Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    SARS-CoV-2 spike D614G variant exhibits highly efficient replication and transmission TRANS in hamsters

    Authors: Bobo Mok; Conor J. Cremin; Siu-Ying Lau; Shaofeng Deng; Pin Chen; Jinxia Zhang; Andrew Lee; HOnglian Liu; Siwen Liu; Timothy Ting-Leung Ng; Hiu-Yin Lao; Eddie Lam-Kwong Lee; Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung; Pui Wang; Kelvin To; Jasper Chan; Kwok-Hung Chan; Kwok-Yung Yuen; Gilman Kit-Hang Siu; Honglin Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-81279/v1 Date: 2020-09-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    SARS-CoV-2 causes disease varying in severity from asymptomatic TRANS infections to severe HP infections to severe MESHD respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD and death MESHD in humans. The viral factors which determine transmissibility TRANS and pathogenicity are not yet clearly characterized. We used the hamster infection MESHD model to compare the replication ability and pathogenicity of five SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated from early cases originating in Wuhan, China, in February, and infected individuals returning from Europe and elsewhere in March 2020. The HK-13 and HK-95 isolates showed distinct pathogenicity in hamsters, with higher virus titers MESHD and more severe pathological changes in the lungs observed compared to other isolates. HK-95 contains a D614G substitution in the spike protein and demonstrated higher viral gene expression and transmission TRANS efficiency in hamsters. Intra-host diversity analysis revealed that further quasi species were generated during hamster infections, indicating that strain-specific adaptive mutants with advantages in replication and transmission TRANS will continue to arise and dominate subsequent waves of SARS-CoV-2 dissemination MESHD.

    SARS-CoV-2 spike D614G variant exhibits highly efficient replication and transmission TRANS in hamsters

    Authors: Bobo Wing Yee Mok; Conor J Cremin; Siu-Ying Lau; Shaofen Deng; Pin Chen; Anna Jinxia Zhang; Andrew Chak-Yiu Lee; Honglian Liu; Siwen Liu; Timothy Ting-Leung Ng; Hiu-Yin Lao; Eddie Lam-Kwong Lee; Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung; Pui Wang; Kelvin Kai-Wang To; Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan; Kwok-Hung Chan; Kwok-Yung Yuen; Gilman Kit-Hang Siu; Honglin Chen; David Peterhoff; Ralf Wagner; Roman Jerala; Georgios A Pavlopoulos; Sylvie Van Der Werf; Isabelle Fournier; Frederick P Roth; Michel Salzet; Caroline Demeret; Yves Jacob; Etienne Coyaud; Joseph Newman; Amin S Asfor; Alison Burman; Sylvia Crossley; John Hammond; Elma Tchilian; Bryan Charleston; Dalan Bailey; Tobias J Tuthill; Simon Graham; Tomas Malinauskas; Jiandong Huo; Julia Tree; Karen Buttigieg; Ray Owens; Miles Carroll; Rod Daniels; John McCauley; Kuan-Ying A Huang; Mark Howarth; Alain Townsend

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.271635 Date: 2020-08-28 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 causes disease varying in severity from asymptomatic TRANS infections to severe HP respiratory distress HP and death in humans. The viral factors which determine transmissibility TRANS and pathogenicity are not yet clearly characterized. We used the hamster infection model to compare the replication ability and pathogenicity of five SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated from early cases originating in Wuhan, China, in February, and infected individuals returning from Europe and elsewhere in March 2020. The HK-13 and HK-95 isolates showed distinct pathogenicity in hamsters, with higher virus titers and more severe pathological changes in the lungs observed compared to other isolates. HK-95 contains a D614G substitution in the spike protein and demonstrated higher viral gene expression and transmission TRANS efficiency in hamsters. Intra-host diversity analysis revealed that further quasi species were generated during hamster infections, indicating that strain-specific adaptive mutants with advantages in replication and transmission TRANS will continue to arise and dominate subsequent waves of SARS-CoV-2 dissemination.

