Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (33)

Cough (25)

Fever (24)

Fatigue (10)

Severe infection (7)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 195
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    Prophylactic intranasal administration of a TLR2 agonist reduces upper respiratory tract viral shedding in a SARS-CoV-2 challenge ferret model

    Authors: Pamela C Proud; Daphne Tsitoura; Robert J Watson; Brendon Y. Chua; Marilyn J Aram; Kevin R Bewley; Breeze E Cavell; Rebecca Cobb; Stuart Dowall; Susan A Fotheringham; Catherine MK Ho; Vanessa Lucas; Didier Ngabo; Emma Rayner; Kathryn A Ryan; Gillian S Slack; Stephen Thomas; Nadina I Wand; Paul Yeates; Christophe Demaison; David C. Jackson; Nathan W Bartlett; Francesca Mercuri; Miles W Carroll; Sonam T. Nyatsatsang; Alexander L. Greninger; Ansuman T. Satpathy; John S Pauk; Scott D. Boyd; James R. Heath

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.25.309914 Date: 2020-09-25 Source: bioRxiv

    Respiratory viruses such as coronaviruses represent major ongoing global threats, causing epidemics and pandemics with huge economic burden. Rapid spread of virus through populations poses an enormous challenge for outbreak control. Like all respiratory viruses, the most recent novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, initiates infection MESHD in the upper respiratory tract (URT). Infected individuals are often asymptomatic TRANS, yet highly infectious and readily transmit virus. A therapy that restricts initial replication in the URT has the potential to prevent progression of severe lower respiratory tract disease MESHD as well as limiting person-to-person transmission TRANS. We show that prophylactic intra-nasal administration of the TLR2/6 agonist INNA-051 in a SARS-CoV-2 ferret infection MESHD model effectively reduces levels of viral RNA in the nose and throat. The results of our study support clinical development of a therapy based on prophylactic TLR2/6 innate immune activation in the URT to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS and provide protection against COVID-19.

    Epidemic Response and Transmission TRANS Dynamics of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19) in Khartoum State- Sudan 2020: Study Protocol

    Authors: Mustafa Khidir Mustafa Elnimeiri; Mohanad Kamaleldin Mahmoud Ibrahim; Shahenaz Seifaldeen Mustafa Satti

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-80602/v1 Date: 2020-09-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: A novel Coronavirus was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), and the syndrome of clinical manifestation was named (COVID-19). Consequently, on Jan 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak as a pandemic and a public health emergency of international concern. The objectives of this research are to investigate the response of the health system at different levels towards the control of the COVID-19 epidemic and to explore the COVID-19 transmission TRANS dynamics among Sudanese community. Methods: A community and institutional-based cross sectional based study will be conducted in Khartoum State include all the seven localities. The sample size of participant is estimated at 920 using the population formula (n=N/1+ (n*d2)) and considering the response rate. The sample will be drawn using multistage cluster sampling. Data will be collected using interview with key informant and concerned bodies/institutes involved in the response at both the federal and Khartoum State levels. Administered pre-coded, pretested closed ended questionnaire will be developed to collect data from community participants. Data will be managed and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21. Analysis is mostly univariate descriptive and bi-variate with Chi Square & Fischer Exact tests analysis to find associations between variables of interest.Discussion: This study is expected to evaluate the extent and magnitude of the epidemic response at different levels in addition to the adequacy of the epidemic response. The study participants will be screened to estimate proportion of individuals per age TRANS strata who show sero-positivity for virus infection MESHD, thus it will estimate the percentages of individuals reporting symptoms/signs of infection MESHD and asymptomatic TRANS fraction. The results of this study will strengthen the current interventional approaches of COVID-19 epidemic control and will provide set of database for better planning and implementation of COVID-19 control across the country. It will contribute to in-depth understanding of the COVID-19 transmission TRANS dynamics among Sudanese community and will improve the community awareness about COVID-19.

