Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ComplexRdRp (8)

ORF3a (8)

ProteinS (8)

NSP3 (4)

ProteinN (4)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Evolving Infection Paradox of SARS-CoV-2: Fitness Costs Virulence?

    Authors: A. S. M. Rubayet Ul Alam; Ovinu Kibria Islam; Md. Shazid Hasan; Mir Raihanul Islam; Shafi Mahmud; Hassan M. AlEmran; Iqbal K Jahid; Keith A. Crandall; M. Anwar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.21.21252137 Date: 2021-02-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 is continuously spreading worldwide at an unprecedented scale and evolved into seven clades according to GISAID where four (G, GH, GR and GV) are globally prevalent in 2020. These major predominant clades of SARS-CoV-2 are continuously increasing COVID-19 MESHD cases worldwide; however, after an early rise in 2020, the death-case ratio has been decreasing to a plateau. G clade viruses contain four co-occurring mutations in their genome (C241T+C3037T+C14408T: RdRp PROTEIN.P323L+A23403G:spike.D614G). GR, GH, and GV strains are defined by the presence of these four mutations in addition to the clade-featured mutation in GGG28881-28883AAC:N. RG203-204KR, G25563T: ORF3a PROTEIN.Q57H, and C22227T:spike.A222V+C28932T-N.A220V+G29645T, respectively. The research works are broadly focused on the spike protein PROTEIN mutations that have direct roles in receptor binding, antigenicity, thus viral transmission and replication fitness. However, mutations in other proteins might also have effects on viral pathogenicity and transmissibility. How the clade-featured mutations are linked with viral evolution in this pandemic through gearing their fitness MESHD and virulence is the main question of this study. Methodology: We thus proposed a hypothetical model, combining a statistical and structural bioinformatics approach, endeavors to explain this infection paradox by describing the epistatic effects of the clade-featured co-occurring mutations on viral fitness MESHD and virulence. Results and Discussion: The G and GR/GV clade strains represent a significant positive and negative association, respectively, with the death-case ratio (incidence rate ratio or IRR = 1.03, p <0.001 and IRR= 0.99/0.97, p < 0.001), whereas GH clade strains showed no association with the Docking analysis showed the higher infectiousness of a spike mutant through more favorable binding of G614 with the elastase-2 HGNC. RdRp PROTEIN mutation p.P323L significantly increased genome-wide mutations (p<0.0001) since more expandable RdRp PROTEIN (mutant)- NSP8 PROTEIN interaction may accelerate replication. Superior RNA stability and structural variation at NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN:C241T might impact upon protein or RNA interactions. Another silent 5'UTR:C241T mutation might affect translational efficiency and viral packaging. These G-featured co-occurring mutations might increase the viral load, alter immune responses in host and hence can modulate intra-host genomic plasticity. An additional viroporin ORF3a PROTEIN:p.Q57H mutation, forming GH-clade, prevents ion permeability by cysteine (C81)-histidine (H57) inter-transmembrane-domain interaction mediated tighter constriction of the channel pore and possibly reduces viral release and immune response. GR strains, four G clade mutations and N:p.RG203-204KR, would have stabilized RNA interaction by more flexible and hypo-phosphorylated SR-rich region. GV strains seemingly gained the evolutionary advantage of superspreading event through confounder factors; nevertheless, N:p.A220V might affect RNA binding. Conclusion: These hypotheses need further retrospective and prospective studies to understand detailed molecular and evolutionary events featuring the fitness MESHD and virulence of SARS-CoV-2.

    Unravelling Vitamins as Wonder Molecules for Covid-19 MESHD Management via Structure-based Virtual Screening

    Authors: Medha Pandya; Sejal Shah; Dhanalakshmi Menamadathil; Ayushman Gadnayak; Tanzil Juneja; Amisha Patel; Kajari Das; Jayashankar Das