    A Large-Scale Clinical Validation Study Using nCapp Cloud Plus Terminal by Frontline Doctors for the Rapid Diagnosis of COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in China

    Authors: Dawei Yang; Tao Xu; Xun Wang; Deng Chen; Ziqiang Zhang; Lichuan Zhang; Jie Liu; Kui Xiao; Li Bai; Yong Zhang; Lin Zhao; Lin Tong; Chaomin Wu; Yaoli Wang; Chunling Dong; Maosong Ye; Yu Xu; Zhenju Song; Hong Chen; Jing Li; Jiwei Wang; Fei Tan; Hai Yu; Jian Zhou; Jinming Yu; Chunhua Du; Hongqing Zhao; Yu Shang; Linian Huang; Jianping Zhao; Yang Jin; Charles A. Powell; Yuanlin Song; Chunxue Bai

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20163402 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background The outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic acute infectious disease MESHD, especially with the features of possible asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS and high contagiousness. It causes acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome and results in a high mortality rate if pneumonia HP is involved. Currently, it is difficult to quickly identify asymptomatic TRANS cases or COVID-19 patients with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD due to limited access to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nucleic acid tests and CT scans, which facilitates the spread of the disease TRANS at the community level, and contributes to the overwhelming of medical resources in intensive care units. Goal This study aimed to develop a scientific and rigorous clinical diagnostic tool for the rapid prediction of COVID-19 cases based on a COVID-19 clinical case database in China, and to assist global frontline doctors to efficiently and precisely diagnose asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 patients and cases who had a false-negative RT-PCR test result. Methods With online consent, and the approval of the ethics committee of Zhongshan Hospital Fudan Unversity (approval number B2020-032R) to ensure that patient privacy is protected, clinical information has been uploaded in real-time through the New Coronavirus Intelligent Auto-diagnostic Assistant Application of cloud plus terminal (nCapp) by doctors from different cities (Wuhan, Shanghai, Harbin, Dalian, Wuxi, Qingdao, Rizhao, and Bengbu) during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. By quality control and data anonymization on the platform, a total of 3,249 cases from COVID-19 high-risk groups were collected. These patients had SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results and chest CT scans, both of which were used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. In particular, the dataset included 137 indeterminate cases who initially did not have RT-PCR tests and subsequently had positive RT-PCR results, 62 suspected cases who initially had false-negative RT-PCR test results and subsequently had positive RT-PCR results, and 122 asymptomatic TRANS cases who had positive RT-PCR test results, amongst whom 31 cases were diagnosed. We also integrated the function of a survey in nCapp to collect user feedback from frontline doctors. Findings We applied the statistical method of a multi-factor regression model to the training dataset (1,624 cases) and developed a prediction model for COVID-19 with 9 clinical indicators that are fast and accessible: 'Residing or visiting history in epidemic regions', 'Exposure history to COVID-19 patient', 'Dry cough HP', ' Fatigue HP', 'Breathlessness', 'No body temperature decrease after antibiotic treatment', 'Fingertip blood SERO oxygen saturation<=93%', ' Lymphopenia HP Lymphopenia MESHD', and 'C-reactive protein (CRP) increased'. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the model was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.89) in the training dataset and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.86) in the validation dataset (1,625 cases). To ensure the sensitivity SERO of the model, we used a cutoff value of 0.09. The sensitivity SERO and specificity of the model were 98.0% (95% CI: 96.9%, 99.1%) and 17.3% (95% CI: 15.0%, 19.6%), respectively, in the training dataset, and 96.5% (95% CI: 95.1%, 98.0%) and 18.8% (95% CI: 16.4%, 21.2%), respectively, in the validation dataset. In the subset of the 137 indeterminate cases who initially did not have RT-PCR tests and subsequently had positive RT-PCR results, the model predicted 132 cases, accounting for 96.4% (95% CI: 91.7%, 98.8%) of the cases. In the subset of the 62 suspected cases who initially had false-negative RT-PCR test results and subsequently had positive RT-PCR results, the model predicted 59 cases, accounting for 95.2% (95% CI: 86.5%, 99.0%) of the cases. Considering the specificity of the model, we used a cutoff value of 0.32. The sensitivity SERO and specificity of the model were 83.5% (95% CI: 80.5%, 86.4%) and 83.2% (95% CI: 80.9%, 85.5%), respectively, in the training dataset, and 79.6% (95% CI: 76.4%, 82.8%) and 81.3% (95% CI: 78.9%, 83.7%), respectively, in the validation dataset, which is very close to the published AI model. The results of the online survey 'Questionnaire Star' showed that 90.9% of nCapp users in WeChat mini programs were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with the tool. The WeChat mini program received a significantly higher satisfaction rate than other platforms, especially for 'availability and sharing convenience of the App' and 'fast speed of log-in and data entry'. Discussion With the assistance of nCapp, a mobile-based diagnostic tool developed from a large database that we collected from COVID-19 high-risk groups in China, frontline doctors can rapidly identify asymptomatic TRANS patients and avoid misdiagnoses of cases with false-negative RT-PCR results. These patients require timely isolation or close medical supervision. By applying the model, medical resources can be allocated more reasonably, and missed diagnoses can be reduced. In addition, further education and interaction among medical professionals can improve the diagnostic efficiency for COVID-19, thus avoiding the transmission TRANS of the disease from asymptomatic TRANS patients at the community level.