    COVID-19 outbreak and control in Kenya- Insights from a mathematical model

    Authors: Rachel Waema Mbogo; Titus Okellow Orwa

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77507/v1 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 ( COVID -19) pandemic reached Kenya in March 2020 with the initial cases reported in the capital city Nairobi and in the coastal area Mombasa. As reported by the World Health Organization, the outbreak of COVID -19 has spread across the world, killed many, collapsed economies and changed the way people live since it was first reported in Wuhan, China, in the end of 2019. As of May 25,2020 It had led to over 100,000 confirmed cases TRANS in Africa with over 3000 deaths. The trend poses a huge threat to global public health. Understanding the early transmission TRANS dynamics of the infection MESHD and evaluating the effectiveness of control measures is crucial for assessing the potential for sustained transmission TRANS to occur in new areas. We employed a SEIHCRD mathematical transmission TRANS model with reported Kenyan data on cases of COVID -19 to estimate how transmission TRANS varies over time. The model is concise in structure, and successfully captures the course of the COVID -19 outbreak, and thus sheds light on understanding the trends of the outbreak. The next generation matrix approach was adopted to calculate the basic reproduction number TRANS ( $ R_0 TRANS$ ) from the model to assess the factors driving the infection . The results from the model analysis shows that non-pharmaceutical interventions over a relatively long period is needed to effectively get rid of the COVID -19 epidemic otherwise the rate of infection will continue to increase despite the increased rate of recovery.

    A fractional order approach to modeling and simulations of the novel COVID-19

    Authors: Isaac Owusu-Mensah; Lanre Akinyemi; Bismark Oduro; Olaniyi S. Iyiola

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77269/v1 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2.) has emerged and spread at fast speed globally; the disease has become an unprecedented threat to public health worldwide. It is one of the greatest public health challenges in modern times, with no proven cure or vaccine. In this paper, our focus is on a fractional order approach to modeling and simulations of the novel COVID-19. We introduce a fractional type Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) model to gain insight into the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19. Our proposed model incorporates transmission TRANS rate, testing rates, and transition rate (from asymptomatic TRANS to symptomatic population groups) for a holistic study of the coronavirus disease MESHD. The impacts of these parameters on the dynamics of the solution proles for the disease are simulated and discussed in detail. Furthermore, across all the different parameters, the effects of the fractional order derivative are also simulated and discussed in detail. Various simulations carried out enable us gain deep insights into the dynamics of the spread of COVID-19. The simulation results confirm that fractional calculus is an appropriate tool in modeling the spread of a complex infectious disease MESHD such as the novel COVID-19. In the absence of vaccine and treatment, our analysis strongly supports the significance reduction in the transmission TRANS rate as valuable strategy to curb the spread of the virus. Our results suggest that tracing TRANS and moving testing up has an important benefit. It reduces the number of infected individuals in the general public and thereby reduce the spread of the pandemic. Once the infected MESHD individuals are identified and isolated, the interaction between susceptible and infected individuals diminishes and transmission TRANS reduces. Furthermore, aggressive testing is also highly recommended.

    Many bat species are not potential hosts of SARS-CoV MESHD and SARS-CoV-2: Evidence from ACE2 receptor usage

    Authors: Huan Yan; Hengwu Jiao; Qianyun Liu; Zhen Zhang; Xin Wang; Ming Guo; Bing-Jun Wang; Ke Lan; Yu Chen; Huabin Zhao

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.08.284737 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: bioRxiv

    Bats are the suggested natural hosts for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD, the latter of which caused the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The interaction of viral Spike proteins with their host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a critical determinant of potential hosts and cross-species transmission TRANS. Here we use virus-host receptor binding and infection MESHD assays to show that ACE2 orthologs from 24, 21, and 16 of 46 phylogenetically diverse bat species, including those in close and distant contact with humans, do not support entry of SARS-CoV MESHD, SARS-CoV-2, and both of these coronaviruses, respectively. Furthermore, we used genetic and functional analyses to identify genetic changes in bat ACE2 receptors associated with viral entry restrictions. Our study demonstrates that many, if not most, bat species are not potential hosts of SARS-CoV MESHD and SARS-CoV-2, and provides important insights into pandemic control and wildlife conservation.