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-01-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    The emergence situation of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic has realised the global scientific communities to develop strategies for immediate priorities and long-term approaches for utilization of existing knowledge and resources which can be diverted to pandemic preparedness planning. Lack of proper vaccine candidate and therapeutic management has accelerated the researchers to repurpose the existing drugs with known preclinical and toxicity MESHD profiles, which can easily enter Phase 3 or 4 or can be used directly in clinical settings. We focused to justify even exploration of supplements, nutrients and vitamins to dampen the disease burden of the current pandemic may play a crucial role for its management. We have explored structure based virtual screening of 15 vitamins against non-structural ( NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN, NSP5 PROTEIN NSP5 HGNC, ORF7a PROTEIN, NSP12 PROTEIN, ORF3a PROTEIN), structural (Spike & Hemagglutinin esterase) and host protein furin HGNC. The in silico analysis exhibited that vitamin B12, Vitamin B9, Vitamin D3 determined suitable binding while vitamin B15 manifested remarkable H-bond interactions with all targets. Vitamin B12 bestowed the lowest energies with human furin HGNC and SARS-COV-2 RNA dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN. Furin HGNC mediated cleavage of the viral spike glycoprotein PROTEIN is directly related to enhanced virulence of SARS-CoV-2. In contrast to these, vitamin B12 showed zero affinity with SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein. These upshots intimate that Vitamin B12 could be the wonder molecule to shrink the virulence by hindering the furin HGNC mediated entry of spike to host cell. These identified molecules may effectively assist in SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic management to boost the immunity by inhibiting the virus imparting relief in lung inflammation MESHD.

    Different mutations in SARS-CoV-2 associate with severe and mild outcome

    Authors: Adam Nagy; Sandor Pongor; Balazs Gyorffy

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.16.20213710 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction. Genomic alterations in a viral genome can lead to either better or worse outcome and identifying these mutations is of utmost importance. Here, we correlated protein-level mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 virus to clinical outcome. Methods. Mutations in viral sequences from the GISAID virus repository were evaluated by using hCoV-19/Wuhan/WIV04/2019 as the reference. Patient outcomes were classified as mild disease, hospitalization and severe disease ( death MESHD or documented treatment in an intensive-care unit). Chi-square test was applied to examine the association between each mutation and patient outcome. False discovery rate was computed to correct for multiple hypothesis testing and results passing a FDR cutoff of 5% were accepted as significant. Results. Mutations were mapped to amino acid changes for 2,120 non-silent mutations. Mutations correlated to mild outcome were located in the ORF8 PROTEIN, NSP6 PROTEIN, ORF3a PROTEIN, NSP4 PROTEIN NSP4 HGNC, and in the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein N. Mutations associated with inferior outcome were located in the surface ( S) glycoprotein PROTEIN, in the RNA dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN, in the 3'-to5' exonuclease, in ORF3a PROTEIN, NSP2 HGNC NSP2 PROTEIN and N. Mutations leading to severe outcome with low prevalence were found in the surface ( S) glycoprotein PROTEIN and in NSP7 PROTEIN. Five out of 17 of the most significant mutations mapped onto a 10 amino acid long phosphorylated stretch of N indicating that in spite of obvious sampling restrictions the approach can find functionally relevant sites in the viral genome. Conclusions. We demonstrate that mutations in the viral genes may have a direct correlation to clinical outcome. Our results help to quickly identify SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD harboring mutations related to severe outcome.

    Temporal landscape of mutation accumulation in SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Bangladesh: possible implications from the ongoing outbreak in Bangladesh

    Authors: Otun Saha; Rokaiya Nurani Shatadru; Nadira Naznin Rakhi; Israt Islam; Md. Shahadat Hossain; Md. Mizanur Rahaman; Leo C James; Madeline A Lancaster; Zhu Shu; Zhiming Yuan; Lei Tong; Han Xia; Jingzhe Pan; Natalie Garton; Manish Pareek; Michael Barer; Craig J Smith; Stuart M Allan; Michelle M. Lister; Hannah C. Howson-Wells; Edward C Holmes; Matthew W. Loose; Jonathan K. Ball; C. Patrick McClure; - The COVID-19 Genomics UK consortium study group; Shi Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.20.259721 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: bioRxiv

    Along with intrinsic evolution, adaptation to selective pressure in new environments might have resulted in the circulatory SARS-CoV-2 strains in response to the geoenvironmental conditions of a country and the demographic profile of its population. Thus the analysis of genomic mutations of these circulatory strains may give an insight into the molecular basis of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and evolution favoring the development of effective treatment and containment strategies. With this target, the current study traced the evolutionary route and mutational frequency of 198 Bangladesh originated SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences available in the GISAID platform over a period of 13 weeks as of 14 July 2020. The analyses were performed using MEGA 7, Swiss Model Repository, Virus Pathogen Resource and Jalview visualization. Our analysis identified that majority of the circulating strains in the country belong to B and/or L type among cluster A to Z and strikingly differ from both the reference genome and the first sequenced genome from Bangladesh. Mutations in Nonspecific protein 2 ( NSP2 PROTEIN NSP2 HGNC), NSP3 PROTEIN NSP3 HGNC, RNA dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN ( RdRp PROTEIN), Helicase HGNC, Spike, ORF3a PROTEIN, and Nucleocapsid (N) protein PROTEIN were common in the circulating strains with varying degrees and the most unique mutations(UM) were found in NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN (UM-18). But no or limited changes were observed in NSP9 PROTEIN, NSP11 PROTEIN, E (Envelope), NSP7a, ORF 6, and ORF 7b suggesting the possible conserved functions of those proteins in SARS-CoV-2 propagation. However, along with D614G mutation, more than 20 different mutations in the Spike protein PROTEIN were detected basically in the S2 domain. Besides, mutations in SR-rich region of N protein PROTEIN and P323L in RDRP PROTEIN were also present. However, the mutation accumulation showed an association with sex and age of the COVID-19 MESHD positive cases. So, identification of these mutational accumulation patterns may greatly facilitate drug/ vaccine development deciphering the age and the sex dependent differential susceptibility to COVID-19 MESHD.