    Fighting COVID-19 spread among nursing home residents even in absence of molecular diagnosis: a retrospective cohort study.

    Authors: Alessio Strazzulla; Paul Tarteret; Maria Concetta Postorino; Marie Picque; Astrid de Pontfarcy; Nicolas Vignier; Catherine Chakvetadze; Coralie Noel; Cecile Drouin; Zine Eddine Benguerdi; Sylvain Diamantis

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51305/v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Access to molecular diagnosis was limited out-of-hospital in France during the 2020 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. This study describes the evolution of COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing home in absence of molecular diagnosis. Methods A monocentric prospective study was conducted in a French nursing home from March 17th, 2020 to June 11th, 2020. Because of lack of molecular tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-Cov2) infection MESHD, probable COVID-19 cases were early identified considering only respiratory and not-respiratory symptoms and therefore preventing measures and treatments were enforced. Once available, serology tests were performed at the end of the study.A chronologic description of new cases and deaths MESHD was made together with a description of COVID-19 symptoms. Data about personal characteristics and treatments were collected and the following comparisons were performed: i) probable COVID-19 cases vs asymptomatic TRANS residents; ii) SARS-Cov2 seropositive residents vs seronegative residents. Results Overall, 32/66 (48.5%) residents and 19/39 (48.7%) members of health-care personnel were classified as probable COVID-19 cases. A total of 34/61 (55.7%) tested residents resulted seropositive. Death occurred in 4/66 (6%) residents. Diagnosis according to symptoms had 65% of sensitivity SERO, 78% of specificity, 79% of positive predictive value SERO and 64% of negative predictive value SERO.In resident population, the following symptoms were registered: 15/32 (46.8%) lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD, 15/32 (46.8%) fever HP fever MESHD, 8/32 (25%) fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, 8/32 (25%) cough HP, 6/32 (18.8%) diarrhoea MESHD, 4/32 (12.5%) severe respiratory distress HP requiring oxygen therapy, 4/32 (12.5%) fall HP, 3/32 (9.4%) conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD, 2/32 (6.3%) abnormal pulmonary noise at chest examination and 2/32 (6,25%) abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD. Probable COVID-19 cases were older (81.3 vs 74.9; p=0.007) and they had higher prevalence SERO of atrial fibrillation HP atrial fibrillation MESHD (8/32, 25% vs 2/34, 12%; p=0.030); insulin treatment (4/34, 12% vs 0, 0%; p=0.033) and positive SARS-Cov2 serology (22/32, 69% vs 12/34, 35%; p=0.001) than asymptomatic TRANS residents. Seropositive residents had lower prevalence SERO of diabetes MESHD (4/34, 12% vs 9/27, 33%; p=0.041) and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors’ intake (1/34, 1% vs 5/27, 19%; p=0.042). Conclusions During SARS-Cov2 epidemic, early detection of respiratory and not-respiratory symptoms allowed to enforce extraordinary measures. They achieved limiting contagion and deaths among nursing home residents, even in absence of molecular diagnosis.