    Defining the role of asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS: a living systematic review

    Authors: Xueting Qiu; Ali Ihsan Nergiz; Alberto Enrico Maraolo; Isaac I Bogoch; Nicola Low; Muge Cevik; Michelle L. Allen; Genevieve B. Melton; Anthony Charles; Christopher J. Tignanelli; - the Yale IMPACT Research Team; Charles S. Dela Cruz; Shelli F. Farhadian; Akiko Iwasaki; Albert I. Ko; Nathan D. Grubaugh; Anne L. Wyllie

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20135194 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background Reports suggest that asymptomatic TRANS individuals (those with no symptoms at all throughout the infection) with severe HP infection) with severe MESHD acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) are infectious, but the extent of asymptomatic TRANS transmission TRANS requires further understanding. Purpose This living review aims to critically appraise available data about secondary attack rates TRANS from people with asymptomatic TRANS and pre-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Data sources Medline, EMBASE, China Academic Journals full-text database (CNKI), and pre-print servers were searched from 30 December 2019 to 3 July 2020 using relevant MESH terms. Study selection Studies that report on contact tracing TRANS of index cases with asymptomatic TRANS or pre-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, in either English or Chinese were included. Data extraction Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. We calculated the secondary attack rate TRANS as the number of contacts with SARS-CoV-2, divided by the number of contacts tested. Data synthesis Of 928 studies identified, 19 were included. Secondary attack rates TRANS from asymptomatic TRANS index cases ranged from 0% to 2.8% (9 studies). Pre-symptomatic secondary attack rates TRANS ranged from 0.7% to 31.8% (10 studies). The highest secondary attack rates TRANS were found in contacts who lived in the same household as the index case. Other activities associated with transmission TRANS were group activities such as sharing meals TRANS or playing board games with the index case. Limitations We excluded some studies because the index case or number of contacts were unclear. Owing to the anticipated heterogeneity, we did not produce a summary estimate of the included studies. Conclusion Asymptomatic TRANS patients can transmit SARS-CoV-2 to others, but our findings indicate that such individuals are responsible for fewer secondary infections than people with symptoms in the same studies. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020188168 Funding: No funding was received

    Asymptomatic TRANS cases and limited transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in residents and healthcare workers in three Dutch nursing homes

    Authors: Laura W van Buul; Judith Henriette van den Besselaar; Fleur M.H.P.H. Koene; Bianca M. Buurman; Cees M.P.M. Hertogh; Kamalini Lokuge; Ali H Mokdad; Peter J. Hotez; Robin B. Gasser; Parveen Bahel; Kent Owusu; Yu Yamamoto; Tanima Arora; Deepak S. Atri; Amisha Patel; Rana Gbyli; Jennifer Kwan; Christine H. Won; Charles Dela Cruz; Christina Price; Jonathan Koff; Brett A. King; Henry M. Rinder; F. Perry Wilson; John Hwa; Stephanie Halene; William Damsky; David van Dijk; Alfred Ian Lee; Hyung Chun; Akhil Vaid; Guillermo Barturen; Scott R. Tyler; Hardik Shah; Yinh-chih Wang; Shwetha Hara Sridhar; Juan Soto; Swaroop Bose; Kent Madrid; Ethan Ellis; Elyze Merzier; Konstantinos Vlachos; Nataly Fishman; Manying Tin; Melissa Smith; Hui Xie; Manishkumar Patel; Kimberly Argueta; Jocelyn Harris; Neha Karekar; Craig Batchelor; Jose Lacunza; Mahlet Yishak; Kevin Tuballes; Leisha Scott; Arvind Kumar; Suraj Jaladanki; Ryan Thompson; Evan Clark; Bojan Losic; - The Mount Sinai COVID-19 Biobank Team; Jun Zhu; Wenhui Wang; Andrew Kasarskis; Benjamin S. Glicksberg; Girish Nadkarni; Dusan Bogunovic; Cordelia Elaiho; Sandeep Gangadharan; George Ofori-Amanfo; Kasey Alesso-Carra; Kenan Onel; Karen M. Wilson; Carmen Argmann; Marta E. Alarcón-Riquelme; Thomas U. Marron; Adeeb Rahman; Seunghee Kim-Schulze; Sacha Gnjatic; Bruce D. Gelb; Miriam Merad; Robert Sebra; Eric E. Schadt; Alexander W. Charney

