Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (31)

Pneumonia (25)

Hypertension (20)

Cough (20)

Fatigue (10)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 106
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    Understanding Structural Malleability of the SARS-CoV-2 Proteins MESHD and their Relation to the Comorbidities

    Authors: Sagnik Sen; Ashmita Dey; Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay; Ujjwal Maulik; Vladimir Uversky

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-82352/v1 Date: 2020-09-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), a causative agent of the coronavirus disease MESHD (CoVID-19), is a part of the β-coronaviridae family. In comparison with two other members of this family TRANS of coronaviruses infecting humans ( SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome MESHD ( MERS MESHD) CoV), SARS-CoV-2 showed the most severe effects on the entire Earth population causing world-wide CoVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 contains five major protein classes, such as four structural proteins (Nucleocapsid (N), Membrane (M), Envelop (E), and Spike Glycoprotein (S)) and Replicase polyproteins (R), which are synthesized as two polyproteins (ORF1a and ORF1ab) that are subsequently processed into 12 nonstructural proteins by three viral proteases. All these proteins share high sequence similarity with their SARS-CoV MESHD counterparts. Due to the severity of the current situation, most of the SARS-CoV-2-related research is focused on finding therapeutic solutions and the analysis of comorbidities during infection MESHD. However, studies on the peculiarities of the amino acid sequences of viral protein classes and their structure space analysis throughout the evolutionary time-frame are limited. At the same time, due to their structural malleability, viral proteins can be directly or indirectly associated with the dysfunctionality of the host cell proteins, which may lead to comorbidities during the infection and at the post infection stage. To fill these gaps, we conducted the evolutionary sequence-structure analysis of the viral protein classes to evaluate the rate of their evolutionary malleability. We also looked at the intrinsic disorder propensities of these viral proteins and confirmed that although they typically do not have long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), all of them have at least some levels of intrinsic disorder MESHD. Furthermore, short IDRs found in viral proteins are extremely effective and prioritize the proteins for host cell interactions, which may lead to host cell dysfunction. Next, the associations of viral proteins with the host cell proteins were studied, and a list of diseases which are associated with such host cell proteins was developed. Other than the usual set of diseases, we have identified some maladies, which may happen after the recovery from the infections. Comparison of the expression rates of the host cell proteins during the diseases suggested the existence of two distinct classes. First class includes proteins, which are directly associated with certain sets of diseases, where they have shared similar activities. Second class is related to the cytokine storm-mediated pro- inflammation MESHD (already known for its role in acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome, ARDS MESHD), and neuroinflammation may trigger some of the neurological malignancies and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases MESHD. Finally, since the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), which is one of the leading proteins associated with the viral uptake, is an androgen-mediated protein, our study suggested that males TRANS and postmenopausal females TRANS can be more susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    SARS-CoV-2 S Protein Binding hACE2: Viral Entry, Pathogenesis, Prognosis, and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Authors: Lobna Al-Zaidan; Sarra Mestiri; Afsheen Raza; Maysaloun Merhi; Varghese Inchakalody; Queenie Fernandez; Nassiba Taib; Shahab Uddin; Said Dermime

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0420.v1 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: Preprints.org

    Pneumonia HP cases of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China, were reported to the WHO on 31st of December 2019. Later the pathogen was reported to be a novel coronavirus designated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) that causes Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is a novel pathogenic beta coronavirus that infects MESHD humans causing severe respiratory illness MESHD. However, multifarious factors can contribute to the susceptibility to COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality such as age TRANS, gender TRANS and underlying comorbidities. Importantly, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD entry into the host cells is mediated via ACE2 receptor. However, ACE2 receptor binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2 is 4 folds higher than that to SARS-CoV MESHD. Identification of different aspects such as binding affinity, differential antigenic profiles of spike glycoproteins, and ACE2 polymorphisms might influence the investigation of potential therapeutic strategies targeting SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 binding interface. Here we aim to elaborate on SARS-CoV-2 S1/ACE2 ligand that facilitates viral internalization as well as to highlight the differences between SARS-CoVs binding affinity to ACE2. We also discuss the possible immunogenic sequences of spike glycoprotein and the effect of ACE2 polymorphism on viral binding/infectivity and host susceptibility to disease. Furthermore, targeting of ACE2 will be discussed to understand its role in therapeutics.

