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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes of Covid-19 Patients With and Without Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD in Lagos, Nigeria: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Authors: Akin Osibogun; Akin Abayomi; Oluchi Kanma-Okafor; Jide Idris; Abimbola Bowale; Ololade Wright; Bisola Adebayo; Segun Ogboye; Remi Adeseun; Ismael Abdus-Salam; Bamidele Mutiu; Babatunde Saka; Dayo Lajide; Sam Yenyi; Rotimi Agbolagorite; Oluwatosin Onasanya; Eniola Erinosho; Joshua Obasanya; Olu Adejumo; Sunday Adesola; Yewande Oshodi; IorhenE Akase; Shina Ogunbiyi; Adenike Omosun; Femi Erinoso; Hussein Abdur-Razzaq; Nike Osa; Kingsley Akinroye

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70014/v1 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The current pandemic of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has shown epidemiological and clinical characteristics that appear worsened in hypertensive MESHD patients with COVID-19. The morbidity and mortality of the disease among hypertensive MESHD patients in Africa have yet to be well described.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study all confirmed COVID-19 adult TRANS patients (≥18 years of age TRANS) in Lagos between February 27 to July 6 2020 were included. Demographic, clinical and outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records of patients admitted at the COVID-19 isolation centers in Lagos. Outcomes included dying or being discharged by July 6, 2020. Variables were compared between hypertensive MESHD and non-hypertensives MESHD using univariable and multivariable logistic regression, cox regression and Kaplan Meier survival analysis methods to assess hypertension HP hypertension MESHD as a risk factor associated with worsened disease severity and death MESHD.Results: A total of 2075 adults TRANS with COVID-19 were included in this study. The prevalence SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD was 17.8% and it was the most common comorbidity followed by diabetes MESHD (7.2%) and asthma HP asthma MESHD (2.0%). Overall mortality from COVID-19 was 4.2% while mortality among the hypertensives MESHD was 13.7%. Severe symptoms and mortality were significantly higher among the hypertensives MESHD and survival rates were significantly lowered by the presence of an additional comorbidity to 50% from 91% for those with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD alone and from 98% for all other patients (P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, severe COVID-19 disease and death MESHD were higher for hypertensives MESHD (severe/critical illness: HR=2.41, P=0.001, 95%CI=1.4–4.0, death: HR=2.30, P=0.001, 95%CI=1.2–4.6, for those with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD only). Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD posed an increased risk of severe morbidity and death MESHD from coronavirus disease MESHD in the presence of other comorbidities (severe/critical illness: HR=3.76, P=0.001, 95%CI=2.1–6.4, death: crude HR=6.63, P=0.001, 95%CI=3.4–1.6, for those with additional comorbidities).Conclusion: The potential morbidity and mortality risks of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD especially with other comorbidities in COVID-19 could help direct efforts towards prevention and prognostication. This provides the rationale for improving preventive caution for people with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and other comorbidities and prioritizing them for future antiviral interventions.

    Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Diabetic MESHD COVID-19 patients in Kuwait

    Authors: Hamad Ali; Abdullah Alshukry; Mohammad Bu Abbas; Yaseen Ali; Barrak Alahmad; Abdullah A Al-Shammari; Mohamed Abu-farha; Jehad Abubakr; Srirman Devarajan; Ali A. Dashti; Fahd Al-Mulla; Chris Gale; Mamas Mamas; Ian Reckless; Tim Brooks; Andre Charlett; Matthew Hickman; Isabel Oliver; David Wyllie

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.20.20178525 Date: 2020-08-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, in 2019 and rapidly turned into a global pandemic, resulting in what is now known as Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 has a highly variable clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic TRANS to severe respiratory symptoms MESHD and death MESHD. Diabetes MESHD seems to be one of the main comorbidities contributing to a worse COVID-19 outcome. Methods: In this single-center, retrospective study of 417 consecutive COVID-19 patients in Kuwait, we analyze and compare disease severity, outcome, associated complications, and clinical laboratory findings between diabetic MESHD and non-diabetic MESHD COVID-19 patients. Results: COVID-19 patients with diabetes MESHD had a higher prevalence SERO of comorbidities, such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, higher levels of inflammatory markers, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and a higher incidence of complications. All of these factors could lead to more severe outcomes and higher mortality than non- diabetic MESHD COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: Diabetes MESHD could be a major contributor to COVID-19 worsening outcomes.

