Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Safety measures for COVID-19 do not compromise the outcomes of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: A single center study

    Authors: Xiaonan Guan; Jianjun Zhang; Yanbing Li; Ning Ma

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-88850/v1 Date: 2020-10-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic impacting nearly 170 countries/regions and millions of patients worldwide. Patients with acute myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP ( AMI MESHD) still need to be treated at percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers with relevant safety measures. This study was conducted to assess the therapeutic outcomes of PCI performed under the safety measures and normal conditions. AMI MESHD patients undergoing PCI between January 24 to April 30, 2020 were performed under safety measures for COVID-19. Patients received pulmonary computed tomography (CT) and underwent PCI in negative pressure ICU. Cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) staff and physicians worked with level Ⅲ personal protection. Demographic and clinical data, such as door-to-balloon (DTB) time, operation time, complications for patients in this period (NCP group) and the same period in 2019 (2019 group) were retrieved and analyzed. NCP and 2019 groups had 37 and 96 patients, respectively. There was no significant difference in age TRANS, gender TRANS, BMI and comorbidity between the two groups. DTB time and operation time were similar between the two groups (60.0 ± 12.39 vs 58.83 ± 12.85 min, p = 0.636; 61.46 ± 9.91 vs 62.55 ± 10.72 min, p = 0.592). Hospital stay time in NCP group was significantly shorter (6.78 ± 2.14 vs 8.85 ± 2.64 days, p < 0.001). The incidences of malignant arrhythmia MESHD arrhythmia HP and Takotsubo Syndrome MESHD in NCP group were higher than 2019 group significantly (16.22% vs 5.21%, p = 0.039; 10.81% vs 1.04% p = 0.008). During hospitalization and 3-month follow-up, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in the two groups were statistically similar (35.13% vs 14.58%, p = 0.094; 16.22% vs 8.33%, p =0.184). Our analysis showed that safety measures undertaken in this hospital, including screening of COVID-19 infection MESHD and use of personal protection equipment for conducting PCI did not compromise the surgical outcome as compared with PCI under normal condition, although there were slight increases in incidence of malignant arrhythmia MESHD arrhythmia HP and Takotsubo Syndrome MESHD.

    Randomized Controlled Trials of Early Ambulatory Hydroxychloroquine in the Prevention of COVID-19 Infection, Hospitalization, and Death: Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Joseph A. Ladapo; John E. McKinnon; Peter A. McCullough; Harvey Risch; Mustafa Karaibragimov; Meder Seitov; Sergey Vesnin; Turat Kasymbekov; Chingis Mustafin; Igor Goryanin; Lindsay J Collin; Ana P Tedim; Anastasia Kolyva; Rachael Stanley; Maria Diaz; Will Potter; Claire Stuart; Lizzie Meadows; Andrew Bell; Ana Victoria Gutierrez; Nicholas M Thomson; Evelien M Adriaenssens; Tracey Swingler; Rachel AJ Gilroy; Luke Griffith; Dheeraj K Sethi; Rose K Davidson; Robert A Kingsley; Luke Bedford; Lindsay J Coupland; Ian G Charles; Ngozi Elumogo; John Wain; Reenesh Prakash; Mark A Webber; SJ Louise Smith; Meera Chand; Samir Dervisevic; Justin O'Grady; - The COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) consortium

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.30.20204693 Date: 2020-09-30 Source: medRxiv

    Objective--To determine if hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) reduces the incidence of new illness, hospitalization or death MESHD among outpatients at risk for or infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Design--Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Data sources--Search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, medRxiv, PROSPERO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Also review of reference lists from recent meta-analyses. Study selection--Randomized clinical trials in which participants were treated with HCQ or placebo/standard-of-care for pre-exposure prophylaxis, post-exposure prophylaxis, or outpatient therapy for COVID-19. Methods--Two investigators independently extracted data on trial design and outcomes. Medication side effects and adverse reactions were also assessed. The primary outcome was COVID-19 hospitalization or death MESHD. When unavailable, new COVID-19 infection MESHD was used. We calculated random effects meta-analysis according to the method of DerSimonian and Laird. Heterogeneity between the studies was evaluated by calculation of Cochran Q and I2 parameters. An Egger funnel plot was drawn to investigate publication bias. We also calculated the fixed effects meta-analysis summary of the five studies. All calculations were done in Excel, and results were considered to be statistically significant at a two-sided threshold of P=.05. Results--Five randomized controlled clinical trials enrolling 5,577 patients were included. HCQ was associated with a 24% reduction in COVID-19 infection MESHD, hospitalization or death MESHD, P=.025 (RR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.59 to 0.97]). No serious adverse cardiac events were reported. The most common side effects were gastrointestinal. Conclusion--Hydroxychloroquine use in outpatients reduces the incidence of the composite outcome of COVID-19 infection MESHD, hospitalization, and death MESHD. Serious adverse events were not reported and cardiac arrhythmia MESHD arrhythmia HP was rare. Systematic review registration--This review was not registered.

