; Mir Raihanul Islam; Shafi Mahmud; Hassan M. AlEmran; Iqbal K Jahid; Keith A. Crandall; M. Anwar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.21.21252137 Date: 2021-02-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 is continuously spreading worldwide at an unprecedented scale and evolved into seven clades according to GISAID where four (G, GH, GR and GV) are globally prevalent in 2020. These major predominant clades of SARS-CoV-2 are continuously increasing COVID-19 MESHD cases worldwide; however, after an early rise in 2020, the death-case ratio has been decreasing to a plateau. G clade viruses contain four co-occurring mutations in their genome (C241T+C3037T+C14408T: RdRp PROTEIN.P323L+A23403G:spike.D614G). GR, GH, and GV strains are defined by the presence of these four mutations in addition to the clade-featured mutation in GGG28881-28883AAC:N. RG203-204KR, G25563T: ORF3a PROTEIN.Q57H, and C22227T:spike.A222V+C28932T-N.A220V+G29645T, respectively. The research works are broadly focused on the spike protein PROTEIN mutations that have direct roles in receptor binding, antigenicity, thus viral transmission and replication fitness. However, mutations in other proteins might also have effects on viral pathogenicity and transmissibility. How the clade-featured mutations are linked with viral evolution in this pandemic through gearing their fitness MESHD and virulence is the main question of this study. Methodology: We thus proposed a hypothetical model, combining a statistical and structural bioinformatics approach, endeavors to explain this infection paradox by describing the epistatic effects of the clade-featured co-occurring mutations on viral fitness MESHD and virulence. Results and Discussion: The G and GR/GV clade strains represent a significant positive and negative association, respectively, with the death-case ratio (incidence rate ratio or IRR = 1.03, p <0.001 and IRR= 0.99/0.97, p < 0.001), whereas GH clade strains showed no association with the Docking analysis showed the higher infectiousness of a spike mutant through more favorable binding of G614 with the elastase-2 HGNC. RdRp PROTEIN mutation p.P323L significantly increased genome-wide mutations (p<0.0001) since more expandable RdRp PROTEIN (mutant)- NSP8 PROTEIN interaction may accelerate replication. Superior RNA stability and structural variation at NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN:C241T might impact upon protein or RNA interactions. Another silent 5'UTR:C241T mutation might affect translational efficiency and viral packaging. These G-featured co-occurring mutations might increase the viral load, alter immune responses in host and hence can modulate intra-host genomic plasticity. An additional viroporin ORF3a PROTEIN:p.Q57H mutation, forming GH-clade, prevents ion permeability by cysteine (C81)-histidine (H57) inter-transmembrane-domain interaction mediated tighter constriction of the channel pore and possibly reduces viral release and immune response. GR strains, four G clade mutations and N:p.RG203-204KR, would have stabilized RNA interaction by more flexible and hypo-phosphorylated SR-rich region. GV strains seemingly gained the evolutionary advantage of superspreading event through confounder factors; nevertheless, N:p.A220V might affect RNA binding. Conclusion: These hypotheses need further retrospective and prospective studies to understand detailed molecular and evolutionary events featuring the fitness MESHD and virulence of SARS-CoV-2.

    Unravelling Vitamins as Wonder Molecules for Covid-19 MESHD Management via Structure-based Virtual Screening

    Authors: Medha Pandya; Sejal Shah; Dhanalakshmi Menamadathil; Ayushman Gadnayak; Tanzil Juneja; Amisha Patel; Kajari Das; Jayashankar Das

