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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Altitude as a protective factor from COVID-19

    Authors: Timothy M Thomson; Fresia Casas; Harold Andre Guerrero; Rómulo Figueroa-Mujica; Francisco C Villafuerte; Claudia Machicado

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167262 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic had a delayed onset in South America compared to Asia (outside of China), Europe or North America. In spite of the presumed time advantage for the implementation of preventive measures to help contain its spread, the pandemic in that region followed growth rates that paralleled, and currently exceed, those observed several weeks before in Europe. Indeed, in early August, 2020, many countries in South and Central America presented among the highest rates in the world of COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS and deaths per million inhabitants. Here, we have taken an ecological approach to describe the current state of the pandemic in Peru and its dynamics. Our analysis supports a protective effect of altitude from COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Further, we provide circumstantial evidence that internal migration through a specific land route is a significant factor progressively overriding the protection from COVID-19 afforded by high altitude. Finally, we show that protection by altitude is independent of poverty indexes and is inversely correlated with the prevalence SERO in the population of risk factors associated with severe COVID-19, including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and hypercholesterolemia HP hypercholesterolemia MESHD. We discuss long-term multisystemic adaptations to hypobaric hypoxia MESHD as possible mechanisms that may explain the observed protective effect of high altitude from death from COVID-19.

    Risk factors for mortality in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Raigam Jafet Martinez-Portilla; Alexadros Sotiriadis; Johnatan Torres-Torres; Charzakis Christos; Ameth Hawkins-Villarreal; Jose Rafael Villafan-Bernal; Rodolfo A Gurrola-Ochoa; Francesc Figueras

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.31.20107276 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: medRxiv

    Since the first case of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD was described, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (coronavirus disease [COVID]-19) rapidly spread worldwide With 94,288 infections MESHD and more than 10,000 deaths, Mexico is the third Latin-American country in number of confirmed cases TRANS and second in mortality1. A major risk factor for adverse outcome in COVID-19 infection MESHD is the presence of advance age TRANS, co-morbidities including diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD among other non-communicable diseases2. Epidemiological data from high- prevalence SERO countries reveal that compared to men, women are less likely to die or to require hospital admission to intensive care. This may suggest that pregnant women are not more susceptible to infection MESHD or to experience serious complications. However, whether the presence of co-morbidities or advanced maternal age TRANS confers a higher risk of adverse outcome in pregnant women with COVID-19 is unknown3. In this research letter, we aimed at evaluating the risk factor associated with maternal mortality secondary to COVID-19 infection MESHD in a middle-income country. Advanced maternal age TRANS is linked to an increased risk of mortality, while diabetes MESHD is the most important risk factor for maternal death MESHD. This is partly explained by an increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases in women of advanced age TRANS which is a common feature in most countries4. In the last decades, low- and middle-income countries have experienced accelerated socio-cultural changes associated with its incorporation into the international economic community, which have increased the number of obese MESHD and diabetic MESHD population, including pregnant women5. This has caused an increased risk for complications and fatality among COVID-19 positive population2,3. Thus, policies for reducing obesity HP obesity MESHD and diabetes MESHD in low- and middle-income countries are most needed to reduce the mortality of COVID-19 in pregnant women.

    Association of age TRANS, sex, comorbidities, and clinical symptoms with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 cases: a meta-analysis with 85 studies and 67299 cases

    Authors: Mohammad Safiqul Islam; Md. Abdul Barek; Md. Abdul Aziz; Tutun Das Aka; Md. Jakaria

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20110965 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: A new pathogenic disease named COVID-19 became a global threat, first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The number of affected cases growing exponentially and now, more than 210 countries confirmed the cases TRANS. Objective: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate risk factors, the prevalence SERO of comorbidity, and clinical characteristics in COVID-19 death MESHD patients compared to survival patients that can be used as a reference for further research and clinical decisions. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, SAGE were searched to collect data about demographic, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities of confirmed COVID-19 patients from January 1, 2020, to May 17, 2020. Meta-analysis was performed with the use of Review Manager 5.3 Results: Eighty-five studies were included in Meta-analysis, including a total number of 67,299 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Males TRANS are severely affected or died than females TRANS (OR = 2.26, p < 0.00001; OR = 3.59, p < 0.00001) are severely affected, or died by COVID-19 and cases with age TRANS [≥]50 are at higher risk of death MESHD than age TRANS <50 years (OR=334.23). Presence of any comorbidity or comorbidities like hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, cerebrovascular disease MESHD, respiratory disease MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, liver disease MESHD, malignancy MESHD significantly increased the risk of death compared to survival (OR = 3.46, 3.16, 4.67, 2.45, 5.84, 2.68, 5.62, 2.81,2.16). Among the clinical characteristics such as fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, sputum production, chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD headache HP and nausea or vomiting HP nausea or vomiting MESHD, only fatigue HP fatigue MESHD (OR = 1.31, 95%) and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD increased the death significantly (OR= 1.31, 4.57). The rate of death of COVID-19 cases is 0.03-times lower than the rate of survival (OR = 0.03). Conclusion Our result indicates that male TRANS patients are affected severely or died, the rate of death is more in the age TRANS [≥]50 group, and the rate of death is affected by comorbidities and clinical symptoms.

