Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (21)

Cough (19)

Pneumonia (8)

Odynophagia (4)

Arthralgia (4)


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    Epidemic Response and Transmission TRANS Dynamics of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19) in Khartoum State- Sudan 2020: Study Protocol

    Authors: Mustafa Khidir Mustafa Elnimeiri; Mohanad Kamaleldin Mahmoud Ibrahim; Shahenaz Seifaldeen Mustafa Satti

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: A novel Coronavirus was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), and the syndrome of clinical manifestation was named (COVID-19). Consequently, on Jan 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak as a pandemic and a public health emergency of international concern. The objectives of this research are to investigate the response of the health system at different levels towards the control of the COVID-19 epidemic and to explore the COVID-19 transmission TRANS dynamics among Sudanese community. Methods: A community and institutional-based cross sectional based study will be conducted in Khartoum State include all the seven localities. The sample size of participant is estimated at 920 using the population formula (n=N/1+ (n*d2)) and considering the response rate. The sample will be drawn using multistage cluster sampling. Data will be collected using interview with key informant and concerned bodies/institutes involved in the response at both the federal and Khartoum State levels. Administered pre-coded, pretested closed ended questionnaire will be developed to collect data from community participants. Data will be managed and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21. Analysis is mostly univariate descriptive and bi-variate with Chi Square & Fischer Exact tests analysis to find associations between variables of interest.Discussion: This study is expected to evaluate the extent and magnitude of the epidemic response at different levels in addition to the adequacy of the epidemic response. The study participants will be screened to estimate proportion of individuals per age TRANS strata who show sero-positivity for virus infection MESHD, thus it will estimate the percentages of individuals reporting symptoms/signs of infection MESHD and asymptomatic TRANS fraction. The results of this study will strengthen the current interventional approaches of COVID-19 epidemic control and will provide set of database for better planning and implementation of COVID-19 control across the country. It will contribute to in-depth understanding of the COVID-19 transmission TRANS dynamics among Sudanese community and will improve the community awareness about COVID-19.

    In the long shadow of our best intentions: model-based assessment of the consequences of school reopening during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Kaitlyn E Johnson; Madison Stoddard; Ryan P Nolan; Douglas E White; Natasha S Hochberg; Arijit Chakravarty; Rahul Kumar Anand; Bikash Ranjan Ray; Rajeshwari Subramaniam; Souvik Maitra; Manuel Antonio Franco; Timothy D Flietstra; Amy J Schuh; Panayampalli S Satheshkumar; Jasmine M Chaitram; S Michele Owen; M G Finn; Jason M Goldstein; Joel M Montgomery; Christina F Spiropoulou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.18.20197400 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    As the United States grapples with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a particularly thorny set of questions surrounds the reopening of K-12 schools and universities. The benefits of in-person learning are numerous, in terms of education quality, mental health, emotional well-being, equity and access to food and shelter. Early reports suggested that children TRANS might have reduced susceptibility to COVID-19, and children TRANS have been shown to experience fewer complications than older adults TRANS. Over the past few months, our understanding of COVID-19 has been further shaped by emerging data, and it is now understood that children TRANS are as susceptible to infection as adults TRANS and have a similar viral load during infection MESHD. While the higher prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS disease among children TRANS makes symptom-based isolation strategies ineffective, asymptomatic TRANS patients do not in fact carry a reduced viral load. Based on this updated understanding of the disease, we have used epidemiological modeling to explore the feasibility and consequences of school reopening in the face of differing rates of COVID-19 prevalence SERO and transmission TRANS. Our findings indicate that, regardless of the initial prevalence SERO of the disease, and in the absence of systematic surveillance testing, most schools in the United States can expect to remain open for 20-60 days. At this point, one or more large disease clusters can be expected to be detected, forcing schools to close again. These disease clusters, in turn, can be expected to propagate through the community, with potentially hundreds to thousands of additional cases resulting from each individual school cluster. Thus, our findings suggest that the debate between the risks to student safety and benefits of in-person learning frames a false dual choice. Given the current circumstances in the United States, the most likely outcome in the late fall HP is that students will be deprived of the benefits of in-person learning while having incurred a significant risk to themselves and their communities.

    Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Karnataka State, South India: Transmission TRANS dynamics of symptomatic vs. asymptomatic TRANS infections

    Authors: Narendra Kumar; Shafeeq K S Hameed; Giridhara R Babu; Manjunatha M Venkataswamy; Prameela Dinesh; Prakash B G Kumar; Daisy A John; Anita Desai; Ravi Vasanthapuram; Jonathan Flint; Eleazar Eskin; Chongyuan Luo; Shangxin Yang; Omai B Garner; Yi Yin; Joshua S Bloom; Leonid Kruglyak; Jason M Goldstein; Joel M Montgomery; Christina F Spiropoulou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.17.20196501 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In this report, we describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, specifically examining how the symptomatic persons drove the transmission TRANS in the state of Karnataka, India, during the lockdown phase. Methods: The study included all the cases reported from March 8 to May 31, 2020 in the state. Any person with history of international or domestic travel TRANS from high burden states, those presenting with Influenza-like or Severe Acute Respiratory Illness MESHD and high-risk contacts of COVID19 cases, who were SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive were included. Detailed analysis based on contact TRANS tracing TRANS data available from line-list of the state surveillance unit was performed using cluster analysis software package. Findings: Amongst the 3404 COVID-19 positive cases, 3096 (91%) were asymptomatic TRANS while 308 (9%) were symptomatic. Majority of the asymptomatic TRANS cases were in the age TRANS range of 16-50 years while symptomatic cases were between 31-65 years. Most of those affected were males TRANS. Cluster analysis of 822 cases indicated that the secondary attack rate TRANS, size of the cluster (dispersion) and occurrence of overt clinical illness is significantly higher when the index case in a cluster was symptomatic compared to an asymptomatic TRANS. Interpretation: Our findings indicate that both asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases transmit the infection MESHD; however, the main driving force behind the spread of infection within the state was significantly higher from symptomatic cases. This has major implications for policies related to testing. Active search for symptomatic cases, subjecting them to testing and treatment should be prioritized for containing the spread of COVID-19.

    An ELISA SERO protocol with resolution at high sample concentration reveals reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in unexposed individuals

    Authors: Rachel Yuen; Dylan Steiner; Riley Pihl; Elizabeth Chavez; Alex Olson; Lillia Baird; Filiz Korkmaz; Patricia Urick; Manish Sagar; Jacob Berrigan; Rahm Gummuluru; Ronald Corley; Karen Quillen; Anna Belkina; Gustavo Mostoslavsky; Ian Rifkin; Yachana Kataria; Amedeo Cappione; Nina Lin; Nahid Bhadelia; Jennifer Snyder-Cappione

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.15.20192765 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted work, economy, and way of life. The SARS-CoV-2 virus displays unique features including widely varying symptoms and outcomes between infected individuals. Sensitive measurement of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO would provide new insight into virus transmission TRANS dynamics, pre-existing cross-reactive immunity, and the nuances of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. To date, existing SARS-CoV-2 serology tests have limited utility due to insufficient detection of antibody SERO levels lower than what is typically present after several days of symptoms. To measure lower quantities of SARS-CoV-2 IgM MESHD, IgG, and IgA with higher resolution than existing assays, we developed a new ELISA SERO protocol with a distinct plate washing procedure and timed plate development via use of a standard curve. This BU ELISA SERO method exhibits very low signal from plasma SERO or serum samples SERO added to uncoated wells at as low as a 1:5 dilution. Use of this method revealed circulating SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) reactive antibodies SERO from blood SERO samples drawn prior to May 2019. Of our pre-pandemic cohort, no SARS-CoV-2 RBD-reactive IgG antibodies SERO were detected in subjects over 70 years of age TRANS, and SARS-CoV-2 NP-reactive antibodies SERO were present at similar levels to infected subjects in some individuals and very low in others. Also, samples drawn in May 2020 from two individuals with no symptoms or no known virus exposure contained SARS-CoV-2 RBD-reactive antibodies SERO at intermediate amounts compared with other subject groups (higher than pre-pandemic and lower than confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD). The one asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 convalescent subject in our study possessed comparable amounts of SARS-CoV-2 NP-specific IgM and IgG but drastically lower IgA than the symptomatic counterparts. Also, our assay detected positive signal from samples that gave negative results in a commercially available Lateral Flow Device (LFD) and the EUA approved Abbott IgG chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay SERO for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO detection. We propose that this improved ELISA SERO protocol, which is straightforward to perform, low cost, and uses readily available commercial reagents, is a useful tool to elucidate new information about SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and has promising implications for improved detection of all analytes measurable by this platform.

    Resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 in England: detection by community antigen surveillance

    Authors: Steven Riley; Kylie E. C. Ainslie; Oliver Eales; Caroline E Walters; Haowei Wang; Christina J Atchison; Claudio Fronterre; Peter J Diggle; Deborah Ashby; Christl A. Donnelly; Graham Cooke; Wendy Barclay; Helen Ward; Ara Darzi; Paul Elliott; Carlos E. Milla; Angela J. Rogers; Paul L. Bollyky; Marcus VG Lacerda; Pedro M Moraes-Vieira; Helder I Nakaya; Qiao Wang; Hongbin Ji; Youhua Xie; Yihua Sun; Lu Lu; Yunjiao Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192492 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background Based on cases and deaths MESHD, transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in England peaked in late March and early April 2020 and then declined until the end of June. Since the start of July, cases have increased, while deaths have continued to decrease. Methods We report results from 594,000 swabs tested for SARS-CoV-2 virus obtained from a representative sample of people in England over four rounds collected regardless of symptoms, starting in May 2020 and finishing at the beginning of September 2020. Swabs for the most recent two rounds were taken between 24th July and 11th August and for round 4 between 22nd August and 7th September. We estimate weighted overall prevalence SERO, doubling times between and within rounds and associated reproduction numbers TRANS. We obtained unweighted prevalence SERO estimates by sub- groups: age TRANS, sex, region, ethnicity, key worker status, household size, for which we also estimated odds of infection MESHD. We identified clusters of swab-positive participants who were closer, on average, to other swab-positive participants than would be expected. Findings Over all four rounds of the study, we found that 72% (67%, 76%) of swab-positive individuals were asymptomatic TRANS at the time of swab and in the week prior. The epidemic declined between rounds 1 and 2, and rounds 2 and 3. However, the epidemic was increasing between rounds 3 and 4, with a doubling time of 17 (13, 23) days corresponding to an R value TRANS of 1.3 (1.2, 1.4). When analysing round 3 alone, we found that the epidemic had started to grow again with 93% probability. Using only the most recent round 4 data, we estimated a doubling time of 7.7 (5.5, 12.7) days, corresponding to an R value TRANS of 1.7 (1.4, 2.0). Cycle threshold values were lower (viral loads were higher) for rounds 1 and 4 than they were for rounds 2 and 3. In round 4, we observed the highest prevalence SERO in participants aged TRANS 18 to 24 years at 0.25% (0.16%, 0.41%), increasing from 0.08% (0.04%, 0.18%) in round 3. We observed the lowest prevalence SERO in those aged TRANS 65 and older at 0.04% (0.02%, 0.06%) which was stable compared with round 3. Participants of Asian ethnicity had elevated odds of infection MESHD. We identified clusters in and around London, transient clusters in the Midlands, and an expanding area of clustering in the North West and more recently in Yorkshire and the Humber. Interpretation Although low levels of transmission TRANS persisted in England through to mid-summer 2020, the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 is now increasing. We found evidence of accelerating transmission TRANS at the end of August and beginning of September. Representative community antigen sampling can increase situational awareness and help improve public health decision making even at low prevalence SERO.

    SARS-CoV-2 Viral RNA Load Dynamics in the Nasopharynx of Infected Children TRANS

    Authors: Kai-qian Kam; Koh Cheng Thoon; Matthias Maiwald; Chia Yin Chong; Han Yang Soong; Liat Hui Loo; Woon Hui Natalie Tan; Jiahui Li; Karen Donceras Nadua; Chee Fu Yung; Norbert Kaiser; Hannes Ganzer; Mathias Strohle; Andreas Walser; Dorothee von Laer; Lothar Hennighausen; Changqing Lin; Qinghua Hu; Tie Song; Ruifu Yang; Xiaoyu Zhang; Kai Sun; Pieter S. Hiemstra; Bruce A. Ponder; Mika J Makela; Kristiina Malmstrom; Robert C. Rintoul; Paul A. Reyfman; Fabian J. Theis; Corry-A Brandsma; Ian Adcock; Wim Timens; Cheng J. Xu; Maarten van den Berge; Roland F. Schwarz; Gerard H. Koppelman; Martijn C. Nawijn; Alen Faiz

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.31.20185488 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    It is important to understand the temporal trend of pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) viral load to estimate the transmission TRANS potential of children TRANS in schools and communities. We determined differences in SARS-CoV-2 viral load dynamics between nasopharyngeal samples of infected asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic children TRANS. The daily cycle threshold values of SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharynx of a cohort of infected children TRANS were collected for analysis. Among 17 infected children TRANS, 10 (58.8%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic children TRANS, when compared to asymptomatic TRANS children TRANS, had higher viral load (mean cycle threshold on day 7 of illness 28.6 versus 36.7, p = 0.02). Peak SARS-CoV-2 viral loads occured around days 2-3 of illness/days of diagnosis in infected children TRANS. After adjusting for the estimated date of infection MESHD, the higher SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in symptomatic children TRANS remained. We postulate that symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD children TRANS may have higher transmissibility TRANS than asymptomatic TRANS children TRANS. As peak viral load in infected children TRANS occurred in the early stage of illness, viral shedding and transmission TRANS in the pre-symptomatic phase probable. Our study highlights the importance of screening for SARS-CoV-2 in children TRANS with epidemiological risk factors, even when they are asymptomatic TRANS in order to improve containment of the virus in the community, including educational settings.