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-144177/v1 Date: 2021-01-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    The emergence situation of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic has realised the global scientific communities to develop strategies for immediate priorities and long-term approaches for utilization of existing knowledge and resources which can be diverted to pandemic preparedness planning. Lack of proper vaccine candidate and therapeutic management has accelerated the researchers to repurpose the existing drugs with known preclinical and toxicity MESHD profiles, which can easily enter Phase 3 or 4 or can be used directly in clinical settings. We focused to justify even exploration of supplements, nutrients and vitamins to dampen the disease burden of the current pandemic may play a crucial role for its management. We have explored structure based virtual screening of 15 vitamins against non-structural ( NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN, NSP5 PROTEIN NSP5 HGNC, ORF7a PROTEIN, NSP12 PROTEIN, ORF3a PROTEIN), structural (Spike & Hemagglutinin esterase) and host protein furin HGNC. The in silico analysis exhibited that vitamin B12, Vitamin B9, Vitamin D3 determined suitable binding while vitamin B15 manifested remarkable H-bond interactions with all targets. Vitamin B12 bestowed the lowest energies with human furin HGNC and SARS-COV-2 RNA dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN. Furin HGNC mediated cleavage of the viral spike glycoprotein PROTEIN is directly related to enhanced virulence of SARS-CoV-2. In contrast to these, vitamin B12 showed zero affinity with SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein. These upshots intimate that Vitamin B12 could be the wonder molecule to shrink the virulence by hindering the furin HGNC mediated entry of spike to host cell. These identified molecules may effectively assist in SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic management to boost the immunity by inhibiting the virus imparting relief in lung inflammation MESHD.

    Ivermectin as a promising RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN inhibitor and a therapeutic drug against SARS-CoV2: Evidence from in silico studies

    Authors: Ananta Swargiary

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73308/v1 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: COVID-19 MESHD, caused by SARS-CoV2 virus is a contagious disease affecting millions of lives throughout the globe. Currently, there are no clinically approved drugs for SARS-CoV2 although some drugs are undergoing clinical trials. The present study investigates the binding property of ivermectin on four important drug targets, spike protein PROTEIN, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN, 3-chymotrypsin- and papain-like proteases PROTEIN of SARS-CoV2. Methods: The 3D structure of ivermectin along with known antiviral drug lopinavir, simeprevir and four nucleotides ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP were downloaded from PubChem database. Crystal structures of proteins were downloaded from PDB database. PDB files were converted into pdbqt file using AutoDock tools. After proper processing and grid formation, docking was carried out in AutoDock vina. Furthermore, the co-crystallized RNA and its binding interactions with RdRp PROTEIN were studied using various visualization tools including Discovery studio.Results: Docking study showed that ivermectin is the best binding drug compared to lopinavir and simeprevir. The best binding interaction was found to be -9.7kcal/mol with RdRp PROTEIN suggesting potential inhibitor of the protein. Twenty-one amino acid residues of RdRp PROTEIN were found to interact with ivermectin including the catalytic residue Asp760. Furthermore, RNA- RdRp complex PROTEIN revealed that the catalytic active residues Ser759 and Asp760 of RdRp PROTEIN formed strong interactions with RNA chain. Binding of ivermectin in the active site of RdRp PROTEIN make clash with the nucleotides of RNA chain suggesting the possible inhibition of replication.Conclusions: The present study suggests ivermectin as a potential inhibitor of RdRp PROTEIN which may be crucial to combat the SARS-CoV2.

    Temporal landscape of mutation accumulation in SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Bangladesh: possible implications from the ongoing outbreak in Bangladesh

    Authors: Otun Saha; Rokaiya Nurani Shatadru; Nadira Naznin Rakhi; Israt Islam; Md. Shahadat Hossain; Md. Mizanur Rahaman; Leo C James; Madeline A Lancaster; Zhu Shu; Zhiming Yuan; Lei Tong; Han Xia; Jingzhe Pan; Natalie Garton; Manish Pareek; Michael Barer; Craig J Smith; Stuart M Allan; Michelle M. Lister; Hannah C. Howson-Wells; Edward C Holmes; Matthew W. Loose; Jonathan K. Ball; C. Patrick McClure; - The COVID-19 Genomics UK consortium study group; Shi Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.20.259721 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: bioRxiv

