Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 69
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    Deep Immune Profiling of MIS-C demonstrates marked but transient immune activation compared to adult TRANS and pediatric COVID-19

    Authors: Laura Vella; Josephine R. Giles; Amy E. Baxter; Derek A Oldridge; Caroline Diorio; Cecile Alanio; Maria Betina Pampena; Jennifer E Wu; Zeyu Chen; Yinghui Jane Huang; Elizabeth M. Anderson; Sigrid Gouma; Kevin O. McNerney; Julie Chase; Chakkapong Burudpakdee; Jessica H. Lee; Sokratis A. Apostolidis; Alexander C. Huang; Divij Mathew; Oliva Kuthuru; Eileen C. Goodwin; Madison E. Weirick; Marcus J. Bolton; Claudia P. Arevalo; Andre Ramos; Cristina Jasen; Heather M. Giannini; Kurt DAndrea; - The UPenn COVID Processing Unit; Nuala J. Meyer; Edward M. Behrens; Hamid Bassiri; Scott E. Hensley; Sarah E. Henrickson; David T. Teachey; Michael Michael R. Betts; E. John Wherry

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.25.20201863 Date: 2020-09-27 Source: medRxiv

    Pediatric COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is associated with fewer hospitalizations and often milder disease than in adults TRANS. A subset of children TRANS, however, present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD in Children TRANS (MIS-C) that can lead to vascular complications and shock HP, but rarely death MESHD. The immune features of MIS-C compared to pediatric COVID-19 or adult TRANS disease remain poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood SERO immune responses in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected pediatric MESHD patients (pediatric COVID-19) and patients with MIS-C. MIS-C patients had patterns of T cell-biased lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD and T cell activation similar to severely ill adults TRANS, and all patients with MIS-C had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies SERO at admission. A distinct feature of MIS-C patients was robust activation of vascular patrolling CX3CR1+ CD8 T cells that correlated with use of vasoactive medication. Finally, whereas pediatric COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) had sustained immune activation, MIS-C patients displayed clinical improvement over time, concomitant with decreasing immune activation. Thus, non-MIS-C versus MIS-C SARS-CoV-2 associated illnesses are characterized by divergent immune signatures that are temporally distinct and implicate CD8 T cells in clinical presentation and trajectory of MIS-C.

    NF-kappaB pathway as a potential target for treatment of critical stage COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Ralf Kircheis; Emanuel Haasbach; Daniel Lueftenegger; Will T. Heyken; Matthias Ocker; Oliver Planz

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-81422/v1 Date: 2020-09-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mild febrile illness MESHD and cough HP up to acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome, multiple organ failure MESHD and death MESHD. Data from patients with severe clinical manifestations compared to patients with mild symptoms indicate that highly dysregulated exuberant inflammatory responses correlate with severity of disease and lethality. Epithelial-immune cell interactions and elevated cytokine and chemokine levels, i.e. cytokine storm, seem to play a central role in severity and lethality in COVID-19. The present perspective places a central cellular pro-inflammatory signal pathway, NF-kappaB, in the context of recently published data for COVID-19 and provides a hypothesis for a therapeutic approach aiming at the simultaneous inhibition of whole cascades of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The simultaneous inhibition of multiple cytokines/chemokines is expected to have much higher therapeutic potential as compared to single target approaches to prevent cascade (i.e. triggering, synergistic, and redundant) effects of multiple induced cytokines and chemokines in critical stage COVID-19 patients.

    SARS-CoV-2 spike D614G variant exhibits highly efficient replication and transmission TRANS in hamsters

    Authors: Bobo Mok; Conor J. Cremin; Siu-Ying Lau; Shaofeng Deng; Pin Chen; Jinxia Zhang; Andrew Lee; HOnglian Liu; Siwen Liu; Timothy Ting-Leung Ng; Hiu-Yin Lao; Eddie Lam-Kwong Lee; Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung; Pui Wang; Kelvin To; Jasper Chan; Kwok-Hung Chan; Kwok-Yung Yuen; Gilman Kit-Hang Siu; Honglin Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-81279/v1 Date: 2020-09-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    SARS-CoV-2 causes disease varying in severity from asymptomatic TRANS infections to severe HP infections to severe MESHD respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD and death MESHD in humans. The viral factors which determine transmissibility TRANS and pathogenicity are not yet clearly characterized. We used the hamster infection MESHD model to compare the replication ability and pathogenicity of five SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated from early cases originating in Wuhan, China, in February, and infected individuals returning from Europe and elsewhere in March 2020. The HK-13 and HK-95 isolates showed distinct pathogenicity in hamsters, with higher virus titers MESHD and more severe pathological changes in the lungs observed compared to other isolates. HK-95 contains a D614G substitution in the spike protein and demonstrated higher viral gene expression and transmission TRANS efficiency in hamsters. Intra-host diversity analysis revealed that further quasi species were generated during hamster infections, indicating that strain-specific adaptive mutants with advantages in replication and transmission TRANS will continue to arise and dominate subsequent waves of SARS-CoV-2 dissemination MESHD.

