Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence

There are no seroprevalence terms in the subcorpus

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    COVID-19: In the Eye of the Cytokine Storm

    Authors: Roberto de la Rica; Marcio Borges; Marta Gonzalez-Freire

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0157.v1 Date: 2020-05-09 Source: Preprints.org

    The dysregulated release of cytokines has been identified as one of the key factors behind poorer outcomes in COVID-19. This ‘cytokine storm ‘produces an excessive inflammatory and immune response, especially in the lungs, leading to acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD (ARDS), pulmonary edema HP pulmonary edema MESHD and multi-organ failure MESHD. Alleviating this inflammatory state is crucial to improve prognosis. Pro-inflammatory factors play a central role in COVID-19 severity, especially in patients with comorbidities In these situations, an overactive, untreated immune response can be deadly, suggesting that mortality in COVID-19 cases is likely due to this virally driven hyperinflammation. Administering immunomodulators has not yielded conclusive improvements in other pathologies characterized by dysregulated inflammation MESHD such as sepsis HP sepsis MESHD, SARS-CoV-1 and MERS. The success of these drugs at reducing COVID-19-driven inflammation MESHD is still anecdotal and comes with serious risks. It is also imperative to screen the elderly TRANS for risk factors that predispose them to severe COVID-19. Immunosenescence and comorbidities should be taken into consideration. In this review, we summarize the latest data available about the role of the cytokine storm in COVID-19 disease severity as well as potential therapeutic approaches to ameliorate it. We also examine the role of inflammation MESHD in other diseases often comorbid with COVID-19, such as aging, sepsis HP sepsis MESHD, and pulmonary disorders MESHD. Finally, we identify gaps in our knowledge and suggest priorities for future research aimed at stratifying patients according to risk as well as personalizing therapies in the context of COVID19-driven hyperinflammation.

    Supramolecular Organization Predicts Protein Nanoparticle Delivery to Neutrophils for Acute Lung Inflammation MESHD Diagnosis and Treatment

    Authors: Jacob W Myerson; Priyal N Patel; Nahal Habibi; Landis R Walsh; Yi-Wei Lee; David C Luther; Laura T Ferguson; Michael H Zaleski; Marco E Zamora; Oscar A. Marcos-Contreras; Patrick M Glassman; Ian Johnston; Elizabeth D Hood; Tea Shuvaeva; Jason V Gregory; Raisa Y Kiseleva; Jia Nong; Kathryn M Rubey; Colin F Greineder; Samir Mitragotri; George S Worthen; Vincent M Rotello; Joerg Lahann; Vladimir R Muzykantov; Jacob S Brenner

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.15.037564 Date: 2020-04-18 Source: bioRxiv

    Acute lung inflammation MESHD has severe morbidity, as seen in COVID-19 patients. Lung inflammation MESHD is accompanied or led by massive accumulation of neutrophils in pulmonary capillaries ("margination"). We sought to identify nanostructural properties that predispose nanoparticles to accumulate in pulmonary marginated neutrophils, and therefore to target severely inflamed lungs. We designed a library of nanoparticles and conducted an in vivo screen of biodistributions in naive mice and mice treated with lipopolysaccharides. We found that supramolecular organization of protein in nanoparticles predicts uptake in inflamed lungs. Specifically, nanoparticles with agglutinated protein (NAPs) efficiently home to pulmonary neutrophils, while protein nanoparticles with symmetric structure (e.g. viral capsids) are ignored by pulmonary neutrophils. We validated this finding by engineering protein-conjugated liposomes that recapitulate NAP targeting to neutrophils in inflamed lungs. We show that NAPs can diagnose acute lung injury MESHD in SPECT imaging and that NAP-like liposomes can mitigate neutrophil extravasation and pulmonary edema HP pulmonary edema MESHD arising in lung inflammation MESHD. Finally, we demonstrate that ischemic MESHD ex vivo human lungs selectively take up NAPs, illustrating translational potential. This work demonstrates that structure-dependent interactions with neutrophils can dramatically alter the biodistribution of nanoparticles, and NAPs have significant potential in detecting and treating respiratory conditions arising from injury or infections MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
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Transmission
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