    Diagnosis of Coronavirus disease MESHD by measuring serum SERO concentrations of IL-6 and blood SERO Ferritin

    Authors: Parviz Yazdanpanah; Farzad Vafaei; Saeed Javdansirat; Jalal pouranfard; Sajad Afrouz

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-74750/v1 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) associated by infection MESHD and high death rate. The unresolved questions about the fatality rate of COVID-19 is most probably related to cytokine storm syndrome. There is currently no specific medication. Understanding the pathogenic pathway of this disease will lead to production of treatment and decreases of death MESHD rate. The aim of this study is to investigate changes of peripheral blood SERO parameters (Interleukin-6 and Ferritin) in COVID-19 patients, which may be beneficial in the management of patients.Methods: In this case-control study, we collected data of 270 subjects in two groups including 133 patients with severe type COVID-19 (case) and 137 patients with nonsevere (control) between March 20 and May 21, 2020, and the clinical symptoms and inflammatory indications of patients diagnosed by laboratory test in Shahid Jalil hospital of Yasuj University of medical Sciences were collected to explore potential markers for disease monitoring. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Descriptive statistics, T-test and bivariate correlation tests were used to analyze. Results: The enrolled COVID-19 patients consisted of 53.4% males TRANS and 46.6% females TRANS with the medium age TRANS of 45.56±18.55 years and there were 50.04% males TRANS and 49.6% females TRANS with the medium age TRANS of 45.59±17.0 years for non COVID-19 patients. There was no significant difference in the age TRANS and sex ratio between two population under study. The proportion interstitial abnormalities MESHD evidenced by CT imaging in COVID-19 patients was 91.0%, while, 4.4% abnormalities was found in non COVID-19 patients. The frequency of positive RT-PCR test for case and control groups were 88.0% and 3.6%, respectively. The mean IL-6 and Ferritin levels and hematological parameters in two groups of patients with COVID-19 and non- COVID-19, were significantly different across all comparisons.There was a direct positively correlated between serum SERO level of IL-6, Ferritin levels and hematological parameters including WBC, Lymphocytes, Neutrophils and Hb, except for platelets (negatively correlate),  with COVID-19. Conclusions: In conclusion, inflammatory markers specifically IL-6 and Ferritin and hematological parameters (WBC, Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Platelet and Hb) were correlated with the severity of COVID-19. Measurement of IL-6, Ferritin and hematological MESHD indices might be workable tests to diagnosis and prognosis of patients with COVID-19. 

    Antibody SERO Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Coronavirus Diseases MESHD 2019 Patients with Different Severity

    Authors: Ekasit Kowitdamrong; Thanyawee Puthanakit; Watsamon Jantarabenjakul; Eakachai Prompetchara; Pintip Suchartlikitwong; Opass Putcharoen; Nattiya Hirankarn; Ke Lan; Yu Chen; Huabin Zhao

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.06.20189480 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: More understanding of antibody SERO responses in the SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD population is useful for vaccine development. Aim: To investigate SARS-CoV-2 IgA MESHD and IgG among COVID-19 Thai patients with different severity. Methods: We used plasma SERO from 118 adult TRANS patients who have confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and 49 patients under investigation without infection MESHD, 20 patients with other respiratory infections MESHD, and 102 healthy controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO from Euroimmun. The optical density ratio cut off for positive test was 1.1 for IgA and 0.8 for IgG. The association of antibody SERO response with the severity of diseases and the day of symptoms was performed. Results: From Mar 10 to May 31, 2020, 289 participants were enrolled, and 384 samples were analyzed. Patients were categorized by clinical manifestations to mild (n=59), moderate (n=27) and severe (n=32). The overall sensitivity SERO of IgA and IgG from samples collected after day 7 is 87.9% (95% CI 79.8-93.6) and 84.8% (95% CI 76.2-91.3), respectively. The severe group had a significantly higher level of specific IgA and IgG to S1 antigen compared to the mild group. All moderate to severe patients have specific IgG while 20% of the mild group did not have any IgG detected after two weeks. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 IgG level was significantly higher in males TRANS compared to females TRANS among the severe group (p=0.003). Conclusion: The serologic test SERO for SARS-CoV-2 has high sensitivity SERO after the second week after onset of illness. Serological response differs among patients with different severity and different sex.

    Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, hospitalisation, and death in Catalonia MESHD, Spain: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Authors: Judit Villar-Garcia; Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo; Montserrat Cleries; Elisenda Martinez; David Monterde; Pol Perez-Sust; Luis Garcia-Eroles; Carol Sais; Montserrat Moharra; Emili Vela; Jochen Lennerz; Hetal Desai Marble; Lauren L. Ritterhouse; Julie Batten; N. Zeke Georgantas; Rebecca Pellerin; Sylvia Signorelli; Julia Thierauf; Molly Kemball; Christian Happi; Donald S. Grant; Daouda Ndiaye; Katherine J. Siddle; Samar B Mehta; Jason B. Harris; Edward T Ryan; Virginia M. Pierce; Regina C LaRocque; Jacob Lemieux; Pardis Sabeti; Eric Rosenberg; John Branda; Sarah E Turbett; Gail Carson; Malcolm G Semple; Janet T Scott

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182303 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE To identify the different subpopulations that are susceptible for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and hospitalisation or death MESHD due to coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Catalonia, Spain. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data collected from the Catalan Health Surveillance System (CatSalut) in Catalonia, a region of Spain. PARTICIPANTS Using data collected between 1 March and 1 June 2020, we conducted the following comparative analyses: people infected by SARS-CoV-2 (328 892) vs Catalonia's entire population (7 699 568); COVID-19 cases who required hospitalisation (37 638) vs cases who did not require hospitalisation (291 254); and COVID-19 cases who died during the study period vs cases who did not die during the study period (12 287). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Three clinical outcomes related to COVID-19 ( infection MESHD, hospitalisation, or death MESHD). We analysed sociodemographic and environment variables (such as residing in a nursing home) and the presence of previous comorbidities. RESULTS A total of 328 892 cases were considered to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (4.27% of total population). The main risk factors for the diagnostic were: female TRANS gender TRANS (risk ratio [RR] =1.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] =1.48-1.50), age TRANS (45-64 years old; RR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01-1.03), high comorbidity burden (GMA index) (RR=3.03; 95% CI=2.97-3.09), reside in a nursing home (RR=11.82; 95% CI=11.66-11.99), and smoking (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.05-1.07). During the study period, there were 37 638 (11.4 %) hospitalisations due to COVID-19, and the risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.45; 95% CI=1.43-1.48), age TRANS > 65 (RR=2.38; 95% CI=2.28-2.48), very low individual income (RR=1.03; 95% CI=0.97-1.08), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.15; 95% CI=4.89-5.42). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were obesity HP obesity MESHD (RR=1.23; 95% CI=1.20-1.25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.15-1.22), heart failure MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.07; 95% CI=1.04-1.10), and neuro-psychiatric MESHD comorbidities (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.03-1.10). A total of 12 287 deaths (3.73%) were attributed to COVID-19, and the main risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.73; 95% CI=1.67-1.81), age TRANS > 65 (RR=37.45; 95% CI=29.23-47.93), residing in a nursing home (RR=9.22; 95% CI=8.81-9.65), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.25; 95% CI=4.60-6.00). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were: heart failure MESHD (RR=1.21; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (RR=1.17; 95% CI=1.13-1.22), and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.10; 95% CI=1.06-1.14). These results did not change significantly when we considered only PCR-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS Female TRANS gender TRANS, age TRANS between 45 to 64 years old, high burden of comorbidities, and factors related to environment (nursing home) play a relevant role in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and transmission TRANS. In addition, we found risk factors for hospitalisation and death MESHD due to COVID-19 that had not been described to date, including comorbidity burden, neuro-psychiatric disorders MESHD, and very low individual income. This study supports interventions for transmission TRANS control beyond stratify-and-shield strategies focused only on protecting those at risk of death. Future COVID-19 studies should examine the role of gender TRANS, the burden of comorbidities, and socioeconomic status in disease transmission TRANS, and should determine its relationship to workplaces, especially healthcare centres and nursing homes.

