Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Hypertension (41)

Cough (12)

Fever (11)

Pneumonia (9)

Obesity (7)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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     Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in an Asymptomatic TRANS US Population 

    Authors: Steven Rigatti, MD; Robert L. Stout, PhD.

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-80313/v1 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Methods: We performed SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO tests with the Roche e602 SARS CoV-2 Immuno system on 50,257 consecutive life insurance applicants who were having blood SERO drawn for the purpose of underwriting mortality risk. Other variables included height, weight, and blood SERO pressure at the time of the blood SERO draw, a history of smoking and common ch ronic diseases ( MESHD hypertension HP pertension, MESHDhe art disease, MESHDdi abetes, MESHDand ca ncer). MESHDResults: The overall prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 was 3.0%, and was fairly consistent across the age TRANS range and similar in males TRANS and females TRANS. Geographical distribution revealed a very high level of positivity in the state of New York compared to all other areas (17.1%). Using US Census state population data to adjust state specific rates of positivity, it is estimated that this level of seropositivity would correspond to 6.98 million (99% CI: 6.56-7.38 million) SA RS-CoV-2 infections i MESHDn the US, which is 3.8 times the cumulative number of cases in the US reported to the CDC as of June 1, 2020.Conclusions: The estimated number of total SA RS-CoV-2 infections b MESHDased on positive serology is substantially higher than the total number of cases reported to the CDC. There is no apparent increase of risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS fection f MESHDor individuals self-reporting, smoking, di abetes, MESHDhe art disease, MESHD hypertension HP pertension o MESHDr ca ncer. MESHD

    SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Prevalence SERO and Association with Routine Laboratory Values in a Life Insurance Applicant Population

    Authors: Steven J. Rigatti; Robert Stout; Ruth E Mitchell; Michael V Holmes; George Davey Smith; Dominik Schulz; Ulrich Mayr; Jochen Schneider; Christoph Spinner; Fabian Geisler; Roland M. Schmid; Tobias Lahmer; Wolfgang Huber; Xiushan Yin; Arsen Arakelyan; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20191296 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in the general population is largely unknown. Since many infections MESHD, even among the elderly TRANS and other vulnerable populations, are asymptomatic TRANS, the prevalence SERO of antibodies SERO could help determine how far along the path to herd immunity the general population has progressed. Also, in order to clarify the clinical manifestations of current or recent past COVID-19 illness, it may be useful to determine if there are any common alterations in routine clinical laboratory values. Methods: We performed SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO tests on 50,130 consecutive life insurance applicants who were having blood SERO drawn for the purpose of underwriting (life risk assessment). Subjects were also tested for lipids, liver function tests, renal function studies, as well as serum SERO proteins. Other variables included height, weight, blood SERO pressure at the time of the blood SERO draw, and history of common chronic diseases MESHD ( hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, heart disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, and cancer MESHD). Results: The overall prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 was 3.0%, and was fairly consistent across the age TRANS range and similar in males TRANS and females TRANS. Several of the routine laboratory tests obtained were significantly different in antibody SERO-positive vs. antibody SERO-negative subjects, including albumin, globulins, bilirubin, and the urine albumin:creatinine ratio. The BMI was also significantly higher in the antibody SERO-positive group. Geographical distribution revealed a very high level of positivity in the state of New York compared to all other areas (17.1%). Using state population data from the US Census, it is estimated that this level of seropositivity would correspond to 6.98 million (99% CI: 6.56-7.38 million) SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in the US, which is 3.8 times the cumulative number of cases in the US reported to the CDC as of June 1, 2020. Conclusions: The estimated number of total SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD based on positive serology is substantially higher than the total number of cases reported to the CDC. Certain laboratory values, particularly serum SERO protein levels, are associated with positive serology, though these associations are not likely to be clinically meaningful.

    Convalescent plasma SERO as potential therapy for severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.