    Findings on the relationship between cardiovascular disease MESHD and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019: a systematic review

    Authors: Yuri Henrique da Silva1; José Gildo de Moura Monteiro Júnior; Rosângela Ferreira Frade de Araújo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-84991/v1 Date: 2020-09-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents as the main cause of death MESHD, respiratory and heart failures MESHD, especially in the elderly TRANS, immunosuppressed, and those with cardiovascular comorbidities. Therefore, a better understanding of these findings is needed. A systematic review was carried out looking for articles published between December 2019 and May 2020 on the MEDLINE / PubMed search platform using the following descriptors: (((((((((" cardiovascular disease MESHD") OR ("acute myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD")) OR (" coronary artery disease MESHD")) OR ("acute coronary syndrome MESHD")) OR (" atherosclerosis HP atherosclerosis MESHD")) OR (" cardiac insufficiency MESHD")) OR (" pericarditis HP pericarditis MESHD")) OR (" myocarditis HP myocarditis MESHD")) AND ("COVID-19")) OR ("SARS-CoV-2")and considering inclusion and exclusion criteria.40% of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD or other cardiovascular comorbidities, while 27% presented cardiovascular complications, mainly acute cardiac injury MESHD, arrhythmia HP arrhythmia MESHD and heart failure MESHD. The hypotheses of involvement of an intense inflammatory response, decreased HP immunity and greater expression of ACE2 in the heart, associated with more severe heart conditions, were discussed in this study. The increase in cardiac and inflammatory markers was associated with worse clinical outcomes and risk of death MESHD, confirming the need to evaluate them since admission to the hospital. The 10 articles analyzed presented as a limitation the small number of patients inserted, to the detriment of the pandemic state. We warned about the need for better clinical management of patients with cardiovascular comorbidities MESHD, and the importance of including this group among the first to be immunized, aiming at reducing the number of fatal cases due to infection MESHD. Studies with greater coverage are needed for a better comprehension of the topics discussed here.

    Companion diagnostic for the chloroquine use in the treatment of COVID-19: systems biology report of candidate markers.

    Authors: SERHIY SOUCHELNYTSKYI; Nazariy Souchelnytskyi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-64108/v1 Date: 2020-08-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    BACKGROUND Chloroquine is used for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. However, efficacy of the chloroquine has been under discussion. Variability of clinical outputs of the drug application requires implementation of a companion diagnostic that would allow monitoring responsiveness to chloroquine. The first line of such markers would be markers already used in clinics. Analysis of reported mechanisms of COVID-19 and chloroquine may lead to such markers.METHODS Systemic analysis of molecular mechanisms and markers engaged by chloroquine and COVID-19 virus was performed. The networks of regulatory mechanisms were explored for an intersection and relevance to clinical markers.RESULTS Reported here systemic analysis describes the intersection of molecular mechanisms of chloroquine and processes engaged by COVID-19. 266 nodes provide insight into the mechanisms of chloroquine impact on the infection MESHD and represent a pool of companion diagnostic markers. As an example, an intersection with the markers of heart arrhythmia MESHD arrhythmia HP retrieved 19 nodes. Thirteen of them were reported in human plasma SERO: levels of albumin, amyloid precursor protein, and endoglin correlate with adverse cardiac effects.CONCLUSIONS Reported nodes are the candidate markers for companion diagnostic of the chloroquine application to COVID-19 patients. Some of these markers are already used in the clinic and their interpretation may contribute to monitoring for adverse effects of chloroquine.