    Along with intrinsic evolution, adaptation to selective pressure in new environments might have resulted in the circulatory SARS-CoV-2 strains in response to the geoenvironmental conditions of a country and the demographic profile of its population. Thus the analysis of genomic mutations of these circulatory strains may give an insight into the molecular basis of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and evolution favoring the development of effective treatment and containment strategies. With this target, the current study traced the evolutionary route and mutational frequency of 198 Bangladesh originated SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences available in the GISAID platform over a period of 13 weeks as of 14 July 2020. The analyses were performed using MEGA 7, Swiss Model Repository, Virus Pathogen Resource and Jalview visualization. Our analysis identified that majority of the circulating strains in the country belong to B and/or L type among cluster A to Z and strikingly differ from both the reference genome and the first sequenced genome from Bangladesh. Mutations in Nonspecific protein 2 ( NSP2 PROTEIN NSP2 HGNC), NSP3 PROTEIN NSP3 HGNC, RNA dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN ( RdRp PROTEIN), Helicase HGNC, Spike, ORF3a PROTEIN, and Nucleocapsid (N) protein PROTEIN were common in the circulating strains with varying degrees and the most unique mutations(UM) were found in NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN (UM-18). But no or limited changes were observed in NSP9 PROTEIN, NSP11 PROTEIN, E (Envelope), NSP7a, ORF 6, and ORF 7b suggesting the possible conserved functions of those proteins in SARS-CoV-2 propagation. However, along with D614G mutation, more than 20 different mutations in the Spike protein PROTEIN were detected basically in the S2 domain. Besides, mutations in SR-rich region of N protein PROTEIN and P323L in RDRP PROTEIN were also present. However, the mutation accumulation showed an association with sex and age of the COVID-19 MESHD positive cases. So, identification of these mutational accumulation patterns may greatly facilitate drug/ vaccine development deciphering the age and the sex dependent differential susceptibility to COVID-19 MESHD.

    In Silico Docking Analysis Revealed the Potential of Phytochemicals Present in Phyllanthus Amarus and Andrographis Paniculata, Used in Ayurveda Medicine in Inhibiting SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Shridhar Hiremath; Vinay Kumar H D; Nandan M; Mantesh M; Shankarappa K S; Venkataravanappa V; Jahir Basha C R; C N Lakshminarayana Reddy

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12751361.v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ChemRxiv

    No therapeutics and vaccines are available against SARS-CoV-2 at present. In the current study we have made an attempt to provide preliminary evidences for interaction of 35 phytochemicals from two plants (Phyllanthus amarus and Andrographis paniculata used in Ayurveda) with SARS-CoV-2 proteins (S PROTEIN protein, 3CLpro PROTEIN, PLpro PROTEIN and RdRp PROTEIN) through in silico docking analysis. The docking was performed with the aid of AutoDock Vina and ADME and other pharmacokinetic properties were predicted using SWISSADME and admetSAR

    The genetic variants analysis of circulating SARS-CoV-2 in Bangladesh.

    Authors: Abu Sayeed Mohammad Mahmud; Tarannum Taznin; Md. Murshed Hasan Sarkar; Mohammad Samir Uzzaman; Eshrar Osman; Md. Ahasan Habib; Shahina Akter; Tanjina Akhter Banu; Barna Goswami; Iffat Jahan; Md. Saddam Hossain; Md. Salim Khan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.226555 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: bioRxiv

    Genomic mutation of the virus may impact the viral adaptation to the local environment, their transmission, disease manifestation, and the effectiveness of existing treatment and vaccination. The objectives of this study were to characterize genomic variations, non-synonymous amino acid substitutions, especially in target proteins, mutation events per samples, mutation rate, and overall scenario of coronaviruses across the country. To investigate the genetic diversity, a total of 184 genomes of virus strains sampled from different divisions of Bangladesh with sampling dates between the 10th of May 2020 and the 27th of June 2020 were analyzed. To date, a total of 634 mutations located along the entire genome resulting in non-synonymous 274 amino acid substitutions in 22 different proteins were detected with nucleotide mutation rate estimated to be 23.715 substitutions per year. The highest non-synonymous amino acid substitutions were observed at 48 different positions of the papain-like protease PROTEIN ( nsp3 HGNC). Although no mutations were found in nsp7, nsp9, nsp10, and nsp11, yet orf1ab accounts for 56% of total mutations. Among the structural proteins, the highest non-synonymous amino acid substitution (at 36 positions) observed in spike proteins PROTEIN, in which 9 unique locations were detected relative to the global strains, including 516E>Q in the boundary of the ACE2 HGNC binding region. The most dominated variant G614 (95%) based in spike protein PROTEIN is circulating across the country with co-evolving other variants including L323 (94%) in RNA dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN ( RdRp PROTEIN), K203 (82%) and R204 (82%) in nucleocapsid, and F120 (78%) in NSP2 PROTEIN NSP2 HGNC. These variants are mostly seen as linked mutations and are part of a haplotype observed in Europe. Data suggest effective containment of clade G strains (4.8%) with sub-clusters GR 82.4%, and GH clade 6.4%. HighlightsO_LIWe have sequenced 137 and analyzed 184 whole-genomes sequences of SARS-CoV-2 strains from different divisions of Bangladesh. C_LIO_LIA total of 634 mutation sites across the SARS-CoV-2 genome and 274 non-synonymous amino acid substitutions were detected. C_LIO_LIThe mutation rate of SARS-CoV-2 estimated to be 23.715 nucleotide substitutions per year. C_LIO_LINine unique variants were detected based on non-anonymous amino acid substitutions in spike protein PROTEIN relative to the global SARS-CoV-2 strains. C_LI