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.31.20185033 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Purpose Many nursing homes worldwide have been hit by outbreaks of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to assess the contribution of a- and presymptomatic residents and healthcare workers in transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in three nursing homes. Methods Two serial point- prevalence SERO surveys, 1 week apart, among residents and healthcare workers of three Dutch nursing homes with recent SARS-CoV-2 introduction MESHD. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal testing for SARS-CoV-2, including reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was conducted with reporting of cycle threshold (Ct). Participants were categorized as symptomatic, presymptomatic or asymptomatic TRANS with standardized symptom assessment. Results In total, 297 residents and 542 healthcare workers participated in the study. At the first point- prevalence SERO survey, 15 residents tested positive of which one was presymptomatic (Ct value>35) and three remained asymptomatic TRANS (Ct value of 23, 30 and 32). At the second point- prevalence SERO survey one resident and one healthcare worker tested SARS-CoV-2 positive (Ct value >35 and 24, respectively) and both remained asymptomatic TRANS. Conclusion This study confirms a- and presymptomatic occurrence of Covid-19 among residents and health care workers. Ct values below 25 suggested that these cases have the potential to contribute to viral spread. However, very limited transmission TRANS impeded the ability to answer the research question. We describe factors that may contribute to the prevention of transmission TRANS and argue that the necessity of large-scale preemptive testing in nursing homes may be dependent of the local situation regarding prevalence SERO of cases in the surrounding community and infection MESHD control opportunities.

    SARS-CoV-2 Viral RNA Load Dynamics in the Nasopharynx of Infected Children TRANS

    Authors: Kai-qian Kam; Koh Cheng Thoon; Matthias Maiwald; Chia Yin Chong; Han Yang Soong; Liat Hui Loo; Woon Hui Natalie Tan; Jiahui Li; Karen Donceras Nadua; Chee Fu Yung; Norbert Kaiser; Hannes Ganzer; Mathias Strohle; Andreas Walser; Dorothee von Laer; Lothar Hennighausen; Changqing Lin; Qinghua Hu; Tie Song; Ruifu Yang; Xiaoyu Zhang; Kai Sun; Pieter S. Hiemstra; Bruce A. Ponder; Mika J Makela; Kristiina Malmstrom; Robert C. Rintoul; Paul A. Reyfman; Fabian J. Theis; Corry-A Brandsma; Ian Adcock; Wim Timens; Cheng J. Xu; Maarten van den Berge; Roland F. Schwarz; Gerard H. Koppelman; Martijn C. Nawijn; Alen Faiz

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.31.20185488 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    It is important to understand the temporal trend of pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) viral load to estimate the transmission TRANS potential of children TRANS in schools and communities. We determined differences in SARS-CoV-2 viral load dynamics between nasopharyngeal samples of infected asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic children TRANS. The daily cycle threshold values of SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharynx of a cohort of infected children TRANS were collected for analysis. Among 17 infected children TRANS, 10 (58.8%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic children TRANS, when compared to asymptomatic TRANS children TRANS, had higher viral load (mean cycle threshold on day 7 of illness 28.6 versus 36.7, p = 0.02). Peak SARS-CoV-2 viral loads occured around days 2-3 of illness/days of diagnosis in infected children TRANS. After adjusting for the estimated date of infection MESHD, the higher SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in symptomatic children TRANS remained. We postulate that symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD children TRANS may have higher transmissibility TRANS than asymptomatic TRANS children TRANS. As peak viral load in infected children TRANS occurred in the early stage of illness, viral shedding and transmission TRANS in the pre-symptomatic phase probable. Our study highlights the importance of screening for SARS-CoV-2 in children TRANS with epidemiological risk factors, even when they are asymptomatic TRANS in order to improve containment of the virus in the community, including educational settings.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, hospitalisation, and death in Catalonia MESHD, Spain: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Authors: Judit Villar-Garcia; Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo; Montserrat Cleries; Elisenda Martinez; David Monterde; Pol Perez-Sust; Luis Garcia-Eroles; Carol Sais; Montserrat Moharra; Emili Vela; Jochen Lennerz; Hetal Desai Marble; Lauren L. Ritterhouse; Julie Batten; N. Zeke Georgantas; Rebecca Pellerin; Sylvia Signorelli; Julia Thierauf; Molly Kemball; Christian Happi; Donald S. Grant; Daouda Ndiaye; Katherine J. Siddle; Samar B Mehta; Jason B. Harris; Edward T Ryan; Virginia M. Pierce; Regina C LaRocque; Jacob Lemieux; Pardis Sabeti; Eric Rosenberg; John Branda; Sarah E Turbett; Gail Carson; Malcolm G Semple; Janet T Scott