    Mitigating Arrhythmia HP Arrhythmia MESHD Risk in Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin Treated COVID-19 Patients using Arrhythmia HP Arrhythmia MESHD Risk Management Plan

    Authors: Kazimieras Maneikis M.D.; Ugne Ringeleviciute M.D.; Justinas Bacevicius M.D.; Egle Dieninyte-Misiune M.D.; Emilija Burokaite M.D.; Gintare Kazbaraite M.D.; Marta Monika Janusaite M.D.; Austeja Dapkeviciute M.D.; Andrius Zucenka M.D.; Valdas Peceliunas M.D. Ph.D.; Lina Kryzauskaite M.D.; Vytautas Kasiulevicius M.D. Ph.D.; Donata Ringaitiene M.D. Ph.D.; Birute Zablockiene M.D. Ph.D.; Tadas Zvirblis; Germanas Marinskis M.D. Ph.D.; Ligita Jancoriene M.D. Ph.D.; Laimonas Griskevicius M.D. Ph.D.

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50501/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin use is associated with QT interval prolongation MESHD and arrhythmias HP arrhythmias MESHD. Despite ongoing multiple clinical trials for treatment of COVID19 infection MESHD, no definite cardiac safety protocols were proposed. The aim of our study was to assess cardiac safety in COVID-19 patients treated with the combination of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin using close monitoring and arrhythmia HP arrhythmia MESHD risk management plan.Methods and results: We retrospectively examined arrhythmia HP arrhythmia MESHD safety of treatment with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in the setting of pre-defined cardiac arrhythmia MESHD arrhythmia HP risk management plan. 81 patients were included from March 23rd to May 10th 2020. The median age TRANS was 59 years, 58.0% were female TRANS. The majority of the study population (82.7%) had comorbidities, 98.8% had radiological signs of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. 7 patients (8.6%) had QTc prolongation MESHD of ≥500 ms. The treatment was discontinued in 4 patients (4.9%). 14 patients (17.3%) experienced QTc≥480 ms and 16 patients (19.8%) had an increase of QTc≥60 ms. None of the patients developed ventricular tachycardia HP ventricular tachycardia MESHD. The risk factors significantly associated with QTc≥500 ms were hypokalemia HP hypokalemia MESHD (p = 0.032) and use of diuretics during the treatment (p = 0.020). Three patients had a lethal outcome; none of them associated with ventricular arrhythmias HP ventricular arrhythmias MESHD.Conclusion: We recorded a low incidence of QTc prolongation MESHD ≥500 ms and no ventricular tachycardia HP ventricular tachycardia MESHD events in COVID-19 patients treated with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin using cardiac arrhythmia MESHD arrhythmia HP risk management plan.

    Impact of Congestive Heart Failure HP Congestive Heart Failure MESHD and Role of Cardiac Biomarkers in COVID-19 patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Tarun Dalia; Shubham Lahan; Sagar Ranka; Prakash Acharya; Archana Gautam; Ioannis Mastoris; Andrew Sauer; Zubair Shah

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.20147421 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to cause worse outcomes in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease MESHD, especially in patients with acute cardiac injury MESHD, which is determined by elevated levels of high- sensitivity SERO troponin. There is a paucity of data on the impact of congestive heart failure HP congestive heart failure MESHD ( CHF MESHD) on outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a literature search of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases from 11/1/2019 till 06/07/2020, and identified all relevant studies reporting cardiovascular comorbidities, cardiac biomarkers, disease severity, and survival. Pooled data from the selected studies were used for metanalysis to identify the impact of risk factors and cardiac biomarker elevation on disease severity and/or mortality. Results: We collected pooled data on 5,967 COVID-19 patients from 20 individual studies. We found that both non-survivors and those with severe disease had an increased risk of acute cardiac injury MESHD and cardiac arrhythmias MESHD arrhythmias HP, our pooled relative risk (RR) was - 8.52 (95% CI 3.63-19.98) (p<0.001); and 3.61 (95% CI 2.03-6.43) (p=0.001), respectively. Mean difference in the levels of Troponin-I, CK-MB, and NT-proBNP was higher in deceased and severely infected MESHD patients. The RR of in-hospital mortality was 2.35 (95% CI 1.18-4.70) (p=0.022) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.12-2.05) (p=0.008) among patients who had pre-existing CHF MESHD and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, respectively. Conclusion: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 infection MESHD appears to significantly adversely impact patient prognosis and survival. Pre-existence of CHF MESHD and high cardiac biomarkers like NT-pro BNP and CK-MB levels in COVID-19 patients correlates with worse outcomes. Keywords: Acute cardiac injury MESHD; cardiac arrhythmia MESHD arrhythmia HP; mortality risk; cardiac biomarkers, COVID-19.