    SARS-CoV2 genome analysis of Indian isolates and molecular modelling of D614G mutated spike protein PROTEIN with TMPRSS2 depicted its enhanced interaction and virus infectivity

    Authors: Sunil Raghav; Arup Ghosh; Jyotirmayee Turuk; Sugandh Kumar; Atimukta Jha; Swati Madhulika; Manasi Priyadarshini; Viplov K Biswas; P. Sushree Shyamli; Bharati Singh; Neha Singh; Deepika Singh; Avula Kiran; Shuchi Smita; Jyotsnamayee Sabat; Debdutta Bhattacharya; Rupesh Dash; Shantibhushan Senapati; Tushar K Beuria; Rajeeb Swain; Soma Chattopadhyay; Gulam Hussain Syed; Anshuman Dixit; Punit Prasad; Sanghamitra Pati; Ajay Parida

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.217430 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: bioRxiv

    COVID-19 MESHD that emerged as a global pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. The virus genome analysis during disease spread reveals about its evolution and transmission. We did whole genome sequencing of 225 clinical strains from the state of Odisha in eastern India using ARTIC protocol-based amplicon sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis identified the presence of all five reported clades 19A, 19B, 20A, 20B and 20C in the population. The analyses revealed two major routes for the introduction of the disease in India i.e. Europe and South-east Asia followed by local transmission. Interestingly, 19B clade was found to be much more prevalent in our sequenced genomes (17%) as compared to other genomes reported so far from India. The haplogroup analysis for clades showed evolution of 19A and 19B in parallel whereas the 20B and 20C appeared to evolve from 20A. Majority of the 19A and 19B clades were present in cases that migrated from Gujarat state in India suggesting it to be one of the major initial points of disease transmission in India during month of March and April. We found that with the time 20A and 20B clades evolved drastically that originated from central Europe. At the same time, it has been observed that 20A and 20B clades depicted selection of four common mutations i.e. 241 C>T (5UTR), P323L in RdRP PROTEIN, F942F in NSP3 PROTEIN and D614G in the spike protein PROTEIN. We found an increase in the concordance of G614 mutation evolution with the viral load in clinical samples as evident from decreased Ct value of spike and Orf1ab gene in qPCR. Molecular modelling and docking analysis identified that D614G mutation enhanced interaction of spike with TMPRSS2 protease, which could impact the shedding of S1 domain and infectivity of the virus in host cells.

    Comprehensive analysis of genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 in different geographic regions of India: An endeavour to classify Indian SARS-CoV-2 strains on the basis of co-existing mutations

    Authors: Rakesh Sarkar; Suvrotoa Mitra; Pritam Chandra; Priyanka Saha; Anindita Banerjee; Shanta Dutta; Mamta Chawla-Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.203463 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: bioRxiv

    Accumulation of mutations within the genome is the primary driving force for viral evolution within an endemic setting. This inherent feature often leads to altered virulence, infectivity and transmissibility as well as antigenic shift to escape host immunity, which might compromise the efficacy of vaccines and antiviral drugs. Therefore, we aimed at genome-wide analyses of circulating SARS-CoV-2 viruses for the emergence of novel co-existing mutations and trace their spatial distribution within India. Comprehensive analysis of whole genome sequences of 441 Indian SARS-CoV-2 strains revealed the occurrence of 33 different mutations, 21 being distinctive to India. Emergence of novel mutations were observed in S glycoprotein PROTEIN (7/33), NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN (6/33), RdRp PROTEIN/ NSP12 PROTEIN (4/33), NSP2 PROTEIN NSP2 HGNC (2/33) and N (2/33). Non-synonymous mutations were found to be 3.4 times more prevalent than synonymous mutations. We classified the Indian isolates into 22 groups based on the co-existing mutations. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that representative strain of each group divided themselves into various sub-clades within their respective clades, based on the presence of unique co-existing mutations. India was dominated by A2a clade (55.60%) followed by A3 (37.38%) and B (7%), but exhibited heterogeneous distribution among various geographical regions. The A2a clade mostly predominated in East India, Western India and Central India, whereas A3 clade prevailed in South and North India. In conclusion, this study highlights the divergent evolution of SARS-CoV-2 strains and co-circulation of multiple clades in India. Monitoring of the emerging mutations would pave ways for vaccine formulation and designing of antiviral drugs.