    Genomic diversity and hotspot mutations in 30,983 SARS-CoV-2 genomes: moving toward a universal vaccine for the "confined virus"?

    Authors: Tarek Alouane; Meriem Laamarti; Abdelomunim Essabbar; Mohammed Hakmi; El Mehdi Bouricha; M.W. Chemao-Elfihri; Souad Kartti; Nasma Boumajdi; Houda Bendani; Rokia Laamarti; Fatima Ghrifi; Loubna Allam; Tarik Aanniz; Mouna Ouadghiri; Naima El Hafidi; Rachid El Jaoudi; Houda Benrahma; Jalil El Attar; Rachid Mentag; Laila Sbabou; Chakib Nejjari; Saaid Amzazi; Lahcen Belyamani; Azeddine Ibrahimi

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.20.163188 Date: 2020-06-21 Source: bioRxiv

    The COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic has been ongoing since its onset in late November 2019 in Wuhan, China. Understanding and monitoring the genetic evolution of the virus, its geographical characteristics, and its stability are particularly important for controlling the spread of the disease and especially for the development of a universal vaccine covering all circulating strains. From this perspective, we analyzed 30,983 complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes from 79 countries located in the six continents and collected from December 24, 2019, to May 13, 2020, according to the GISAID database. Our analysis revealed the presence of 3,206 variant sites, with a uniform distribution of mutation types in different geographic areas. Remarkably, a low frequency of recurrent mutations has been observed; only 169 mutations (5.27%) had a prevalence greater than 1% of genomes. Nevertheless, fourteen non-synonymous hotspot mutations (> 10%) have been identified at different locations along the viral genome; eight in ORF1ab PROTEIN polyprotein (in nsp2 HGNC, nsp3 HGNC, transmembrane domain, RdRp PROTEIN, helicase, exonuclease, and endoribonuclease), three in nucleocapsid protein PROTEIN and one in each of three proteins: spike PROTEIN, ORF3a PROTEIN, and ORF8 PROTEIN. Moreover, 36 non-synonymous mutations were identified in the RBD of the spike protein PROTEIN with a low prevalence (<1%) across all genomes, of which only four could potentially enhance the binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein to the human ACE2 HGNC receptor. These results along with mutational frequency dissimilarity and intra-genomic divergence of SARS-CoV-2 could indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 is not yet adapted to its host. Unlike the influenza virus or HIV viruses, the low mutation rate of SARS-CoV-2 makes the development of an effective global vaccine very likely.

    In silico Proteome analysis of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

    Authors: Chittaranjan Baruah; Papari Devi; Dhirendra K Sharma

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.104919 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (2019-nCoV), is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus. The virus is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) and is contagious through human-to-human transmission. The present study reports sequence analysis, complete coordinate tertiary structure prediction and in silico sequence-based and structure-based functional characterization of full SARS-CoV-2 proteome based on the NCBI reference sequence NC_045512 (29903 bp ss-RNA) which is identical to GenBank entry MN908947 and MT415321. The proteome includes 12 major proteins namely orf1ab polyprotein (includes 15 proteins), surface glycoprotein, ORF3a PROTEIN protein, envelope PROTEIN envelope protein HGNC, membrane glycoprotein PROTEIN, ORF6 PROTEIN protein, ORF7a PROTEIN protein, orf7b, ORF8 PROTEIN, Nucleocapsid phosphoprotein and ORF10 PROTEIN protein. Each protein of orf1ab polyprotein group has been studied separately. A total of 25 polypeptides have been analyzed out of which 15 proteins are not yet having experimental structures and only 10 are having experimental structures with known PDB IDs MESHD. Out of 15 newly predicted structures six (6) were predicted using comparative modeling and nine (09) proteins having no significant similarity with so far available PDB structures were modeled using ab-initio modeling. Structure verification using recent tools QMEANDisCo 4.0.0 and ProQ3 for global and local (per-residue) quality estimates indicate that the all-atom model of tertiary structure of high quality and may be useful for structure-based drug designing targets. The study has identified nine major targets ( spike protein PROTEIN, envelop protein, membrane protein, nucleocapsid PROTEIN protein, 2-O-ribose methyltransferase, endoRNAse, 3-to-5 exonuclease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN and helicase HGNC) for which drug design targets could be considered. There are other 16 nonstructural proteins PROTEIN (NSPs), which may also be percieved from the drug design angle. The protein structures have been deposited to ModelArchive. Tunnel analysis revealed the presence of large number of tunnels in NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN, ORF 6 protein and membrane glycoprotein PROTEIN indicating a large number of transport pathways for small ligands influencing their reactivity.