    Cardiac Arrhythmias MESHD Arrhythmias HP and COVID-19 – a Meta-analysis of Recent Reports

    Authors: Husam M. I. Salah; Jawahar L. Mehta

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-37700/v1 Date: 2020-06-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is a current pandemic. Cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 have been described in many studies; however, no studies have examined the prevalence SERO and characterizations of cardiac arrhythmias MESHD arrhythmias HP among patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the prevalence SERO of cardiac arrhythmias MESHD arrhythmias HP among patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD.Method: PubMed, Google Scholar, and ResearchGate databases were searched for relevant articles from inception until June 14, 2020. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Cohort studies or case series studies; 2) Study population included individuals with confirmed COVID-19 infection MESHD; 3) Arrhythmic events were reported in the study. All other studies were excluded. MedCalc software was used to analyze the pooled data. The random-effect model was utilized to obtain the prevalence SERO of arrhythmia HP arrhythmia MESHD among the included patients and its 95% confidence interval. Cohran's Q and I2 index were used for heterogeneity measurements. The main planned outcome was the prevalence SERO of arrhythmia HP arrhythmia MESHD among patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD.Results: Thirteen studies with a total of 2861 patients met our inclusion criteria. The prevalence SERO of arrhythmia HP arrhythmia MESHD among patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD was 8.1% (95% CI [6.10, 10.37]). 82.8% of the patients who had arrhythmia HP arrhythmia MESHD has severe illness (95% CI [70.916, 92.124]).Conclusion: The prevalence SERO of arrhythmias HP arrhythmias MESHD among patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD is 8.1%, which is much higher than in the general population (2.35%). 

    Human iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes are Susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Arun Sharma; Gustavo Garcia Jr.; Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami; Clive N Svendsen

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.21.051912 Date: 2020-04-21 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is predominantly defined by respiratory symptoms, but cardiac complications including arrhythmias HP arrhythmias MESHD, heart failure MESHD, and viral myocarditis HP myocarditis MESHD are also prevalent. Although the systemic ischemic MESHD and inflammatory responses caused by COVID-19 can detrimentally affect cardiac function, the direct impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on human cardiomyocytes is not well-understood. We used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) as a model system to examine the mechanisms of cardiomyocyte-specific infection by SARS-CoV-2. Microscopy and immunofluorescence demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can enter and replicate within hiPSC-CMs, localizing at perinuclear locations within the cytoplasm. Viral cytopathic effect induced hiPSC-CM apoptosis MESHD and cessation of beating after 72 hours of infection MESHD. These studies show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect hiPSC-CMs MESHD in vitro, establishing a model for elucidating the mechanisms of infection MESHD and potentially a cardiac-specific antiviral drug screening platform.

    Characteristics and outcomes of a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 patients in the Province of Reggio Emilia, Italy