    Authors: Ricardo Valentini; Juan Dupont; Jose Fernandez; Jorge Solimano; Fernando Palizas; Dardo Riveros; Pablo Saul; Laura Dupont; Juan Medina; Viviana Falasco; Florencia Fornillo; Julia Laviano; Daniela Maymo; Daniel Gotta; Alfredo Martinez; Pablo Bonvehi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20184390 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was high mortality and a lack of effective treatment for critically ill MESHD patients. Build on the experience in argentine hemorrhagic fever MESHD fever HP with convalescent plasma SERO, we incorporated 90 patients into a multicenter study, and 87 were evaluable. We collected 397 donations from 278 convalescent donors. Patients received plasma SERO with an IgG concentration of 0.7-0.8 (measured by Abbott chemiluminescence) for every 10 kg of body weight. Survival during the first 28 days was the primary objective. 77% were male TRANS, age TRANS 54 (+/-15.6 y/o (range 27-85); body mass index 29.7 +/-; 4,4; hypertension HP 39% and diabetes 20%; 19.5% had an immunosuppression condition; 23% were healthcare workers. Plasma SERO was administered to 55 patients (63%) on spontaneous breathing with oxygen supplementation (mainly oxygen mask with reservoir bag in 80%), and 32 patients (37%) were infused on mechanical ventilation. The 28-day survival rate was 80%, with 91% in patients infused on spontaneous breathing and 63% in those infused on mechanical ventilation (p = 0.0002). There was a significant improvement in the WHO pneumonia HP clinical scale at 7 and 14 days, and in PaO2 / FiO2, ferritin and LDH, in the week post-infusion. We observed an episode of circulatory volume overload and a febrile reaction, both mild. Convalescent plasma SERO infusions are feasible, safe, and potentially effective, especially before requiring mechanical ventilation, and are an attractive clinical option for treating severe forms of COVID-19 until other effective therapies become available.

    Clinical characteristics study of elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in China

    Authors: Chao Zhang; Hua Fu; Long Zhang; Yuxiong Yin; Jing Lin; Hu Liu; Qing Mao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-67737/v1 Date: 2020-08-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerged respiratory disease MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has recently become pandemic. Clinical observation indicated that elderly TRANS patients had high incidence of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and poor treatment efficacy. Therefore, this study was to clarify the characteristics of elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in order to guide rational treatment for elderly TRANS patients. Methods: we enrolled 331 elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with confirmed COVID-19 in Huoshenshan hospital of Wuhan from February 3rd to March 31st. The cases were divided into general, serious and critical groups according to severity after hospitalization, and the difference among groups were compared by R package statistics software. Results: Compared with general group, serious and critical groups had more underlying comorbidities and higher incidence of cough HP cough MESHD, breath shortness MESHD and anorexia HP anorexia MESHD. Moreover, there existed obviously differences in many of laboratory indexes and CT images among them. serious and critical elderly TRANS patients were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, corticosteroid, abidor, cephaloprin, imipenem, human serum SERO albumin (HSA), nutrition support, anti SARS-CoV-2 positive plasma SERO and actemra. Multivariate analysis of factors showed that male TRANS sex, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, renal diseases MESHD, breath shortness MESHD, neutrophil, platelet, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase were the risk factor for serious and critical illness. While blood SERO cell (WBC) was the protective factor. Conclusion: elderly TRANS patients have high incidence of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and poor treatment efficacy. The reasons might be that many of the elderly TRANS patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD have certain chronic disease MESHD, poor immune function and a meager response to the virus. the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 might be involved in the cell-mediated immunity and cytokine storms by acting on lymphocytes.

    Sex-specificity of mortality risk factors among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in New York City: prospective cohort study

