Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Patterns of Multimorbidity and Risk of Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD: an observational study in the U.K.

    Authors: Yogini V Chudasama; Francesco Zaccardi; Clare L Gillies; Cameron Razieh; Thomas Yates; David E Kloecker; Alex V Rowlands; Melanie J Davies; Nazrul Islam; Samuel Seidu; Nita G Forouhi; Kamlesh Khunti; Deverick J. Anderson; Jimmie Mancell; David Ho; Nathan D. Grubaugh; Yonatan H. Grad; Riina Janno; Irja Lutsar; Raissa Prado Rocha; Alex Fiorini de Carvalho; Pedro Augusto Alves; Jose Luiz Proenca Modena; Artur Torres Cordeiro; Daniela Barreto Barbose Trivella; Rafael Elias Marques; Ronir R Luiz; Paolo Pelosi; Jose Roberto Lapa e Silva

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.21.20216721 Date: 2020-10-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background Pre-existing comorbidities have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD but evidence is sparse on the importance and pattern of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) and severity of infection MESHD indicated by hospitalisation or mortality. We aimed to use a multimorbidity index developed specifically for COVID-19 to investigate the association between multimorbidity and risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods We used data from the UK Biobank linked to laboratory confirmed test results for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and mortality data from Public Health England between March 16 and July 26, 2020. By reviewing the current literature on COVID-19 we derived a multimorbidity index including: 1) angina MESHD; 2) asthma HP; 3) atrial fibrillation HP atrial fibrillation MESHD; 4) cancer MESHD; 5) chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD; 6) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD; 7) diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD; 8) heart failure MESHD; 9) hypertension HP hypertension MESHD; 10) myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD; 11) peripheral vascular disease MESHD; 12) stroke HP stroke MESHD. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between multimorbidity and risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (hospitalisation or death MESHD). Potential effect modifiers of the association were assessed: age TRANS, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, smoking status, body mass index, air pollution, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, cardiorespiratory fitness MESHD, high sensitivity SERO C-reactive protein. Results Among 360,283 participants, the median age TRANS was 68 [range, 48-85] years, most were White (94.5%), and 1,706 had severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. The prevalence SERO of multimorbidity was more than double in those with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (25%) compared to those without (11%), and clusters of several multimorbidities were more common in those with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. The most common clusters with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were stroke HP stroke MESHD with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (79% of those with stroke HP stroke MESHD had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD); diabetes MESHD and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (72%); and chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (68%). Multimorbidity was independently associated with a greater risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (adjusted odds ratio 1.91 [95% confidence interval 1.70, 2.15] compared to no multimorbidity). The risk remained consistent across potential effect modifiers, except for greater risk among men. Conclusion The risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is higher in individuals with multimorbidity, indicating the need to target research and resources in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and multimorbidity.

    Comparing biomarkers for COVID-19 disease with commonly associated preexisting conditions and complications.

    Authors: Jesse Huang; Aditya M Rao; Denis Dermadi; Jiaying Toh; Lara Murphy Jones; Michele Donato; Yiran Liu; Yapeng Su; Minas Karagiannis; Theodoros Marantos; Yehudit Hasin-Brumshtein; Yudong D He; Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis; Jim Heath; Purvesh Khatri

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.02.20205609 Date: 2020-10-05 Source: medRxiv

    Severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with certain preexisting health conditions and can cause respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD along with other multi-organ injuries. However, the mechanism of these relationships is unclear, and prognostic biomarkers for the disease and its systemic complications are lacking. This study aims to examine the plasma SERO protein profile of COVID-19 patients and evaluate overlapping protein modules with biomarkers of common comorbidities. Blood SERO samples were collected from COVID-19 cases (n=307) and negative controls (n=78) among patients with acute respiratory distress MESHD respiratory distress HP. Proteins were measured by proximity extension assay utilizing next-generation sequencing technology. Its associations to COVID-19 disease characteristics were compared to that of preexisting conditions and established biomarkers for myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD ( MI MESHD), stroke HP stroke MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, smoking, and chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD. Several proteins were differentially expressed in COVID-19, including multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma, CXCL10, and CCL7/MCP-3. Elevated IL-6 was associated with increased severity, while baseline IL1RL1/ST2 levels were associated with a worse prognosis. Network analysis identified several protein modules associated with COVID-19 disease characteristics overlapping with processes of preexisting hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and impaired kidney function MESHD. BNP and NTpro-BNP, markers for MI MESHD and stroke HP stroke MESHD, increased with disease progression and were positively associated with severity. MMP12 was similarly elevated and has been previously linked to smoking and inflammation in emphysema MESHD emphysema HP, along with increased cardiovascular disease MESHD risk. In conclusion, this study provides an overview of the systemic effects of COVID-19 and candidate biomarkers for clinical assessment of disease progression and the risk of systemic complications.