    Authors: Paolo Giorgi Rossi; Massimiliano Marino; Debora Formisano; Francesco Venturelli; Massimo Vicentini; Roberto Grilli; - The Reggio Emilia COVID-19 Working Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.13.20063545 Date: 2020-04-16 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives. To describe the age TRANS- and sex-specific prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD (COVID-19) and its prognostic factors. Design. Population-based prospective cohort study on archive data. Setting. Preventive services and hospital care in the province of Reggio Emilia, Northern Italy. Participants. All 2653 symptomatic patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from February 27 to April 2, 2020 in the province of Reggio Emilia. Main outcome measures. Hospitalization and death up to April 2, 2020. Results. Females TRANS had higher prevalence SERO of infection MESHD than males TRANS below age TRANS 50 (2.61 vs. 1.84 per 1000), but lower in older ages TRANS (16.49 vs. 20.86 per 1000 over age TRANS 80). Case fatality rate reached 20.7% (22/106) in cases with more than 4 weeks follow up. After adjusting for age TRANS and comorbidities, men had a higher risk of hospitalization (hazard ratio (HR) 1.4 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2 to 1.6) and of death (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1). Patients over age TRANS 80 compared to < age TRANS 50 had HR 7.1 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.3) and HR 27.8 (95% CI 12.5 to 61.7) for hospitalization and death MESHD, respectively. Immigrants had a higher risk of hospitalization (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.81) than Italians and a similar risk of death MESHD. Risk of hospitalization and of death MESHD were higher in patients with heart failure MESHD (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1and HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2, respectively), arrhythmia HP arrhythmia MESHD (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.9 and HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5, respectively), dementia HP dementia MESHD (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.8 and HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.8, respectively), ischemic MESHD heart disease MESHD (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7 and HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.5, respectively), diabetes MESHD (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.9 and HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.2, respectively), and hypertensions HP hypertensions MESHD(HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.6 and HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1, respectively), while COPD increased the risk of hospitalization (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) but not of death MESHD (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.7). Previous use of ACE inhibitors has no effect on risk of death (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.34) Conclusions. The mechanisms underlying these associations are mostly unknown. A deeper understanding of the causal chain from infection MESHD, disease onset, and immune response to outcomes may explain how these prognostic factors act.

    Clinical features of critically ill MESHD patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD in China

    Authors: Bo Hu; Dawei Wang; Chang Hu; Ming Hu; Fangfang Zhu; Hui Xiang; Beilei Zhao; Xiaoyi Zhang; Kianoush B. Kashani; Zhiyong Peng

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-16250/v1 Date: 2020-03-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Importance: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD outbreak in China is now a global issue. There is only a limited understanding of the clinical characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD is available.Objective:To describe the characteristics, management strategies, and outcomes of critically ill MESHD patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.Design, Setting, and Patients: This is aretrospective, multi-center case series of 50 critically ill MESHD patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD who were admitted at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital in Wuhan, China, from January 8 to February 9, 2020.Exposures:Documented Corona Virus Disease MESHD, 2019 (COVID-19).Main Outcome Measures: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging data were collected along with management strategies, complications and outcomes of enrolled individuals. Results Fifty critically ill MESHD patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD were enrolled. Their median age TRANS was 62 (range, 29-92) [IQR,49.5-69.0] years, 68% were male TRANS, and 28 (56%) patients had comorbidities, the most common being hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. In this cohort, 20(40%) patients survived ,16(32%) patients died, and the rest remained hospitalized. The invasive mechanical ventilator was used in 36(72%) patients with 15(30%) of them requiring prone positioning, and 17(34%) switched to ECMO. The compliance scores of lungs (Cstat)on the day of ICU admission among survivors were higher than those in non-survivors [42.0(18.0-47.0), vs. 19.5(14.0-24.2), p=0.038].The blood SERO IL-6 levels and neutrophils counts at the first day of ICU admission were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors [123.7(85.3-228.8), vs. 20.2(6.8-67.2) ng/ml, p=0.025 for IL-6, and 20.2(6.8-67.2) vs. 4.01(1.99-7.05) × 10⁹/L, p=0.02 for neutrophils counts].The heart rates, PaCO2, lung injury MESHD scale (LIS), and positive end-expiratory pressure levels were constantly higher for 10 days in non-survivors than those who survived (p<0.05). The frequency of vasopressor uses and neuromuscular blockers was higher in non-survivors from day 1 to day 10 compared to survivors (p<0.05). In the whole cohort, the most common complications were ARDS (97%), shock HP shock MESHD (44%), arrhythmia HP arrhythmia MESHD (38%), acute cardiac injury MESHD (26%), and acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD (22%). A secondary bacterial infection MESHD was noted in 17(34%) patients. Univariate analysis indicated that lower lung complianceand higher neutrophil counts at the day of ICU admission were related to higher mortality (p-0.03, and 0.04, respectively)ConclusionWe demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD-related critical illness predominantly affected old individuals with comorbidities and characterized by severe hypoxemic respiratory failure MESHD respiratory failure HP, often requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and rescue therapies. Low lung compliance and persistently elevated PaCO2 indicated poor outcomes.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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