    Risk factors affecting COVID-19 case fatality rate: A quantitative analysis of top 50 affected countries

    Authors: Hui Poh Goh; Wafiah Ilyani Mahari; Norhadyrah Izazie Ahad; Liling Chaw; Nurolaini Kifli; Bey Hing Goh; Siang Fei Yeoh; Long Chiau Ming

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.20.20108449 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Latest clinical data on treatment on coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) indicated that older patients and those with underlying history of smoking, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD or diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD might have poorer prognosis of recovery from COVID-19. We aimed to examine the relationship of various prevailing population-based risk factors in comparison with mortality rate and case fatality rate (CFR) of COVID-19. Methods: Demography and epidemiology data which have been identified as verified or postulated risk factors for mortality of adult TRANS inpatients with COVID-19 were used. The number of confirmed cases TRANS and the number of deaths until April 16, 2020 for all affected countries were extracted from Johns Hopkins University COVID-19 websites. Datasets for indicators that are fitting with the factors of COVID-19 mortality were extracted from the World Bank database. Out of about 185 affected countries, only top 50 countries were selected to be analyzed in this study. The following seven variables were included in the analysis, based on data availability and completeness: 1) proportion of people aged TRANS 65 above, 2) proportion of male TRANS in the population, 3) diabetes MESHD prevalence SERO, 4) smoking prevalence SERO, 5) current health expenditure, 6) number of hospital beds and 7) number of nurses and midwives. Quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the correlation between CFR and the aforementioned risk factors. Results: United States shows about 0.20% of confirmed cases TRANS in its country and it has about 4.85% of CFR. Luxembourg shows the highest percentage of confirmed cases TRANS of 0.55% but a low 2.05% of CFR, showing that a high percentage of confirmed cases TRANS does not necessarily lead to high CFR. There is a significant correlation between CFR, people aged TRANS 65 and above (p = 0.35) and diabetes MESHD prevalence SERO (p = 0.01). However, in our study, there is no significant correlation between CFR of COVID-19, male TRANS gender TRANS (p = 0.26) and smoking prevalence SERO (p = 0.60). Conclusion: Older people above 65 years old and diabetic MESHD patients are significant risk factors for COVID-19. Nevertheless, gender TRANS differences and smoking prevalence SERO failed to prove a significant relationship with COVID-19 mortality rate and CFR. Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, risk, epidemiology, fatality, age TRANS, diabetes MESHD

    An Analysis on the Clinical Features of MHD MESHD Patients with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019: A Single Center Study

    Authors: cheng li; Min Yonglong; Tu Can; Mao Dongdong; Wan Sheng; Liu Haifeng; Xiong Fei

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-18043/v1 Date: 2020-03-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In this study, we aimed to find out the features of the maintenance hemodialysis ( MHD MESHD) patients infected with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in the Blood SERO Purification Center of Wuhan No.1 Hospital, Hubei Province, China, and provide evidences for clinical treatment.Methods: We collected the data of all the MHD MESHD patients in this hemodialysis center by February 20, 2020, including those infected with COVID-19. These patients were divided into three groups: the control group (537 cases), confirmed TRANS group (66 cases) and suspected group (24 cases). We compared the relevant data of the three groups and analyzed the factors that may affect the possibility of catching COVID-19.Results: 1. By February 20, 2020, there were 627 MHD MESHD patients in the Hemodialysis Center of Wuhan No.1 Hospital. The prevalence SERO rate of the COVID-19 was 14.35% (90/627, including 66 confirmed cases TRANS and 24 suspected cases); the fatality rate 13.33% (12/90, including 12 death MESHD cases); the mortality rate 1.91% (12/627).2. The comparison between the three groups revealed the following results: weekly hemodialysis duration ( WHD MESHD), ultrafiltration volume (UFV) and ultrafiltration rate (UFR) of the confirmed group were obviously lower than those of the control and suspected groups (P<0.05); the neutrophil ratio (N%), neutrophil (N#), monocyte (M#) and total carbon dioxide (TCO2) were significantly higher than those of the control group while the lymphocyte ratio (L%) was much lower (P<0.05).3. The lung CT scans found three common features: bilateral abnormalities (81.54%), multiple abnormalities MESHD (84.62%) and patchy opacity (61.54%).4. The binary logstic regression analysis showed that diabetes MESHD (OR=5.404,95% CI 1.950~14.976, P=0.001) and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (OR=3.099,95% CI 1.380~6.963, P=0.006) are independent risk factors for MHD MESHD patients to be infected with COVID-19; WHD (OR=0.846,95% CI 0.737~0.970, P=0.017), UFR (OR=0.012,95% CI 0.002~0.058, P<0.001) and serum SERO ferritin (SF, OR=0.823,95% CI 0.748~0.906, P<0.001) are independent protective factors.Conclusion: MHD MESHD patients with diabetes MESHD or hypertension HP hypertension MESHD are more likely to be infected with COVID-19. In clinical treatment, hemodialysis duration, UFR and SF levels should be controlled appropriately to reduce the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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