    Population-based seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 is more than halfway through the herd immunity threshold in the State of Maranhao, Brazil

    Authors: Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva; Lídio Gonçalves Lima Neto; Conceição de Maria Pedrozo e Silva de Azevedo; Léa Márcia Melo da Costa; Maylla Luana Barbosa Martins Bragança; Allan Kardec Duailibe Barros Filho; Bernardo Bastos Wittlin; Bruno Feres de Souza Sr.; Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de Oliveira; Carolina Abreu de Carvalho; Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz; Eudes Alves Simões Neto; Jamesson Ferreira Leite Júnior; Lécia Maria Sousa Santos Cosme; Marcos Adriano Garcia Campos; Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz; Sérgio Souza Costa; Vitória Abreu de Carvalho; Vanda Maria Ferreira Simóes; Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e Alves; Alcione Miranda dos Santos; Alberto Pasqualetto; Maylin Koo; Virginia Esteve; Arnau Antoli; Rafael Moreno; Sergi Yun; Pau Cerda; Mariona Llaberia; Francesc Formiga; Marta Fanlo; Abelardo Montero; David Chivite; Olga Capdevila; Ferran Bolao; Xavier Pinto; Josep Llop; Antoni Sabate; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.20180463 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Few population-based studies on the prevalence SERO of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) have been performed to date, and most of them have used lateral flow immunoassays SERO with finger-prick, which may yield false-negative results and thus underestimate the true infection rate. Methods: A population-based household survey was performed in the State of Maranhao, Brazil, from 27 July 2020 to 8 August 2020 to estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 using a serum SERO testing electrochemiluminescence immunoassay SERO. A three-stage cluster sampling stratified by four state regions was used. The estimates took clustering, stratification, and non-response into account. Qualitative detection of IgM and IgG antibodies SERO was performed in a fully-automated Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay SERO on the Cobas e601 analyser (Roche Diagnostics). Findings: A total of 3156 individuals were interviewed. Seroprevalence SERO of total antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 was 40.4% (95%CI 35.6-45.3). Population adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions was higher at the beginning of the pandemic than in the last month. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD rates were significantly lower among mask wearers and among those who maintained social and physical distancing in the last month compared to their counterparts. Among the infected, 62.2% had more than three symptoms, 11.1% had one or two symptoms, and 26.0% were asymptomatic TRANS. The infection MESHD fatality rate was 0.17%, higher for males TRANS and advanced age groups TRANS. The ratio of estimated infections MESHD to reported cases was 22.2. Interpretation: To the best of our knowledge, the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 estimated in this population-based survey was the highest and the closest to the herd immunity threshold reported to date. Our results suggest that the herd immunity threshold is not as low as 20%, but at least higher than or equal to around 40%. The infection MESHD fatality rate was one of the lowest reported so far, and the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases was low.

    Clinical Characteristics of Severe Covid Pneumonia HP: Exploring New Trends in ICU

