Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence

antibody (2)

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    SARS-CoV-2 Elicits Robust Adaptive Immune Responses Regardless of Disease MESHD Severity

    Authors: Stine Sofie Frank Nielsen; Line K Vibholm; Ida Monrad; Rikke Olesen; Giacomo S Frattari; Marie H Pahus; Jesper F Højen; Jesper D Gunst; Christian Erikstrup; Andreas Holleufer; Rune Hartmann; Lars Østergaard; Ole S Søgaard; Mariane H Schleimann; Martin Tolstrup

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.08.331645 Date: 2020-10-09 Source: bioRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic currently prevails worldwide. To understand the immunological signature of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD and aid the search for treatments and vaccines, comprehensive characterization of adaptive immune responses towards SARS-CoV-2 is needed. We investigated the breadth and potency of antibody SERO-, and T-cell immune responses, in 203 recovered SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients who presented with asymptomatic TRANS to severe infections HP infections MESHD. We report very broad serological profiles with cross-reactivity to other human coronaviruses. Further, >99% had SARS-CoV-2 epitope specific antibodies, with SARS-CoV-2 SERO neutralization and spike-ACE2 receptor interaction blocking observed in 95% of individuals. A significant positive correlation between spike-ACE2 blocking antibody SERO titers and neutralization potency was observed. SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T-cell responses were clear and quantifiable in 90% of HLA-A2+ individuals. The viral surface spike protein was identified as the dominant target for both neutralizing antibodies SERO and CD8+ T cell responses. Overall, the majority of patients had robust adaptive immune responses, regardless of disease severity. These data support the possibility of achieving protective immunity through natural infection MESHD and bode well for the prospects of inducing immunological memory through vaccination.

    Ontological and Bioinformatic Analysis of Anti-Coronavirus Drugs and Their Implication for Drug Repurposing against COVID-19

    Authors: Yingtong Liu; Wallace K.B. Chan; Zhigang Wang; Junguk Hur; Jiangan Xie; Hong Yu; Yongqun He

    id:10.20944/preprints202003.0413.v1 Date: 2020-03-29 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus-infected diseases MESHD have posed great threats to human health. In past years, highly infectious coronavirus-induced diseases MESHD, including COVID-19, SARS, and MERS, have resulted in world-wide severe infections HP. Our literature annotations identified 110 chemical drugs and 26 antibodies SERO effective against at least one human coronavirus infection MESHD in vitro or in vivo. Many of these drugs inhibit viral entry to cells and viral replication inside cells or modulate host immune responses. Many antimicrobial drugs, including antimalarial (e.g., chloroquine and mefloquine) and antifungal (e.g., terconazole and rapamycin) drugs as well as antibiotics (e.g., teicoplanin and azithromycin) were associated with anti-coronavirus activity. A few drugs, including remdesivir, chloroquine, favipiravir, and tocilizumab, have already been reported to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in vitro or in vivo. After mapping our identified drugs to three ontologies ChEBI, NDF-RT, and DrON, many features such as roles and mechanisms of action (MoAs) of these drugs were identified and categorized. For example, out of 57 drugs with MoA annotations in NDF-RT, 47 have MoAs of different types of inhibitors and antagonists. A total of 29 anticoronaviral drugs are anticancer drugs with the antineoplastic role. Two clustering analyses, one based on ChEBI-based semantic similarity, the other based on drug chemical similarity, were performed to cluster 110 drugs to new categories. Moreover, differences in physicochemical properties among the drugs were found between those inhibiting viral entry and viral replication. A total of 163 host genes were identified as the known targets of 68 anti-coronavirus drugs, resulting in a network of 428 interactions among these drugs and targets. Chlorpromazine, dasatinib, and anisomycin are the hubs of the drug-target network with the highest number of connected target proteins. Many enriched pathways such as calcium signaling and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways were identified. These findings may be used to facilitate drug repurposing against COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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