    Placental SARS-CoV-2 in a patient with mild COVID-19 disease

    Authors: Albert L. Hsu; Minhui Guan; Eric Johannesen; Amanda J. Stephens; Nabila Khaleel; Nikki Kagan; Breanna C. Tuhlei; Xiu-Feng Wan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20149344 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The full impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy remains uncharacterized. Current literature suggests minimal maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality,1 and COVID-19 manifestations appear similar between pregnant and non-pregnant women.2 We present a case of placental SARS-CoV-2 virus in a woman with an uncomplicated pregnancy and mild COVID-19 disease. Methods: A pregnant woman was evaluated at University of Missouri Women and Childrens Hospital. Institutional review board approval was obtained; information was obtained from medical records. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect SARS-CoV-2. A gynecological pathologist examined the placenta and performed histolopathology. Sections were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded; slides were cut and subjected to hematoxylin-and-eosin or immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. IHC was performed with specific monoclonal antibodies SERO to detect SARS-CoV-2 antigen or to identify trophoblasts. Findings: A 29 year-old multigravida presented at 40-4/7 weeks for labor induction. With myalgias HP myalgias MESHD two days prior, she tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Her parents TRANS were in self-isolation for COVID-19 positivity; husband was asymptomatic TRANS and tested negative for COVID-19, but exposed to a workplace (meatpacking facility) outbreak. Prenatal course was uncomplicated, with no gestational hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. She was afebrile and asymptomatic TRANS with normal vital signs throughout hospitalization. Her myalgias HP myalgias MESHD improved prior to admission. A liveborn male TRANS infant was delivered vaginally. Newborn course was uneventful; he was appropriate for gestational age TRANS, physical was unremarkable, and he was discharged home at 36 hours. COVID-19 RT-PCR test was negative at 24 hours. At one-week follow-up, newborn was breastfeeding well, with no fevers HP or respiratory distress HP. Overall placental histology is consistent with acute uterine hypoxia MESHD (subchorionic laminar necrosis MESHD) superimposed on chronic uterine hypoxia MESHD (extra-villous trophoblasts and focal chronic villitis MESHD). IHC using SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-specific monoclonal antibody SERO demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 antigens throughout the placenta in chorionic villi endothelial cells, and rarely in CK7-expressing trophoblasts. Negative control placenta (November 2019 delivery) and ferret nasal turbinate tissues (not shown) were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Interpretation: In this report, SARS-CoV-2 was found in the placenta, but newborn was COVID-19 negative. Our case shows maternal vascular malperfusion, with no features of fetal vascular malperfusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of placental COVID-19 despite mild COVID-19 disease in pregnancy (with no symptoms of COVID-19 aside from myalgias HP myalgias MESHD); specifically, this patient had no fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, or shortness of breath MESHD, but only myalgias HP myalgias MESHD and sick contacts. Despite her having mild COVID-19 disease in pregnancy, we demonstrate placental vasculopathy MESHD and presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus across the placenta. Evidence of placental COVID-19 raises concern for possible placental vasculopathy MESHD (potentially leading to fetal growth restriction, pre- eclampsia HP eclampsia MESHD, and other pregnancy complications) as well as for potential vertical transmission TRANS -- especially for pregnant women who may be exposed to COVID-19 in early pregnancy. Further studies are urgently needed, to determine whether women with mild, pre-symptomatic, or asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 may have SARS-CoV-2 virus that can cross the placenta, cause fetal vascular malperfusion, and possibly affect the fetus. This raises important public health and public policy questions of whether future pregnancy guidance should include stricter pandemic precautions, such as screening for a wider array of COVID-19 symptoms, increased antenatal surveillance, and possibly routine COVID-19 testing on a regular basis throughout pregnancy.

    COVID-19: Role of the Inflammasome

    Authors: Claudio G. Gallo; Sirio Fiorino; Giovanni Posabella; Donato Antonacci; Antonio Tropeano; Emanuele Pausini; Carlotta Pausini; Tommaso Guarniero; Marco Zancanaro