    Surfactant Therapy for COVID-19 Related ARDS: A Retrospective Case-Control Pilot Study.

    Authors: Simone Piva; DiBlasi Robert; April E Slee; Alan H Jobe; Aldo M Roccaro; Matteo Filippini; Nicola Latronico; Michele Bertoni; John C Marshall; Michael A Portman

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-78815/v1 Date: 2020-09-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background. COVID-19 causes acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) and depletes the lungs of surfactant, leading to prolonged mechanical ventilation and death MESHD. The feasibility and safety of surfactant delivery in COVID-19 ARDS MESHD patients have not been established. Methods. We performed retrospective analyses of data from patients receiving off-label use of natural surfactant during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Seven COVID-19 PCR positive ARDS MESHD patients received liquid Curosurf (720 mg) in 150 ml normal saline, divided into five 30 ml aliquots) and delivered via a bronchoscope into second-generation bronchi. Patients were matched with 14 comparable subjects receiving supportive care for ARDS during the same time period. Feasibility and safety were examined as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. Results. Patients showed no evidence of acute decompensation following surfactant installation into minor bronchi and lung retention for up to 2 hours.  Cox regression showed a reduction of 28-days mortality within the surfactant group, though not significant. The surfactant did not increase the duration of ventilation, and health care providers did not convert to COVID-19 positive. Conclusions. Surfactant delivery through bronchoscopy at a dose of 720 mg in 150 ml normal saline is feasible and safe for COVID-19 ARDS MESHD patients and health care providers during the pandemic. Surfactant administration does not cause acute decompensation, and it could be related to improved survival and reduction of mechanical ventilation duration. This study supports the future performance SERO of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of meticulous surfactant delivery. 

    Respiratory Rehabilitation After Blood SERO Transfusion in a COVID-19 Patient: A Case Report

    Authors: Mohammad Javad Mousavi; Narges Obeidi; Saeed keshmiri; Farzan Azodi; Jamile Kiyani; Farhad Abbasi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-78131/v1 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the most crucial threat of the century. Due to severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD), the SARS-CoV-2 can cause shortness of breath MESHD, hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD, and the need to mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) management, and eventual death MESHD. We have tried to use a non-invasive approach to prevent patient from needing respiratory support with invasive ventilation (IV). Here, for the first time, improvement of oxygen delivery and oxygen saturation levels were observed in a COVID-19 patient using packed red blood SERO cells (PRBCs) transfusion.Case presentation: A 63-year-old man with a history of smoking and addiction who came to our hospital facility with fever HP fever MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD and decreased blood SERO oxygen saturation. High-resolution chest CT revealed bilateral and multifocal ground-glass opacities consistent with COVID-19. Subsequently, the COVID-19 infection was confirmed TRANS infection was confirmed MESHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay of the upper respiratory tract. Conclusions: Oxygen delivery and oxygen saturation improvement were observed in the COVID-19 patient, after PRBCs transfusions.

    Association of Initial Symptoms or Comorbidities With Pneumonia HP Pneumonia MESHD Lesions in COVID-19 Patients: Based on Artificial Intelligence-Enabled CT Quantitation

    Authors: Fangzhengyuan Yuan; Chuan Liu; Jie Yang; Hu Tan; Shizhu Bian; Xubin Gao; Jihang Zhang; Mingdong Hu; Renzheng Chen; Yang Shen; Jingbin Ke; Yuanqi Yang; Chunyan He; Ran Cheng; Lan Huang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-78075/v1 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a larger ratio of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD lesions are more likely to progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome and death MESHD. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of baseline parameters with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD lesions on admission, as quantified by an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm using computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: This retrospective study quantitatively assessed lung lesions on CT using an AI algorithm in 1630 consecutive patients confirmed with COVID-19 on admission and classified the patients into none (0%), mild (>0–25%), intermediate (>25–50%), and severe (>50%) groups, according to the lesion ratio of the whole lung. A multivariate linear regression model was established to explore the relationship between the lesion ratio and laboratory parameters. The baseline parameters associated with lung lesions MESHD, including demographics, initial symptoms, and comorbidities, were determined using a multivariate ordinal regression model. Results: The 1630 patients confirmed with COVID-19 had a median whole lung lesion ratio of 4.1%, and the right lower lung lobe had the most lesions among the five lung lobes based on the evaluation of CT using AI algorithm. The whole lung lesion ratio was associated with the levels of plasma SERO fibrinogen (r=0.280, p<0.001), plasma SERO D-dimer (r=0.248, p<0.001), serum SERO α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (r=0.363, p<0.001), serum SERO albumin (r=-0.300, p<0.001), and peripheral blood SERO leukocyte count (r=0.194, p<0.001). Among the four patients groups categorised by whole lung lesion ratio, the highest frequency of cough HP (p<0.001) and shortness of breath MESHD (p<0.001) were found in the severe group, and the highest frequency of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (p<0.001), diabetes MESHD (p<0.001) and anemia HP anemia MESHD (p=0.039) were observed in the intermediate group. Based on baseline ordinal regression analysis, cough HP (p=0.009), shortness of breath MESHD (p<0.001), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (p=0.002), diabetes MESHD (p=0.005), and anemia HP anemia MESHD (p=0.006) were independent risk factors for more severe lung lesions MESHD. Conclusions: Based on AI-enabled CT quantitation, patients with initial symptoms of cough HP cough MESHD/ shortness of breath MESHD, or with comorbidities of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, or anemia HP anemia MESHD, had a higher risk for more severe lung lesions on admission in COVID-19 patients.