    Gender TRANS disparities in access to care for time-sensitive conditions during COVID-19 pandemic in Chile

    Authors: Jorge Pacheco; Francisca Crispi; Tania Alfaro; Maria Soledad Martinez; Cristobal Cuadrado; Ana C M Ribeiro; Eloisa Bonfa; Neville Owen; David W Dunstan; Hamilton Roschel; Bruno Gualano; Flora A Gandolfi; Stefanie P Murano; Jose L Proenca-Modena; Fernando A Val; Gisely C Melo; Wuelton M Monteiro; Mauricio L Nogueira; Marcus VG Lacerda; Pedro M Moraes-Vieira; Helder I Nakaya; Qiao Wang; Hongbin Ji; Youhua Xie; Yihua Sun; Lu Lu; Yunjiao Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192880 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic reduction on the utilisation of healthcare services are reported in different contexts. Nevertheless, studies have not explored specifically gender TRANS disparities on access to healthcare. Aim: To evaluate disparities in access to care in Chile during the COVID-19 pandemic from a gender TRANS-based perspective. Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental design using a difference-in-difference approach. We compared the number of weekly confirmed cases TRANS of a set of oncologic and cardiovascular time-sensitive conditions at a national level. We defined weeks 12 to 26 as an intervention period and the actual year as a treatment group. We selected this period because preventive interventions, such as school closures or teleworking, were implemented at this point. To test heterogeneity by sex, we included an interaction term between difference-in-difference estimator and sex. Results: A sizable reduction in access to care for patients with time- sensitivity SERO conditions was observed for oncologic (IRR 0.56; 95% CI 0.50-0.63) and cardiovascular diseases MESHD (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.62-0.66). Greater reduction occurred in women compared to men across diseases groups, particularly marked on myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.93), stroke HP stroke MESHD (IRR 0.88 IC95% 0.82-0.93), and colorectal cancer MESHD (IRR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69-0.91). Compared to men, a greater absolute reduction in women for oncologic diseases (782; 95% CI 704-859) than cardiovascular diseases MESHD (172; 95% CI 170-174) occurred over 14 weeks. Conclusion: We confirmed a large drop in new diagnosis for time-sensitive conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. This reduction was greater for women. Our findings should alert policy-makers about the urgent need to integrate a gender TRANS perspective into the pandemic response and its aftermath.

    The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Emergency Department Visits: A Retrospective Analysis in Shanghai, China

    Authors: Wei Long; Jiudong Hu; Lijuan Li; Sheng Zuo; Qian Yang; Zenghua Ren

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49525/v1 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThe novel coronavirus diseases MESHD (COVID-19) has led to a pandemic and affected people's lives greatly, including their health seeking behavior. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic on characteristics and trends of emergency department (ED) visits in Shanghai, China.MethodsThis was a retrospective observational study using medical record databases from the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital (East Campus) for years 2016 through 2020. All the patients referred to the ED between January 2016 and June 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. January 1, 2020, was chosen as the cutoff date for the statistical analysis and data of January and February in 2020 was compared with the same period of 2019.ResultsDuring the first two months of 2020, there was a 60.9% decline in ED visits when compared with the same period of 2019 (9,904 vs. 25,316, respectively), and the waiting time in ED has been greatly reduced correspondingly (12±4 vs. 66±19 min, p < 0.001); ED visits for acute ischemic stroke MESHD ischemic stroke HP ( AIS MESHD) and acute coronary syndrome MESHD(ACS) decreased by 53.9% and 41.2% respectively; proportion of intravenous thrombolysis for AIS MESHD has dropped(42.1% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.003), and percutaneous coronary intervention for ACS was similar (70.6% vs. 63.3%, p = 0.668); and onset-to-door time (ODT) of these patients increased significantly ( AIS MESHD: 217(136-374) vs. 378(260-510)min, ACS: 135(85-195) vs. 226(155-368)min, all p < 0.001).ConclusionThe outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic was correlated with a significant decline in the number of ED visits including AIS MESHD and ACS patients when compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. ODT of AIS MESHD and ACS patients increased significantly. Raising public awareness is necessary to avoid serious healthcare and economic consequences of undiagnosed and untreated stroke HP stroke MESHD and myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD attack.