    id:202007.0246/v1 Date: 2020-07-12 Source: Preprints.org

    Covid-19 disease is caused by SARS Cov-2 virus. Despite its high transmissibility TRANS, the CFR (Case Fatality Rate) of COVID-19 seems to be lower than the SARS (9,5%) and MERS (34,4%) ones93 , but higher than the influenza one (0-1%)94,95 . The disease is asymptomatic TRANS or paucisymptomatic in most of the patients, although in few cases it can be characterized by serious complications. The main causes of hospitalization in intensive care are represented by ALI MESHD (Acute Lung Injury), ARDS MESHD ( Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome MESHD Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome), cardiovascular problems and coagulopathies MESHD (diffuse thrombosis MESHD, microthrombosis, embolisms MESHD, myocarditis HP myocarditis MESHD, arrhytmias, heart failure MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD)96-98, acute nephropathy99,100 and encephalopathies101 MESHD. The virus presence in the vascular wall can cause endotheliitis MESHD, which triggers the process of diffuse coagulation that can lead to a worsening of the systemic inflammation MESHD. The exaggerated inflammatory response seems to be connected with the development of ARDS MESHD, MOF (Multiple Organ Failure) and coagulopathies102-107.

    Disease severity-specific neutrophil signatures in blood SERO transcriptomes stratify COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Anna C. Aschenbrenner; Maria Mouktaroudi; Benjamin Kraemer; Nikolaos Antonakos; Marie Oestreich; Konstantina Gkizeli; Melanie Nuesch-Germano; Maria Saridaki; Lorenzo Bonaguro; Nico Reusch; Kevin Bassler; Sarantia Doulou; Rainer Knoll; Tal Pecht; Theodore S. Kapellos; Nikoletta Rovina; Charlotte Kroeger; Miriam Herbert; Lisa Holsten; Arik Horne; Ioanna D. Gemuend; Shobhit Agrawal; Kilian Dahm; Martina van Uelft; Anna Drews; Lena Lenkeit; Niklas Bruse; Jelle Gerretsen; Jannik Gierlich; Matthias Becker; Kristian Haendler; Michael Kraut; Heidi Theis; Simachew Mengiste; Elena De Domenico; Jonas Schulte-Schrepping; Lea Seep; Jan Raabe; Christoph Hoffmeister; Michael ToVinh; Verena Keitel; Gereon J. Rieke; Valentina Talevi; Ahmad N. Aziz; Peter Pickkers; Frank van de Veerdonk; Mihai G. Netea; Joachim L. Schultze; Matthijs Kox; Monique M.B. Breteler; Jacob Nattermann; Antonia Koutsoukou; Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis; Thomas Ulas

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20148395 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is currently leading to increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients all over the world. Clinical presentations range from asymptomatic TRANS, mild respiratory tract infection HP respiratory tract infection MESHD, to severe cases with acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome, respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD, and death MESHD. Reports on a dysregulated immune system in the severe cases calls for a better characterization and understanding of the changes in the immune system. Here, we profiled whole blood SERO transcriptomes of 39 COVID-19 patients and 10 control donors enabling a data-driven stratification based on molecular phenotype. Neutrophil activation-associated signatures were prominently enriched in severe patient groups, which was corroborated in whole blood SERO transcriptomes from an independent second cohort of 30 as well as in granulocyte samples from a third cohort of 11 COVID-19 patients. Comparison of COVID-19 blood SERO transcriptomes with those of a collection of over 2,600 samples derived from 11 different viral infections MESHD, inflammatory diseases MESHD and independent control samples revealed highly specific transcriptome signatures for COVID-19. Further, stratified transcriptomes predicted patient subgroup-specific drug candidates targeting the dysregulated systemic immune response of the host.

    The Emerging Role of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (COVID-19) 

    Authors: Angélica Arcanjo; Jorgete Logullo; Camilla Cristie Barreto Menezes; Thais Chrispim de Souza Cravalho Giangiarulo; Shana Priscila Coutinho Barroso; Adriane Todeschini; Leonardo Freire-de-Lima; Debora Ricardo Decoté; Celio Geraldo Freire-de-Lima; Fátima Conceição Silva; Wilson Savino; Alexandre Morrot

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40461/v1 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 causes COVID-19, a highly pathogenic viral infection threatening millions. The majority of those infected are asymptomatic TRANS or mildly symptomatic showing typical clinical signs of common cold. However approximately 20% of the patients can progress to acute respiratory distress HP espiratory distress syndrome MESHD(A RDS) MESHD and eventually d eath MESHDin about 5% of cases. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been shown to be a functional receptor for virus entry into host target cells. The upregulation of ACE2 in patients with comorbidities may represent a propensity for increased viral load and spreading of i nfection MESHDto extrapulmonary tissues. This systemic infection is associated with higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in infected tissues and high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to an extensive microthrombus formation with multiorgan failure. Herein we investigated whether SARS-CoV2 can stimulate extracellular neutrophils traps (NETs) in a process called NETosis. We demonstrated for the first time that SARS-CoV2 in fact is able to activate NETosis in human neutrophils. Our findings indicated that this process is associated with increased levels of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in neutrophils. The ROS-NET pathway plays a role in t hrombosis MESHDformation and our study suggest the importance of this target for therapy approaches against disease.

    COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes and Nationality: Results from a Nationwide Registry in Kuwait

    Authors: Hala Hamadah; Barrak Alahmad; Mohammad Behbehani; Sarah Al-Youha; Sulaiman Almazeedi; Mohannad Al-Haddad; Mohammad H. Jamal; Salman Al-Sabah

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-37767/v1 Date: 2020-06-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, many have flagged racial and ethnic differences in health outcomes in western countries as an urgent global public health priority. Kuwait has a unique demographic profile with two-thirds of the population consisting of non-nationals, most of which are migrant workers.Objective: We aimed to explore whether there is a significant difference in health outcomes between non-Kuwaiti and Kuwaiti patients diagnosed with COVID-19.Methods: We used a prospective COVID-19 registry of all patients (symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS) in Kuwait who tested positive from February 24th to April 20th, 2020 , collected from Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah Hospital, the officially-designated COVID-19 healthcare facility in the country. We ran separate logistic regression models comparing non-Kuwaitis to Kuwaitis for death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.Results: The first 1,123 COVID-19 positive patients in Kuwait were all recruited in the study. About 26% were Kuwaitis and 73% were non-Kuwaiti. With adjustments made to age TRANS, gender TRANS, smoking and selected co-morbidities, non-Kuwaitis had two-fold increase in the odds of death MESHD or being admitted to the intensive care unit compared to Kuwaitis (OR: 2.14, 95% CI 1.12-4.32). Non-Kuwaitis had also higher odds of ARDS MESHD (OR:2.44, 95% CI 1.23-5.09) and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (OR: 2.24, 95% CI 1.27-4.12).Conclusion: This is the first study to report on COVID-19 outcomes between Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti patients. The current pandemic may have amplified the differences of health outcomes among marginalized subpopulations. A number of socioeconomic and environmental factors could explain this health disparity. More research is needed to advance the understanding of policymakers in Kuwait in order to make urgent public health interventions.

    ARDS MESHD and Cytokine Storm in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Caribbean Vervets MESHD

    Authors: Robert V Blair; Monica Vaccari; Lara A Doyle-Meyers; Chad J Roy; Kasi Russell-Lodrigue; Marissa Fahlberg; Chris J Monjure; Brandon Beddingfield; Kenneth S Plante; Jessica A Plante; Scott C Weaver; Xuebin Qin; Cecily C Midkiff; Gabrielle Lehmicke; Nadia Golden; Breanna Threeton; Toni Penney; Carolina Allers; Mary B Barnes; Melissa Pattison; Prasun K Datta; Nicholas J Maness; Angela Birnbaum; Rudolf P Bohm; Jay Rappaport

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.18.157933 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 induces a wide range of disease severity ranging from asymptomatic TRANS infection MESHD, to a life-threating illness, particularly in the elderly TRANS and persons with comorbid conditions. Up to now, SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than five million and led to more than 300,000 deaths worldwide. Among those persons with serious COVID-19 disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) is a common and often fatal presentation. SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS MESHD is difficult to treat clinically, and new therapeutic strategies are needed. In order to evaluate such therapeutic strategies, animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD that manifest severe disease are needed. Here we report fatal ARDS MESHD in two African green monkeys (AGMs) infected with SARS-CoV-2 that demonstrated pathological lesions MESHD and disease similar to severe COVID-19 in humans. Moreover, we report the observation of cytokine release (cytokine storm) in three of four infected AGMs MESHD. All four animals showed increased levels of IL-6 in plasma SERO, a predictive marker and presumptive therapeutic target in humans infected with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Our results suggest the AGM is a useful model to study disease pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, and for the evaluation of therapeutic interventions designed to combat serious pulmonary disease MESHD associated with this infection.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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