    Diabetic MESHD Patients with Comorbidities had Worse Outcomes When Suffered with COVID-19 and Acarbose might have Protective Effects

    Authors: Weihua Hu, MD; Shunkui Luo; Zhanjin Lu, MD; Chang Li; Qijian Chen; Yameng Fan; Zaishu Chen; Longlong Wu; Jianfang Ye; Shiyan Chen; Junlu Tong; Lingling Wang; Jin Mei; Hongyun Lu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57456/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Previous studies showed that diabetes MESHD was a common comorbidity of COVID-19, but the effects of diabetes MESHD or anti- diabetic MESHD drugs on the mortality of COVID-19 have not been well described. To investigate the outcome of different status (with or without comorbidity) and anti- diabetic MESHD medication before admission of diabetic MESHD patients after SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD, we collected clinical data of COVID-19 patients from Hubei Province and compared between diabetes MESHD and non-diabetes MESHD.Methods: In this multicenter and retrospective study, we enrolled 1,422 cases of consecutive hospitalized patients from January 21, 2020 to March 25, 2020 at six hospitals in Hubei Province, China. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality.Results: Diabetes MESHD patients were 10-years older than non-diabetes MESHD (p<0.001), had higher prevalence SERO of comorbidities such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (p<0.001), coronary heart disease MESHD (p<0.001), cerebrovascular disease MESHD ( CVD MESHD) (p<0.001), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD ( CKD MESHD) (p=0.007). The incidence of mortality (p=0.003) were more prevalent among the diabetes MESHD group. Further analysis revealed that diabetes MESHD patients who took alpha-glucosidase inhibitor ( AGI MESHD) had lower mortality rate(p<0.01). Multivariable Cox regression showed that male TRANS sex, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, CKD MESHD, CVD MESHD, age TRANS were risk factors for the mortality of COVID-19. Survival curve revealed that, compared with diabetes MESHD only group, the mortality was increased in diabetes MESHD with comorbidities (p=0.009), but had no significant difference in the non-comorbidity group, p=0.59).Conclusions: Patients with diabetes MESHD had worse outcome when suffered with COVID-19, however, it was not associated with diabetes MESHD itself but the comorbidities. Furthermore, the administration of AGI could reduce the risk of death MESHD in patients with diabetes MESHD.

    Air pollution, sociodemographic and health conditions effects on COVID-19 mortality in Colombia: an ecological study

    Authors: Laura A Rodriguez-Villamizar; Luis Carlos Belalcazar-Ceron; Julian Alfredo Fernandez-Nino; Diana Marcela Marin-Pineda; Oscar Alberto Rojas-Sanchez; Lizbeth Alexandra Acuna-Merchan; Nathaly Ramirez-Garcia; Sonia Cecilia Mangones-Matos; Jorge Mario Vargas-Gonzalez; Julian Herrera-Torres; Dayana Milena Agudelo-Castaneda; Juan Gabriel Pineros-Jimenez; Nestor Y Rojas-Roa; Victor Mauricio Herrera-Galindo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.22.20159293 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To determine the association between chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sociodemographic aspects, and health conditions and COVID-19 mortality in Colombia. Methods: Ecological study using data at the municipality level, as units of analysis. COVID-19 data were obtained from official reports up to and including July 17th, 2020. PM2.5 long-term exposure was defined as the 2014-2018 average of the estimated concentrations at municipalities obtained from the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service Reanalysis (CAMSRA) model. We fit a logit-negative binomial hurdle model for the mortality rate adjusting for sociodemographic and health conditions. Results: Estimated mortality rate ratios (MRR) for long-term average PM2.5 were not statistically significant in either of the two components of the hurdle model (i.e., the likelihood of reporting at least one death MESHD or the count of fatal cases). We found that having 10% or more of the population over 65 years of age TRANS (MRR=3.91 95%CI 2.24-6.81), the poverty index (MRR=1.03 95%CI 1.01-1.05), and the prevalence SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD over 6% (MRR=1.32 95%CI1.03-1.68) are the main factors associated with death MESHD rate at the municipality level. Having a higher hospital beds capacity is inversely correlated to mortality. Conclusions: There was no evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and mortality rate at the municipality level in Colombia. Demographics, health system capacity, and social conditions did have evidence of an ecological effect on COVID-19 mortality.