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with severe COVID-19 adult TRANS adult MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis 

    Authors: Hany Hasan Elsayed; Aly Sherif Hassaballa; Taha Aly Ahmed; Mohammed Gumaa; Hazem Youssef Sharkawy

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-72963/v1 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID 19 is the most recent cause of Adult TRANS dult respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ARDS. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can support gas exchange in patients failing conventional mechanical ventilation, but its role is still controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on ECMO for COVID-associated ARDS to study its outcome.Materials and Methods: CENTRAL, MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were systematically searched from inception to May 28, 2020. Studies reporting five or more patients with COVID 19 i nfection MESHDtreated venovenous with ECMO were included. The main outcome assessed was mortality. Baseline, procedural, outcome, and validity data were systematically appraised and pooled with random-effect methods. The validity of all the included observational studies was appraised with the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Meta-regression and publication bias were tested. This trial was registered with PROSPERO under registration number CRD42020183861Results: From 1647 initial citations, 34 full text articles were analysed and 12 studies were selected, including 194 patients with confirmed COVID 19 i nfection MESHDrequiring ICU admission and venovenous ECMO treatment. Median New Castle Ottawa scale was 6 indicating acceptable study validity. 136 patients reached an endpoint of weaning from ECMO or d eath MESHDwhile the rest were still on ECMO. The median Berlin score for ARDS prior to starting ECMO was III. Patients received mechanical ventilation before ECMO implementation for a median of four days and ECMO was maintained for a median of 13 days. In hospital and short-term mortality were highly variable among the included studies ranging between 0% and 100%. Random-effect pooled estimates suggested an overall in-hospital mortality risk ratio of 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.259 to 0.721; I2 = 94%). Subgroup analysis according to country of origin showed persistent heterogeneity only in the 7 Chinese studies with pooled estimate mortality risk ratio of 0.66 (I2 = 87%) (95% CI = 0.39-0.93), while the later larger studies coming from the USA showed pooled estimate mortality risk ratio of 0.41 (95% CI 0.28-0.53) with homogeneity (p=0.67) similar to France with a pooled mortality risk ratio of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08-0.43) with homogeneity (p=0.86). Meta-regression showed only younger age TRANS as a predictor of mortality (p=0.02). Publication bias was excluded by visualizing the funnel plot of standard error, Egger's test with p=0.566 and Begg&Mazumdar test with p=0.373Conclusion: The study included the largest number of patients with outcome findings of ECMO in this current pandemic. Our findings showed that the use of venovenous ECMO at high-volume ECMO centres may be beneficial for selected COVID 19 patients with severe ARDS. However, none of the included studies involve prospective randomized analyses; and therefore, all the included studies were of low or moderate quality according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. In the current era and environment of the pandemic, it will likely be very challenging to conduct a prospective randomized trial of ECMO versus no-ECMO for COVID-19. Therefore, the information contained in this systematic review of the literature is valuable and provides important guidance.

    Potential of proteasome inhibitors to inhibit cytokine storm in critical stage COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Ralf Kircheis; Emanuel Haasbach; Daniel Lueftenegger; Willm T. Heyken; Matthias Ocker; Oliver Planz

    id:2008.10404v1 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: arXiv

    Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mild febrile illness MESHD and cough HP up to acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome, multiple organ failure MESHD and death MESHD. Data from patients with severe clinical manifestations compared to patients with mild symptoms indicate that highly dysregulated exuberant inflammatory responses correlate with severity of disease and lethality. Significantly elevated cytokine levels, i.e. cytokine storm, seem to play a central role in severity and lethality in COVID-19. We have previously shown that excessive cytokine release induced by highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A virus was reduced by application of proteasome inhibitors. In the present study we present experimental data of a central cellular pro-inflammatory signal pathways, NF-kappaB, in the context of published clinical data from COVID-19 patients and develop a hypothesis for a therapeutic approach aiming at the simultaneous inhibition of whole cascades of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via blocking the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB by proteasome inhibitors. The simultaneous inhibition of multiple cytokines/chemokines using clinically approved proteasome inhibitors is expected to have a higher therapeutic potential compared to single target approaches to prevent cascade (i.e. triggering, synergistic, and redundant) effects of multiple induced cytokines and may provide an additional therapeutic option to be explored for treatment of critical stage COVID-19 patients.