    Authors: Aftab Akhtar; Sheher Bano; Ahtesham Iqbal; Moazma Ramzan; Aayesha Qadeer; Syed Waqar Hussain; Anam Saleem; Omair-ul-Haq Lodhi; Sana Zubair; Abdul Hameed kiani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-69224/v1 Date: 2020-08-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In late December 2019, Covid-19 emerged as clusters of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD of unknown cause in a province of china, Wuhan. Etiological agent was identified as novel coronavirus that resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) MESHD and has zoonotic transmission TRANS. Covid pneumonia HP can remain asymptomatic TRANS, present as mild infection, severe HP infection, severe MESHD pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD or respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD. Diagnosis is based on rRT-PCR carried out on respiratory secretions. Covid related mortality exceeds 50% once patient requires ICU admission. Objective: To study the characteristics of ICU population admitted to ICU of Shifa International hospital.Results: we prospectively analysed 74 patients which included 43.3% females TRANS and 56.7% males TRANS. Commonest symptoms were shortness of breath MESHD (94.5%), fever HP fever MESHD (74.3%) and cough HP (74.3%). Most of our study population consisted of non-smokers (79.7%) and had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (59.4%) followed by diabetes MESHD (47.2%). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin combination is superior to hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline in reducing mortality (p=0.023) whereas Doxycycline alone resulted in increased mortality (p=0.009). Those who did not require antibiotics or required only narrow spectrum antibiotics had increased survival and reduced requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (p=< 0.0001). in our study population, (44.9%) developed acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD, 2.7% needed re-intubations 10.8% developed surgical emphysema HP emphysema MESHD and 2.7 % thromboembolic MESHD events despite full anticoagulation. ICU mortality was 41.8% and was higher in females TRANS (59.4%, p=0.008), those who had SOFA score > 3.5 at time of admission, raised D-Dimers > 931 ng/ml, NLR > 9.2. It was further high in those who required invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support (58.1% mortality p=< 0.001). ICU stay was more prolonged in those requiring invasive mechanical ventilation as compared to those who did not. (23 days vs 6 days, p=0.001). Mean plateau pressure was 19.6 ± 7.6; mean Driving pressures 14.4 ± 4.6; mean PaO2/FiO2 150.7 ± 73.9; mean SPO2/FiO2 173.9 ± 106.9; mean PEEP was 8.2 ±4.33.Conclusion: We concluded that severe covid pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD is common amongst males TRANS, non-smokers those who had comorbid. HCQ and azithromycin combination is superior to combination of HCQ and doxycycline or doxycycline alone and QT prolongation MESHD is a rare complication. Baseline NLR, APACHI II, SOFA, SAPS II, NUTRIC scores, D-Dimers, invasive ventilation and vasopressor support are important tools to predict ICU mortality. Invasive mechanical ventilation carries higher mortality and associated with more prolonged ICU stay. AKI is most common complication followed by shock HP and surgical emphysema HP emphysema MESHD. CRP, Ferritin levels has no impact on outcome.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection Reaches MESHD the Human Nervous System: How?

    Authors: Vladimir N. Uversky; Fatma Elrashdy; Abdullah Aljadawi; Syed Moasfar Ali; Rizwan Hasan Khan; Elrashdy M. Redwan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0696.v1 Date: 2020-08-31 Source: Preprints.org

    Without protective and/or therapeutic agents the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD known as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is quickly spreading worldwide. It has surprising transmissibility TRANS potential, since it could infect MESHD all ages TRANS, gender TRANS, and human sectors. It attacks respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, hepatic, and endovascular systems and can reach the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) through known and unknown mechanisms. The reports on the neurological manifestations and complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are increasing exponentially. Herein, we enumerate seven candidate routes, which the mature or immature SARS-CoV-2 components could use to reach the CNS and PNS, utilizing the within-body crosstalk between organs. The majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients suffer from some neurological manifestations (e.g., confusion HP confusion MESHD, anosmia HP anosmia MESHD, and ageusia MESHD). It seems that although the mature virus did not reach the CNS or PNS of the majority of patients, its unassembled components and/or the accompanying immune-mediated responses may be responsible for the observed neurological symptoms. The viral particles and/or its components have been specifically documented in endothelial cells of lung, kidney, skin, and CNS. This means that the blood SERO-endothelial-barrier may be considered as the main route for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the nervous system, with the barrier disruption being more logical than barrier permeability, as evidenced by postmortem analyses.