    A Combination of Ivermectin and Doxycycline Possibly Blocks the Viral Entry and Modulate the Innate Immune Response in COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Dharmendra Kumar Maurya

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12630539.v1 Date: 2020-07-09 Source: ChemRxiv

    The current outbreak of the corona virus disease 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD), has affected almost entire world and become pandemic now. Currently, there is neither any FDA approved drugs nor any vaccines available to control it. Very recently in Bangladesh, a group of doctors reported astounding success in treating patients suffering from COVID-19 MESHD with two commonly used drugs, Ivermectin and Doxycycline. In the current study we have explored the possible mechanism by which these drugs might have worked for the positive response in the COVID-19 MESHD patients. To explore the mechanism we have used molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation approach. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and doxycycline were evaluated against Main Protease PROTEIN ( Mpro PROTEIN), Spike (S) protein PROTEIN, Nucleocapsid (N PROTEIN), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN ( RdRp PROTEIN, NSP12 PROTEIN), ADP Ribose Phosphatase ( NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN), Endoribonuclease ( NSP15 PROTEIN) and methyltransferase ( NSP10 PROTEIN- NSP16 PROTEIN complex) of SARS-CoV-2 as well as human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) receptor. Our study shows that both Ivermectin and doxycycline have significantly bind with SARS-CoV-2 proteins but Ivermectin was better binding than doxycycline. Ivermectin showed a perfect binding site to the Spike-RBD and ACE2 HGNC interacting region indicating that it might be interfering in the interaction of spike with ACE2 HGNC and preventing the viral entry in to the host cells. Ivermectin also exhibited significant binding affinity with different SARS-CoV-2 structural and non-structural proteins (NSPs) which have diverse functions in virus life cycle. Significant binding of Ivermectin with RdRp PROTEIN indicate its role in the inhibition of the viral replication and ultimately impeding the multiplication of the virus. Ivermectin also possess significant binding affinity with NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN, NSP10 PROTEIN, NSP15 PROTEIN and NSP16 PROTEIN which helps virus in escaping from host immune system. Molecular dynamics simulation study shows that binding of the Ivermectin with Mpro PROTEIN, Spike, NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN, NSP16 PROTEIN and ACE2 HGNC was quiet stable. Thus, our docking and simulation studies reveal that combination of Ivermectin and doxycycline might be executing the effect by inhibition of viral entry and enhance viral load clearance by targeting various viral functional proteins.

    An In-Silico Study on Selected Organosulfur Compounds as Potential Drugs for SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD via Binding Multiple Drug Targets

    Authors: Liya Thurakkal; Satyam Singh; Sushabhan Sadhukhan; Mintu Porel

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12505343.v1 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: ChemRxiv

    The emerging paradigm shift from ‘one molecule, one target, for one disease’ towards ‘multi-targeted small molecules’ has paved an ingenious pathway in drug discovery in recent years. This idea has been extracted for the investigation of competent drug molecules for the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic MESHD COVID-19 pandemic MESHD which became the greatest global health crisis now. Perceiving the importance of organosulfur compounds against SARS-CoV-2 from the drugs under clinical trials, a class of organosulfur compounds effective against SARS-CoV were selected and studied the interaction with multiple proteins of the SARS-CoV-2. One compound displayed inhibition against five proteins (both structural and non-structural) of the virus namely, main protease PROTEIN, papain-like protease PROTEIN, spike protein PROTEIN, helicase HGNC and RNA dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN. Consequently, this compound emanates as a potential candidate for treating the virulent disease. The pharmacokinetics, ADMET properties and target prediction studies carried out in this work further inflamed the versatility of the compound and urge to execute in-vitro and in-vivo analysis on SARS-CoV-2 in the future.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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