    Higher Comorbidities and Early Death is Characteristic of Hospitalized African-American Patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Raavi Gupta; Raag Agrawal; Zaheer Bukhari; Absia Jabbar; Donghai Wang; John Diks; Mohamed Alshal; Dokpe Yvonne Emechebe; F. Charles Brunicardi; Jason M Lazar; Robert Chamberlain; Aaliya Burza; M. A. Haseeb

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.15.20154906 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background African-Americans/Blacks have suffered higher morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 than all other racial groups. This study aims to identify the causes of this health disparity, determine prognostic indicators, and assess efficacy of treatment interventions. Method We performed a retrospective cohort study of clinical features and laboratory data of COVID-19 patients admitted over a five-week period at the height of the pandemic in the United States. This study was performed at an urban academic medical center in New York City, declared a COVID-only facility, serving a majority Black population Result Of the 1,070 consecutive patients who tested positive for COVID-19, 496 critically ill patients were hospitalized and included in the study. 88% of patients were Black; and a majority (53%) were 61-80 years old with a mean body mass index in the ' obese MESHD' range. 97% had one or more comorbidities. Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD was the most common (84%) pre-existing condition followed by diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (57%) and chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (24%). Patients with chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD and end-stage renal disease MESHD who received hemodialysis were found to have significantly lower mortality, then those who did not receive it, suggesting benefit from hemodialysis (11%, OR, 0.35, CI, 0.17 - 0.69 P=0.001). Age TRANS >60 years and coronary artery disease MESHD were independent predictors of mortality in multivariate analysis. Cox Proportional Hazards modeling for time to death MESHD demonstrated a significantly high ratio for COPD MESHD/ Asthma HP, and favorable effects on outcomes for pre-admission ACE inhibitors and ARBs. CRP (180, 283 mg/L), LDH (551, 638 U/L), glucose (182, 163 mg/dL), procalcitonin (1.03, 1.68 ng/mL), and neutrophil / lymphocyte ratio (8.5, 10.0) were predictive of mortality on admission and at 48-96 hrs. Of the 496 inpatients, 48% died, one third of patients died within the first three days of admission. 54/488 patients received invasive mechanical ventilation, of which 87% died and of the remaining patients, 32% died. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19 patients in our predominantly Black neighborhood had higher mortality, likely due to higher prevalence SERO of comorbidities. Early dialysis and pre-admission intake of ACE inhibitors/ARBs improved patient outcomes. Early escalation of care based on comorbidities and key laboratory indicators is critical for improving outcomes in African-American patients.

    Clinical characteristics and Mortality risk factors among COVID-19 patients in Qom–Iran; The results of a Retrospective Cohort study

    Authors: Ahmad Hormati; SeyedYaser Foroghi Ghomi; masoudreza sohrabi; Ali Gholami; Saeede Jafari; Amir Jabbari; Reza AminNejad; Javad Khodadadi; Mansoureh shakeri; Alireza ShahHamzeh; Mahbobeh Afifian; Zohre Azad; Sajjad Ahmadpour; MohammadHadi Karbalai; MohammadReza Babaei; Parisa Karimzadeh; SeyedKamal Esshagh Hosseini

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-42497/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background & AimCoronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the Middle East was initially reported in Qom-Iran. Clinical and epidemiologic and mortality risk factors details have not been already fully explained.MethodIn a retrospective study, the hospitalized adult TRANS patients with laboratory diagnosed COVID-19 between February 25 to March 20, 2020 were enrolled. A checklist including demographic, clinical, laboratorial, imaging, and treatment data was completed for each of the participant. The data were extracted from electronic medical records. In case of lack of information, a member of the research team contacted them via phone. All the dead patients and the first one hundred survived patients with these criteria were enrolled in the study. Outcome defined as death MESHD or discharge of patients.ResultsOf admitted patients, 200 patients who had been discharged or died were involved in this study. The majority of them were male TRANS (56%). The mean age TRANS of all patients was 62.63 ± 14.9. Co-morbidity was reported in 124 (62%) patients in which hypertension HP hypertension MESHD was the most common. The most frequent clinical presentations were dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD in 169 (84.5%), cough HP cough MESHD in 150 (75%), and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD/weakness in 123 (61.5%) patients. The main complications were respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome with prevalence SERO of 143 (71.5%) and 105 (52.5%), accordingly. Multiple logistic models showed that decline of hemoglobin level (OR = 10.09), neutrophilia HP (OR = 3.48), high blood SERO urea nitrogen (OR = 4.29,), SpO2 ≤ 90% (OR = 3.38), and presence of patchy consolidation (OR = 6.81) were associated with poor outcome.ConclusionCOVID-19 disease has multiple aspects. CT scan findings, complete blood SERO count with differential, high blood SERO urea nitrogen and SpO2 are related to mortality. Hence needs to pay serious attention during admitting and surveillance, particularly among elderly TRANS patients and who with preexisting morbidities.

    Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated with Death and Severe Disease MESHD in Patients Suffering From COVID-19: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Kunchok Dorjee; Hyunju Kim

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.19.20135483 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Progression of COVID-19 to severe disease and death MESHD is insufficiently understood. Objective: Summarize the prevalence SERO adverse outcomes, risk factors, and association of risk factors with adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase and Web of Science for case-series and observational studies of hospitalized COVID-19 patients through May 22, 2020. Data were analyzed by fixed-effects meta-analysis, using Shore adjusted confidence intervals to address heterogeneity. Results: Forty-four studies comprising 20594 hospitalized patients met inclusion criteria; 12591 from the US-Europe and 7885 from China. Pooled prevalence SERO of death [%(95% CI)] was 18% (15-22%). Of those that died, 76% were aged TRANS>=60 years, 68% were males TRANS, and 63%, 38%, and 29% had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD and heart disease MESHD, respectively. The case fatality risk [%(95% CI)] were 62% (48-78) for heart disease MESHD, 51% (36-71) for COPD MESHD, and 42% (34-50) for age TRANS>=60 years and 49% (33-71) for chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD ( CKD MESHD). Summary relative risk (sRR) of death MESHD were higher for age TRANS>=60 years [sRR=3.8; 95% CI: 2.9-4.8; n=12 studies], males TRANS [1.3; 1.2-1.5; 17], smoking history [1.9; 1.1-3.3; n=6], COPD [2.0; 1.6-2.4; n=9], hypertension HP hypertension MESHD [1.8; 1.7-2.0; n=14], diabetes MESHD [1.5; 1.4-1.7; n=16], heart disease MESHD [2.0; 1.7-2.4; 16] and CKD MESHD [2.0; 1.3-3.1; 8]. The overall prevalence SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (55%), diabetes MESHD (31%) and heart disease MESHD (16%) among COVODI-19 patients in the US were substantially higher than the general US population. Conclusions: Public health screening for COVID-19 can be prioritized based on risk-groups. A higher prevalence SERO of cardiovascular risk factors in COVID-19 patients can suggest increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition in the population.

    Risk factors for mortality in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Raigam Jafet Martinez-Portilla; Alexadros Sotiriadis; Johnatan Torres-Torres; Charzakis Christos; Ameth Hawkins-Villarreal; Jose Rafael Villafan-Bernal; Rodolfo A Gurrola-Ochoa; Francesc Figueras

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.31.20107276 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: medRxiv

    Since the first case of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD was described, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (coronavirus disease [COVID]-19) rapidly spread worldwide With 94,288 infections MESHD and more than 10,000 deaths, Mexico is the third Latin-American country in number of confirmed cases TRANS and second in mortality1. A major risk factor for adverse outcome in COVID-19 infection MESHD is the presence of advance age TRANS, co-morbidities including diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD among other non-communicable diseases2. Epidemiological data from high- prevalence SERO countries reveal that compared to men, women are less likely to die or to require hospital admission to intensive care. This may suggest that pregnant women are not more susceptible to infection MESHD or to experience serious complications. However, whether the presence of co-morbidities or advanced maternal age TRANS confers a higher risk of adverse outcome in pregnant women with COVID-19 is unknown3. In this research letter, we aimed at evaluating the risk factor associated with maternal mortality secondary to COVID-19 infection MESHD in a middle-income country. Advanced maternal age TRANS is linked to an increased risk of mortality, while diabetes MESHD is the most important risk factor for maternal death MESHD. This is partly explained by an increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases in women of advanced age TRANS which is a common feature in most countries4. In the last decades, low- and middle-income countries have experienced accelerated socio-cultural changes associated with its incorporation into the international economic community, which have increased the number of obese MESHD and diabetic MESHD population, including pregnant women5. This has caused an increased risk for complications and fatality among COVID-19 positive population2,3. Thus, policies for reducing obesity HP obesity MESHD and diabetes MESHD in low- and middle-income countries are most needed to reduce the mortality of COVID-19 in pregnant women.