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182303 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE To identify the different subpopulations that are susceptible for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and hospitalisation or death MESHD due to coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Catalonia, Spain. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data collected from the Catalan Health Surveillance System (CatSalut) in Catalonia, a region of Spain. PARTICIPANTS Using data collected between 1 March and 1 June 2020, we conducted the following comparative analyses: people infected by SARS-CoV-2 (328 892) vs Catalonia's entire population (7 699 568); COVID-19 cases who required hospitalisation (37 638) vs cases who did not require hospitalisation (291 254); and COVID-19 cases who died during the study period vs cases who did not die during the study period (12 287). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Three clinical outcomes related to COVID-19 ( infection MESHD, hospitalisation, or death MESHD). We analysed sociodemographic and environment variables (such as residing in a nursing home) and the presence of previous comorbidities. RESULTS A total of 328 892 cases were considered to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (4.27% of total population). The main risk factors for the diagnostic were: female TRANS gender TRANS (risk ratio [RR] =1.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] =1.48-1.50), age TRANS (45-64 years old; RR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01-1.03), high comorbidity burden (GMA index) (RR=3.03; 95% CI=2.97-3.09), reside in a nursing home (RR=11.82; 95% CI=11.66-11.99), and smoking (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.05-1.07). During the study period, there were 37 638 (11.4 %) hospitalisations due to COVID-19, and the risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.45; 95% CI=1.43-1.48), age TRANS > 65 (RR=2.38; 95% CI=2.28-2.48), very low individual income (RR=1.03; 95% CI=0.97-1.08), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.15; 95% CI=4.89-5.42). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were obesity HP obesity MESHD (RR=1.23; 95% CI=1.20-1.25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.15-1.22), heart failure MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.07; 95% CI=1.04-1.10), and neuro-psychiatric MESHD comorbidities (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.03-1.10). A total of 12 287 deaths (3.73%) were attributed to COVID-19, and the main risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.73; 95% CI=1.67-1.81), age TRANS > 65 (RR=37.45; 95% CI=29.23-47.93), residing in a nursing home (RR=9.22; 95% CI=8.81-9.65), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.25; 95% CI=4.60-6.00). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were: heart failure MESHD (RR=1.21; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (RR=1.17; 95% CI=1.13-1.22), and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.10; 95% CI=1.06-1.14). These results did not change significantly when we considered only PCR-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS Female TRANS gender TRANS, age TRANS between 45 to 64 years old, high burden of comorbidities, and factors related to environment (nursing home) play a relevant role in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and transmission TRANS. In addition, we found risk factors for hospitalisation and death MESHD due to COVID-19 that had not been described to date, including comorbidity burden, neuro-psychiatric disorders MESHD, and very low individual income. This study supports interventions for transmission TRANS control beyond stratify-and-shield strategies focused only on protecting those at risk of death. Future COVID-19 studies should examine the role of gender TRANS, the burden of comorbidities, and socioeconomic status in disease transmission TRANS, and should determine its relationship to workplaces, especially healthcare centres and nursing homes.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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