    Non-synonymous Mutations of SARS-Cov-2 Leads Epitope Loss and Segregates its Varaints

    Authors: Aayatti Mallick Gupta; Sukhendu Mandal

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    The non-synonymous mutations of SARS-Cov-2 isolated from across the world have been identified during the last few months. The surface glycoprotein spike PROTEIN of SARS-Cov-2 forms the most important hotspot for amino acid alterations followed by the ORF1a PROTEIN/ ORF1ab PROTEIN poly-proteins. It is evident that the D614G mutation in spike glycoprotein PROTEIN and P4715L in RdRp PROTEIN is the important determinant of SARS-Cov-2 evolution since its emergence. P4715L in RdRp PROTEIN, G251V in ORF3a PROTEIN and S1498F of Nsp3 HGNC is associated with the epitope loss that may influence pathogenesis caused by antibody escape variants. Phylogenomics distinguished the ancestral viral samples from China and most part of Asia, isolated between Dec, 2019 to Feb, 2020 and the evolved variants isolated from Europe and Americas from Mar, 2020 to April, 2020. The evolved variants have been found to predominant globally with the loss of epitopes from its proteins. These have implications for SARS-Cov-2 transmission, pathogenesis and immune interventions. 

    Comparative Genomic Analysis of Rapidly Evolving SARS CoV-2 Viruses Reveal Mosaic Pattern of Phylogeographical Distribution

    Authors: Roshan Kumar; Helianthous Verma; Nirjara Singhvi; Utkarsh Sood; Vipin Gupta; Mona Singh; Rashmi Sharma; Princy Hira; Shekhar Nagar; Chandni Talwar; Namita Nayyar; Shailly Anand; Charu Dogra Rawat; Mansi Verma; Ram Kishan Negi; Yogendra Singh; Rup Lal

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.25.006213 Date: 2020-03-30 Source: bioRxiv

    The Coronavirus Disease-2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) that started in Wuhan, China in December 2019 has spread worldwide emerging as a global pandemic. The severe respiratory pneumonia MESHD caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 has so far claimed more than 60,000 lives and has impacted human lives worldwide. However, as the novel SARS-CoV-2 displays high transmission rates, their underlying genomic severity is required to be fully understood. We studied the complete genomes of 95 SARS-CoV-2 strains from different geographical regions worldwide to uncover the pattern of the spread of the virus. We show that there is no direct transmission pattern of the virus among neighboring countries suggesting that the outbreak is a result of travel of infected humans to different countries. We revealed unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nsp13-16 (ORF1b polyprotein) and S-Protein PROTEIN within 10 viral isolates from the USA. These viral proteins are involved in RNA replication, indicating highly evolved viral strains circulating in the population of USA than other countries. Furthermore, we found an amino acid addition in nsp16 (mRNA cap-1 methyltransferase) of the USA isolate (MT188341) leading to shift in amino acid frame from position 2540 onwards. Through the construction of SARS-CoV-2-human interactome, we further revealed that multiple host proteins (PHB, PPP1CA HGNC, TGF-{beta} HGNC, SOCS3 HGNC, STAT3 HGNC, JAK1/2, SMAD3 HGNC, BCL2 HGNC, CAV1 HGNC & SPECC1 HGNC) are manipulated by the viral proteins ( nsp2 HGNC, PL-PRO, N-protein PROTEIN, ORF7a PROTEIN, M-S- ORF3a PROTEIN complex, nsp7-nsp8-nsp9- RdRp complex PROTEIN) for mediating host immune evasion. Thus, the replicative machinery of SARS-CoV-2 is fast evolving to evade host challenges which need to be considered for developing effective treatment strategies.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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