    Association of age TRANS, sex, comorbidities, and clinical symptoms with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 cases: a meta-analysis with 85 studies and 67299 cases

    Authors: Mohammad Safiqul Islam; Md. Abdul Barek; Md. Abdul Aziz; Tutun Das Aka; Md. Jakaria

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20110965 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: A new pathogenic disease named COVID-19 became a global threat, first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The number of affected cases growing exponentially and now, more than 210 countries confirmed the cases TRANS. Objective: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate risk factors, the prevalence SERO of comorbidity, and clinical characteristics in COVID-19 death MESHD patients compared to survival patients that can be used as a reference for further research and clinical decisions. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, SAGE were searched to collect data about demographic, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities of confirmed COVID-19 patients from January 1, 2020, to May 17, 2020. Meta-analysis was performed with the use of Review Manager 5.3 Results: Eighty-five studies were included in Meta-analysis, including a total number of 67,299 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Males TRANS are severely affected or died than females TRANS (OR = 2.26, p < 0.00001; OR = 3.59, p < 0.00001) are severely affected, or died by COVID-19 and cases with age TRANS [≥]50 are at higher risk of death MESHD than age TRANS <50 years (OR=334.23). Presence of any comorbidity or comorbidities like hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, cerebrovascular disease MESHD, respiratory disease MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, liver disease MESHD, malignancy MESHD significantly increased the risk of death compared to survival (OR = 3.46, 3.16, 4.67, 2.45, 5.84, 2.68, 5.62, 2.81,2.16). Among the clinical characteristics such as fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, sputum production, chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD headache HP and nausea or vomiting HP nausea or vomiting MESHD, only fatigue HP fatigue MESHD (OR = 1.31, 95%) and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD increased the death significantly (OR= 1.31, 4.57). The rate of death of COVID-19 cases is 0.03-times lower than the rate of survival (OR = 0.03). Conclusion Our result indicates that male TRANS patients are affected severely or died, the rate of death is more in the age TRANS [≥]50 group, and the rate of death is affected by comorbidities and clinical symptoms.

    Number of International Arrivals Predicts Severity of the first Global Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Tiberiu A Pana; Sohinee Bhattacharya; David T Gamble; Zahra Pasdar; Weronika A Szlachetka; Jesus A Perdomo-Lampignano; David McLernon; Phyo K Myint

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.13.20100677 Date: 2020-05-16 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Reported death MESHD rates from different countries during the COVID-19 pandemic vary. Lack of universal testing and death underreporting make between-country comparisons difficult. The country-level determinants of COVID-19 mortality are unknown. Objective: Derive a measure of COVID-related death rates that is comparable across countries and identify its country-level predictors. Design: An ecological study design of publicly available data was employed. Countries reporting >25 COVID-related deaths until 08/06/2020 were included. The outcome was log mean mortality rate from COVID-19, an estimate of the country-level daily increase in reported deaths MESHD during the ascending phase of the epidemic curve. Potential determinants assessed were most recently published demographic parameters (population and population density, percentage population living in urban areas, median age TRANS, average body mass index, smoking prevalence SERO), Economic parameters (Gross Domestic Product per capita); environmental parameters: pollution levels, mean temperature (January-April)), co-morbidities ( prevalence SERO of diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and cancer MESHD), health system parameters (WHO Health Index and hospital beds per 10,000 population); international arrivals and the stringency index, as a measure of country-level response to COVID-19. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyse the data. Results: Thirty-seven countries were included. Of all country-level predictors included in the multivariable model, only total number of international arrivals was significantly associated with the mean death rate: Beta 0.040 (95% Confidence Interval 0.017, 0.063), P <0.001. Conclusions and Relevance: International travel TRANS was directly associated with the mortality slope and thus potentially the spread of COVID-19. Very early restrictions on international travel TRANS may be a very effective strategy to control COVID outbreak and prevent related deaths.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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