    The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the emergency department visits: a retrospective analysis in Shanghai, China

    Authors: Wei Long; Jiudong Hu; Lijuan Li; Sheng Zuo; Qian Yang; Zenghua Ren

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49525/v2 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) has led to a pandemic and affected people's lives greatly, including their health seeking behavior. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic on characteristics and trends of emergency department (ED) visits in Shanghai, China.Methods This was a retrospective observational study using medical record databases from the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital (East Campus) for years 2016 through 2020. All the patients referred to the ED between January 2016 and June 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. January 1, 2020, was chosen as the cutoff date for the statistical analysis and data of January and February in 2020 was compared with the same period of 2019.Results During the first two months of 2020, there was a 60.9% decline in ED visits when compared with the same period of 2019 (9,904 vs. 25,316, respectively), and the waiting time in ED has been greatly reduced correspondingly (12±4 vs. 66±19 min, p < 0.001); ED visits for acute ischemic stroke MESHD ischemic stroke HP ( AIS MESHD) and acute coronary syndrome MESHD(ACS) decreased by 53.9% and 41.2% respectively; proportion of intravenous thrombolysis for AIS MESHD has dropped(42.1% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.003), and percutaneous coronary intervention for ACS was similar (70.6% vs. 63.3%, p = 0.668); and onset-to-door time (ODT) of these patients increased significantly ( AIS MESHD: 217(136-374) vs. 378(260-510)min, ACS: 135(85-195) vs. 226(155-368)min, all p < 0.001).Conclusion The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic was correlated with a significant decline in the number of ED visits including AIS MESHD and ACS patients when compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. ODT of AIS MESHD and ACS patients increased significantly. Raising public awareness is necessary to avoid serious healthcare and economic consequences of undiagnosed and untreated stroke HP stroke MESHD and myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD attack.

    The Outcome of COVID-19 Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction MESHD Myocardial Infarction HP

    Authors: Hassan Altamimi; Yasser Alahmad; Fadi Khazal; Mowahib Elhassan; Hajar AlBinali; Abdulrahman Arabi; Awad AlQahtani; Nidal Asaad; Mohammed Al-Hijji; Tahir Hamid; Ihsan Rafie; Ali S. Omrani; Saad AlKaabi; Abdullatif Alkhal; Muna AlMalslmani; Mohammed Ali; Murad Alkhani; Mariam AlNesf; Salem Abu Jalala; Salaheddine Arafa; Reem ElSousy; Omar AlTamimi; Ezzeldine Soaly; Charbel Abi khalil; Jassim Al Suwaidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20156349 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly expanding global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 patients may present with acute myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP ( AMI MESHD). The aim of this study is to conduct detailed analysis on patients with AMI MESHD and COVID-19. Methods We included all patients admitted with AMI MESHD and actively known or found to be COVID-19 positive by PCR between the 4th February 2020 and the 11th June 2020 in the State of Qatar. Patients were divided into ST-elevation myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD (STEMI) and Non-STE (NSTEMI). Results There were 68 patients (67 men and 1 woman) admitted between the 4th of February 2020 and the 11th of June 2020 with AMI MESHD and COVID-19. The mean age TRANS was 49.1, 46 patients had STEMI and 22 had NSTEMI. 38% had diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, 31% had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, 16% were smokers, 13% had dyslipidemia MESHD, and 14.7% had prior cardiovascular disease MESHD. Chest pain HP Chest pain MESHD and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD were the presenting symptoms in 90% and 12% of patients respectively. Fever HP Fever MESHD (15%) and cough HP cough MESHD (15%) were the most common COVID-19 symptoms, while the majority had no viral symptoms. Thirty-nine (33 STEMI and 6 NSTEMI) patients underwent coronary angiography, 38 of them had significant coronary disease MESHD. Overall in-hospital MACE was low; 1 patient developed stroke HP stroke MESHD and 2 died. Conclusion Contrary to previous small reports, overall in-hospital adverse events were low in this largest cohort of COVID-19 patients presenting with AMI MESHD. We hypothesize patient profile including younger age TRANS contributed to these findings. Further studies are required to confirm this observation.