    Observational Study on Clinical Features, Treatment and Outcome of COVID 19 in a tertiary care Centre in India- a retrospective case series

    Authors: Raja Bhattacharya; Rohini Ghosh; Manish Kulshrestha; Sampurna Chowdhury; Rishav Mukherjee; Indranil Ray; Lionel Tim Ee Cheng; Lynette Lin Ean Oon; Min Han Tan; Kian Sing Chan; Li Yang Hsu; Ramgyan Yadav; Ashish Timalsina; Chetan Nidhi Wagle; Brij Kumar Das; Ramesh Kunwar; Binaya Chalise; Deepak Raj Bhatta; Mukesh Adhikari; Michael Gale; Daniel J Campbell; David Rawlings; Marion Pepper

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20170282 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study will attempt to explore the demographic profile and outcome in the patients receiving multidisciplinary, personalised approach including use of Broad Spectrum Antivirals - Ivermectin, anti-inflammatory and antioxidants roles of Statins and N-acetyl-cysteine along with Standard of Care (SOC) in hospitalised COVID19 patients in a tertiary care centre. Setting: Inpatient department Participants: 191 COVID-19 patients with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD in the year 2020 between June 14- 28, 2020 Main outcome measures: The outcome of Interests are : Studying the demographic profile of COVID 19 cases Study the treatment outcomes in terms of death MESHD or discharge in patients receiving Ivermectin+N-acetyl-cysteine+Statin along with Standard of care. Results: 148 patients were included in the study. All of them had confirmed COVID19 infection MESHD by the rtPCR method. Average age TRANS of the patients was 57.57 years ( Range = 17 - 88), 49% were male TRANS, 51% female TRANS. 81% of the patients had at least one or more comorbidities. Most common comorbidities included diabetes MESHD( 32%), Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD (27%), Ischaemic Heart Disease MESHD (8%). More comorbidities. The in hospital, Case Fatality Rate was therefore, 1.35 %. The remaining 144 were discharged from the facility after an average 12 days duration of stay. Conclusions: Triple therapy with ivermectin + atorvastatin + N-acetylcysteine can be an useful adjunct to standard of care. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, outpatients, treatment, zinc, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin

    Transmission TRANS Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in a Mid-size City of China

    Authors: Hongjun Zhao; Xiaoxiao Lu; Wenhui Lun; Tiegang Li; Boqi Rao; Dedong Wang; Di Wu; Fuman Qiu; Zhicong Yang; Lu Jiachun

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-59402/v1 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: An outbreak of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city and then spread to other cities. It is very urgent to delineate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these affected patients. Methods: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19, we describe a case series of 473 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wenzhou of China from January 27 to March 2, 2020.Results: The median age TRANS of all patients was 47.6 years, 48.4% of which were female TRANS. 33.8% of the patients had a history of residence in Wuhan. Fever HP Fever MESHD (71.7%) and cough HP (43.1%) were the most common symptoms. In addition, three kinds of unconventional cases were observed, namely 4.9% asymptomatic TRANS patients, 7.6% confirmed patients who had no link to Wuhan city but contact with individuals from Wuhan without any symptoms at the time of contact, and 12.9% confirmed patients who had an unknown source of transmission TRANS. We estimated that the basic reproductive number TRANS ( R0 TRANS) was 2.75 (95%CI: 2.37-3.23). The effective reproduction number TRANS (Rt) fluctuated within the range of 2.50 to 3.74 from January 11 to January 16 while gradually reached the peak of 3.74 on January 16. Rt gradually decreased after January 16 and decreased to 1.00 on January 30. Rt continually decreased and reached the lowest point (0.03) on February 21, 2020.Conclusion: Our findings presented the possibility of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS affected with SARS-CoV-2, and this phenomenon suggested that chances of uncontrollable transmission TRANS in the larger population might be higher than formerly estimated, and transmission TRANS by these three kinds of unconventional patients in Wenzhou may be an important characteristic of infection MESHD in other mid-sized cities in the world. This study evaluated the epidemic characteristics of Wenzhou after having cases imported from Hubei Province and the effects after adopting a series of strict prevention and control strategy. 

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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