    Authors: Tomi Jun; Sharon Nirenberg; Patricia Kovatch; Kuan-lin Huang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164640 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To identify sex-specific effects of risk factors for in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients admitted to a hospital system in New York City. Design: Prospective observational cohort study with in-hospital mortality as the primary outcome. Setting: Five acute care hospitals within a single academic medical system in New York City. Participants: 3,086 hospital inpatients with COVID-19 admitted on or before April 13, 2020 and followed through June 2, 2020. Follow-up till discharge or death MESHD was complete for 99.3% of the cohort. Results: The majority of the cohort was male TRANS (59.6%). Men were younger (median 64 vs. 70, p<0.001) and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (32.5% vs. 39.9%, p<0.001), diabetes MESHD (22.6% vs. 26%, p=0.03), and obesity HP obesity MESHD (6.9% vs. 9.8%, p=0.004) compared to women. Women had lower median values of laboratory markers associated with inflammation MESHD compared to men: white blood SERO cells (5.95 vs. 6.8 K/uL, p<0.001), procalcitonin (0.14 vs 0.21 ng/mL, p<0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (375 vs. 428 U/L, p<0.001), C-reactive protein (87.7 vs. 123.2 mg/L, p<0.001). Unadjusted mortality was similar between men and women (28.8% vs. 28.5%, p=0.84), but more men required intensive care than women (25.2% vs. 19%, p<0.001). Male TRANS sex was an independent risk factor for mortality (OR 1.26, 95% 1.04-1.51) after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and baseline hypoxia MESHD. There were significant interactions between sex and coronary artery disease MESHD (p=0.038), obesity HP obesity MESHD (p=0.01), baseline hypoxia MESHD (p<0.001), ferritin (p=0.002), lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.003), and procalcitonin (p=0.03). Except for procalcitonin, which had the opposite association, each of these factors was associated with disproportionately higher mortality among women. Conclusions: Male TRANS sex was an independent predictor of mortality, consistent with prior studies. Notably, there were significant sex-specific interactions which indicated a disproportionate increase in mortality among women with coronary artery disease MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, and hypoxia MESHD. These new findings highlight patient subgroups for further study and help explain the recognized sex differences in COVID-19 outcomes.

    A Comprehensive Evaluation of Early Predictors of Disease MESHD Progression in Patients with COVID-19: A Case Control Study

    Authors: Qiang Tang; Yanwei Liu; Yingfeng Fu; Ziyang Di; Kailiang Xu; Bo Tang; Hui Wu; Maojun Di

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50527/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has become an unprecedented public health crisis with nearly 16 million confirmed cases TRANS and 630,000 deaths worldwide. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological and treatment data of COVID-19 patients consecutively enrolled from January 18 to May 15, 2020, in Taihe and Jinzhou central hospital. Results: Of all 197 patients, the median age TRANS was 66.5 years (IQR 7-76), and 120 (60.9%) patients were males TRANS. We identified 88 (44.7%) of 197 COVID-19 patients as the disease progression (aggravation) cases. The aggravation cases tend to have more medical comorbidity: hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (34.1%), diabetes MESHD (30.7%), and presented with dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD (34.1%), neutrophilia HP (60.2%), and lymphocytopenia MESHD (73.9%), compared with those without. And the patients with disease progression showed significantly higher level of Fibrinogen (Fbg), D-dimer, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and serum SERO ferritin, and were more prone to develop organ damage in the liver, kidney, and heart (P<0.05). Multivariable regression showed that advanced age TRANS, comorbidities, lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD, and elevated level of Fbg, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Cardiac troponin (CTnI), IL-6, serum SERO ferritin were the significant predictors of disease progression. Further, we investigated antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 and found that the levels of IgM and IgG were significantly higher in the disease progression cases compared to non-progression cases from 3 weeks after symptom onset TRANS. In addition, the disease progression group tended to peak later and has a more vigorous IgM/IgG response against SARS-CoV-2. Further, we performed Kaplan-Meier analysis and found that 61.6% of patients had not experienced ICU transfer or survival from hospital within 25 days from admission.Conclusions: Investigating the potential factors of advanced age TRANS, comorbidities and elevated level of IL-6, serum SERO ferritin and Kaplan-Meier analysis enables early identification and management of patients with poor prognosis. Detection of the dynamic antibody SERO may offer vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 and provide prognostic value for patients infection MESHD.  