    No Evidence for Reduced Hospital Admissions or Increased Deaths from Stroke HP Stroke MESHD or Heart Attack During COVID-19

    Authors: Katharine Reeves; Samuel I Watson; Tanya Pankhurst; Kamlesh Khunti; Suzy Gallier; Magdalena Skrybant; Peter J Chilton; Richard J Lilford

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.08.20119636 Date: 2020-06-09 Source: medRxiv

    Articles in the UK press have claimed that hospital admissions for heart attack and stroke HP stroke MESHD have declined during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, data from the West Midlands Ambulance Service have not shown any reduction in call-outs for patients with stroke HP stroke MESHD or ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction HP Myocardial Infarction MESHD. This study examined data from University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, comparing admissions from week 1 of 2016 to week 17 of 2019, with the same period in 2020, pre- and post-lockdown. The results showed that there was no evidence of a reduction in the overall mean number of admissions of patients with these conditions in the post-lockdown period.

    Ethnically diverse mutations in PIEZO1 associate with SARS-CoV-2 positivity

    Authors: Chew W Cheng; Vijayalakshmi Deivasikamani; Melanie J Ludlow; Dario De Vecchis; Antreas C Kalli; David J Beech; Piruthivi Sukumar

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.01.20119651 Date: 2020-06-03 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, carries significant risk of mortality and has spread globally with devastating societal consequences. Endothelial infection MESHD has been identified as a feature of the disease and so there is motivation to determine the relevance of endothelial membrane mechanisms affecting viral entry and response. Here, through a study of patient data in UK Biobank released on 16 April 2020, we suggest relevance of PIEZO1, a non-selective cation channel protein that both mediates endothelial responses to mechanical force and unusually indents the cell membrane. PIEZO1 notably has roles that may also be relevant in red blood SERO cell function, pulmonary inflammation MESHD, bacterial infection MESHD and fibrotic auto-inflammation MESHD. We provide evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding PIEZO1 are more common in individuals who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 regardless of pre-existing hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD or arthritis HP arthritis MESHD. Some of these SNPs are more common in African and Caribbean populations, which are groups that were recently shown to have greater susceptibility to infection. One of the SNPs is a missense mutation that results in an amino acid change in an evolutionarily conserved and previously unexplored N-terminal region PIEZO1. The data support the notion of genetic factors influencing SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and suggest a specific role for PIEZO1.

    Decline in Emergent and Urgent Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Dhruv S Kazi; Rishi K Wadhera; Changyu Shen; Kalon K.L. Ho; Rushad Patell; Magdy H. Selim; John H. Urwin; Mark L. Zeidel; Peter Zimetbaum; Kevin Tabb; Robert W. Yeh

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20096602 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    Due to the ongoing coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic, there are concerns that patients may be avoiding care for emergent and urgent health conditions due to fear of contagion or as an unintentional consequence of government orders to postpone non-essential services. We therefore sought to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of patient encounters for select emergent or urgent diagnoses at a large tertiary-care academic medical center in Boston. Inpatient diagnoses included acute myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD ( MI MESHD) and stroke HP stroke MESHD, and outpatient but urgent diagnoses included new referrals for breast and hematologic malignancies MESHD. For each condition, we used a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the proportional change in number of encounters during the pandemic (March-April 2020) compared with earlier in the same year (January-February 2020), using equivalent periods in 2019 as a control. After the onset of the pandemic, we observed significant reductions in hospitalizations for MI MESHD (difference-in-differences estimate, 0.67; 95%CI, 0.46-0.96; P=0.04) and stroke HP stroke MESHD (difference-in-differences estimate, 0.42; 95%CI, 0.28-0.65; P<0.001) (Table). In the ambulatory setting, there was a reduction in referrals for breast cancer MESHD and hematologic cancers MESHD, but this did not reach statistical significance until the month after the onset of the pandemic. Our findings suggest an urgent need for public health messaging to ensure that patients continue to seek care for acute emergencies MESHD. In addition, decisions by health systems regarding when to reinitiate non-emergent care should carefully factor in the harms of delayed diagnosis and treatment occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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