    The Prognostic Value of Eosinophil Recovery in COVID-19: A Multicentre, Retrospective Cohort Study on Patients Hospitalised in Spanish Hospitals.

    Authors: Maria Mateos Gonzalez; Elena Sierra Gonzalo; Irene Casado Lopez; Francisco Arnalich Fernandez; Jose Luis Beato Perez; Daniel Monge Monge; Juan Antonio Vargas Nunez; Rosa Garcia Fenoll; Carmen Suarez Fernandez; Santiago Jesus Freire Castro; Manuel Mendez Bailon; Isabel Perales Fraile; Manuel Madrazo; Paula Maria Pesqueira Fontan; Jeffrey Oskar Magallanes Gamboa; Andres Gonzalez Garcia; Anxela Crestelo Vieitez; Eva Maria Fonseca Aizpuru; Asier Aranguren Arostegui; Ainara Coduras Erdozain; Carmen Martinez Cilleros; Jose Loureiro Amigo; Francisco Epelde; Carlos Lumbreras Bermejo; Juan Miguel Anton Santos

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.20172874 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: A decrease in blood SERO cell counts, especially lymphocytes and eosinophils, has been described in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), but there is no knowledge of the potential role of their recovery in these patients prognosis. This article aims to analyse the effect of blood SERO cell depletion and blood SERO cell recovery on mortality due to COVID-19. Design: This work is a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study of 9,644 hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID-19 from the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. Setting: This study examined patients hospitalised in 147 hospitals throughout Spain. Participants: This work analysed 9,644 patients (57.12% male TRANS) out of a cohort of 12,826 patients over 18 years of age TRANS hospitalised with COVID-19 in Spain included in the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry as of 29 May 2020. Main outcome measures: The main outcome measure of this work is the effect of blood SERO cell depletion and blood SERO cell recovery on mortality due to COVID-19. Univariate analysis was performed to determine possible predictors of death MESHD and then multivariate analysis was carried out to control for potential confounders. Results: An increase in the eosinophil count on the seventh day of hospitalisation was associated with a better prognosis, including lower mortality rates (5.2% vs 22.6% in non-recoverers, OR 0.234 [95% CI, 0.154 to 0.354]) and lower complication rates, especially regarding to development of acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome (8% vs 20.1%, p=0.000) and ICU admission (5.4% vs 10.8%, p=0.000). Lymphocyte recovery was found to have no effect on prognosis. Treatment with inhaled or systemic glucocorticoids was not found to be a confounding factor. Conclusion: Eosinophil recovery in patients with COVID-19 is a reliable marker of a good prognosis that is independent of prior treatment. This finding could be used to guide discharge decisions.

    Laboratory biomarkers associated with COVID-19 severity and management.

    Authors: Stephen Keddie; Oliver J Ziff; Michael KL Chou; Rachel L Taylor; Amanda Heslegrave; Edmund Garr; Neghat Lakdawala; Andrew Church; Dalia Ludwig; Jessica Manson; Marie Scully; Eleni Nastouli; Miles D Chapman; Melanie Hart; Michael P Lunn; Cristina M. Tato; Kevin K. Leung; Bryan Greenhouse; James A. Wells; Ainara Coduras Erdozain; Carmen Martinez Cilleros; Jose Loureiro Amigo; Francisco Epelde; Carlos Lumbreras Bermejo; Juan Miguel Anton Santos

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.20168807 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: medRxiv

    The heterogeneous disease course of COVID-19 is unpredictable, ranging from mild self-limiting symptoms to cytokine storms, acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD), multi-organ failure MESHD and death MESHD. Identification of high-risk cases will enable appropriate intervention and escalation. This study investigates the routine laboratory tests and cytokines implicated in COVID-19 for their potential application as biomarkers of disease severity, respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD and need of higher-level care. From analysis of 203 samples, CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and LDH were most strongly correlated with the WHO ordinal scale of illness severity, the fraction of inspired oxygen delivery, radiological evidence of ARDS MESHD and level of respiratory support (p[≤]0.001). IL-6 levels of >3.27pg/ml provide a sensitivity SERO of 0.87 and specificity of 0.64 for a requirement of ventilation, and a CRP of >37mg/L of 0.91 and 0.66. Reliable stratification of high-risk cases has significant implications on patient triage, resource management and potentially the initiation of novel therapies in severe patients.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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