    A return to normal kidney function in a Caucasian male TRANS after COVID-19 induced dialysis-requiring kidney failure MESHD

    Authors: Peter Okholm MD; Jan Kampmann MD

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44654/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 also known as COVID-19 has been recognized by WHO as a global pandemic and has spread to most of the world. The disease has a multitude of clinical presentations, and especially the development of acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD has been associated with increased mortality.Case Presentation: A 71-year old Caucasian male TRANS was admitted with fever HP fever MESHD and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD to the emergency department. His medical history included type 2 diabetes MESHD and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. Blood SERO tests showed a normal kidney function before admission with a creatinine of 0,8 mg/dL. Clinical examination, blood SERO tests and Chest X-ray suggested COVID-19. At admission the diagnose COVID-19 was confirmed, fluid therapy was commenced and Angiotensin-converting enzyme therapy discontinued. The patients was intubated due to respiratory failures HP respiratory failures MESHD and transferred to the intensive care ward where he developed acute anuric kidney failure MESHD and was started in continuous renal replacement therapy. After 6 days of dialysis treatment his kidney function slowly started to improve, and he was discharged after 26 days of admission. 42 days after admission his creatinine was measured to 1.3 mg/dLConclusion: We present the rare case of a Caucasian male TRANS, who not only survived COVID-19 induced kidney failure MESHD that required continuous renal replacement therapy, but returned to almost baseline creatinine. We discuss the role of Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment in COVID-19 and the potential pathophysiological mechanism surrounding AKI in COVID-19 patients in literature, and connect it to our case report.

    Clinical characteristics and Mortality risk factors among COVID-19 patients in Qom–Iran; The results of a Retrospective Cohort study

    Authors: Ahmad Hormati; SeyedYaser Foroghi Ghomi; masoudreza sohrabi; Ali Gholami; Saeede Jafari; Amir Jabbari; Reza AminNejad; Javad Khodadadi; Mansoureh shakeri; Alireza ShahHamzeh; Mahbobeh Afifian; Zohre Azad; Sajjad Ahmadpour; MohammadHadi Karbalai; MohammadReza Babaei; Parisa Karimzadeh; SeyedKamal Esshagh Hosseini

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-42497/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background & AimCoronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the Middle East was initially reported in Qom-Iran. Clinical and epidemiologic and mortality risk factors details have not been already fully explained.MethodIn a retrospective study, the hospitalized adult TRANS patients with laboratory diagnosed COVID-19 between February 25 to March 20, 2020 were enrolled. A checklist including demographic, clinical, laboratorial, imaging, and treatment data was completed for each of the participant. The data were extracted from electronic medical records. In case of lack of information, a member of the research team contacted them via phone. All the dead patients and the first one hundred survived patients with these criteria were enrolled in the study. Outcome defined as death MESHD or discharge of patients.ResultsOf admitted patients, 200 patients who had been discharged or died were involved in this study. The majority of them were male TRANS (56%). The mean age TRANS of all patients was 62.63 ± 14.9. Co-morbidity was reported in 124 (62%) patients in which hypertension HP hypertension MESHD was the most common. The most frequent clinical presentations were dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD in 169 (84.5%), cough HP cough MESHD in 150 (75%), and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD/weakness in 123 (61.5%) patients. The main complications were respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome with prevalence SERO of 143 (71.5%) and 105 (52.5%), accordingly. Multiple logistic models showed that decline of hemoglobin level (OR = 10.09), neutrophilia HP (OR = 3.48), high blood SERO urea nitrogen (OR = 4.29,), SpO2 ≤ 90% (OR = 3.38), and presence of patchy consolidation (OR = 6.81) were associated with poor outcome.ConclusionCOVID-19 disease has multiple aspects. CT scan findings, complete blood SERO count with differential, high blood SERO urea nitrogen and SpO2 are related to mortality. Hence needs to pay serious attention during admitting and surveillance, particularly among elderly TRANS patients and who with preexisting morbidities.

    Mediating Effect of Deteriorated Kidney Function MESHD in Comorbidity-related Excess Deaths MESHD in COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Authors: Dongling Luo; Qiaomei Liu; Changming Xie; Weidong Wang; Xiong Wang; Juan Wu; Maomao Xi; Yilin Yin; Di Xiong; Yuwei Wu; Yuqing Xie; Ximin Shi; Pengcheng Luo; Fang Dong; Hui Huang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41904/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background In-hospital death risks vary in COVID-19 patients with comorbidities. Kidney function decline is prevalent in this course. Methods To explore the exact role of deteriorated kidney function, we applied a retrospective cohort study including 1266 participants in Wuhan Tongren Hospital between January 27 and March 3, 2020. Demographic characteristics, preexisting comorbidities history, organ function data and outcomes were extracted. Deteriorated kidney MESHD function was identified as the decline percentage, assessed by an increase in peak serum SERO creatinine from the baseline. Mediating effect was calculated by mediation analysis. Key Results 1266 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (60±15 years, 47.8% are male TRANS) were included, with an overall in-hospital death rate of 4.42% (56/1266). For critical cases, 77.02% had at least one preexisting comorbidity. Patients with comorbidities suffered higher in-hospital death MESHD and more severe decline of kidney function. Compared to patients with minor function decline (<10%), significant risk increase was found in those with more severe one (OR 3.57; 95%CI 1.70 to 7.52; P=.001 for moderate with 10-50% decline, and 37.45; 95%CI 18.71 to 74.55; P<.001 for severe with>50%). More interestingly, the mediation analysis found deteriorated kidney function played as an important mediator between different comorbidities and COVID-19 patients’ in-hospital death, with the mediation effect of 11%, 12%, 16% and 32% respectively for hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, COPD, CVD and CKD.Conclusions Deteriorated kidney function MESHD is strongly associated with increase of in-hospital death in COVID-19 and partially mediates the facilitating effect of preexisting comorbidities on in-hospital death. Thus, dynamic monitoring kidney function, preventing the deterioration of kidney function MESHD might be helpful to improve survival in COVID-19 patients, especially those with preexisting comorbidities.

    Clinical Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP diagnosed in a primary care practice in Madrid (Spain)

    Authors: Marina Guisado-Clavero; Ana Herrero Gil; Marta Pérez Álvarez; Marta Castelo Jurado; Ana Herrera Marinas; Vanesa Aguilar Ruiz; Ileana Gefaell Iarrondo; Miguel Menéndez; Sara Ares-Blanco

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-42357/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Possible cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were diagnosed in primary care in Madrid, some of these cases had pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Most of the SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP published data came from hospitalised patients. This study set out to describe clinical characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP diagnosed in primary care across age groups TRANS and type of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.Methods: Observational retrospective study obtaining clinical data from the electronic health records of patients who were followed-up by SARS-CoV-2 possible infection in a primary care practice in Madrid. All the cases were collected by in-person or remote consultation during the 10th March to the 7th of April. Exposure: Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP by chest X-ray ordered by the GP. Main outcomes and measures: Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, physical examination and diagnostic tests as a blood SERO test, nasopharyngeal swab results for RT-PCR (Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and chest X-ray results. Results: The overall SARS-CoV-2 pneumonias MESHD pneumonias HP collected were 172 ( female TRANS 87 [50.6%], mean age TRANS 60.5 years (standard deviation [SD] 17.0). Comorbidities were body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 (90 [52.3%]), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD 83 [48.3%]), dyslipidaemia (68 [39.5%]) and diabetes MESHD (33 [19.2%]). The sample was stratified by age groups TRANS (<50 years, 50-75 years and ≥75 years). Clinical manifestations at onset were fever HP fever MESHD (144 [83.7%]), cough HP (140 [81.4%]), dyspnoea MESHD (103 [59.9%]) and gastrointestinal disturbances MESHD (72 [41.9%]). Day 7.8 (SD:4.1) from clinical onset was the mean day of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD diagnosis. Bilateral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP was more prevalent than unilateral (126 [73.3%]) and 46 [26.7%]). Patients with unilateral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were prone to higher pulse oximetry (96% vs 94%, p <0.001). We found differences between unilateral and bilateral cases in C-reactive protein (29.6 vs 81.5mg/L, p <0.001), and lymphocytes (1400.0 vs 1000.0E3/ml, p<0.001). Complications were registered: 42 (100%) of patients ≥75 years were admitted into hospital; pulmonary embolism HP pulmonary embolism MESHD was only present at bilateral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (7 patients [5.6%]) and death MESHD occurred in 1 patient with unilateral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (2.2%) vs 10 patients (7.9%) with bilateral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP ( p 0.170).Conclusion: Clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD and dyspnoea; this was especially clear in the elderly TRANS. We described different characteristics between unilateral and bilateral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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