    Widespread testing, case isolation and contact tracing TRANS may allow safe school reopening with continued moderate physical distancing: a modeling analysis of King County, WA data

    Authors: Chloe Bracis; Eileen Burns; Mia Moore; David Swan; Daniel B Reeves; Joshua T Schiffer; Dobromir T Dimitrov

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.14.20174649 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background In late March 2020, a "Stay Home, Stay Healthy" order was issued in Washington State in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. On May 1, a 4-phase reopening plan began. If implemented without interruptions, all types of public interactions were planned to resume by July 15. We investigated whether adjunctive prevention strategies would allow less restrictive physical distancing to avoid second epidemic waves and secure safe school reopening. Methods We developed a mathematical model, stratifying the population by age TRANS (0-19 years, 20-49 years, 50-69 years, and 70+ years), infection MESHD status (susceptible, exposed, asymptomatic TRANS, pre-symptomatic, symptomatic, recovered) and treatment status (undiagnosed, diagnosed, hospitalized) to project SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS during and after the reopening period. The model was parameterized with demographic and contact data TRANS from King County, WA and calibrated to confirmed cases TRANS, deaths (overall and by age TRANS) and epidemic peak timing. Adjunctive prevention interventions were simulated assuming different levels of pre-COVID physical interactions (pC_PI) restored. We made several predictions related to adjunctive interventions or increased pC_PI. Results The best model fit estimated ~35% pC_PI under lockdown. Gradually restoring 75% pC_PI for all age groups TRANS between May 15-July 15 resulted in ~350 daily deaths by early September 2020. Maintaining less than 45% pC_PI was required with current testing practices to ensure low levels of daily infections and deaths MESHD. If widespread community transmission TRANS persisted, isolating the elderly TRANS does not lower daily death rates significantly. Increased testing, isolation of symptomatic infections, and contact tracing TRANS permitted 60% pC_PI without significant increases in daily deaths before September, although this strategy may not be sufficient to eliminate community transmission TRANS. This combination strategy also allowed opening of schools with <15 daily deaths. Inpatient antiviral treatment reduces deaths significantly without lowering cases or hospitalizations. Conclusions We predict that widespread implementation of "test and isolate" policy alone is insufficient to prevent the rapid re-emergence of SARS CoV-2 without moderate physical distancing. However, widespread testing, contact tracing TRANS and case isolation would allow relaxation of physical distancing, as well as opening of schools, without a surge in local cases and deaths MESHD.

    Transmission TRANS Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in a Mid-size City of China

    Authors: Hongjun Zhao; Xiaoxiao Lu; Wenhui Lun; Tiegang Li; Boqi Rao; Dedong Wang; Di Wu; Fuman Qiu; Zhicong Yang; Lu Jiachun

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: An outbreak of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city and then spread to other cities. It is very urgent to delineate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these affected patients. Methods: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19, we describe a case series of 473 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wenzhou of China from January 27 to March 2, 2020.Results: The median age TRANS of all patients was 47.6 years, 48.4% of which were female TRANS. 33.8% of the patients had a history of residence in Wuhan. Fever HP Fever MESHD (71.7%) and cough HP (43.1%) were the most common symptoms. In addition, three kinds of unconventional cases were observed, namely 4.9% asymptomatic TRANS patients, 7.6% confirmed patients who had no link to Wuhan city but contact with individuals from Wuhan without any symptoms at the time of contact, and 12.9% confirmed patients who had an unknown source of transmission TRANS. We estimated that the basic reproductive number TRANS ( R0 TRANS) was 2.75 (95%CI: 2.37-3.23). The effective reproduction number TRANS (Rt) fluctuated within the range of 2.50 to 3.74 from January 11 to January 16 while gradually reached the peak of 3.74 on January 16. Rt gradually decreased after January 16 and decreased to 1.00 on January 30. Rt continually decreased and reached the lowest point (0.03) on February 21, 2020.Conclusion: Our findings presented the possibility of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS affected with SARS-CoV-2, and this phenomenon suggested that chances of uncontrollable transmission TRANS in the larger population might be higher than formerly estimated, and transmission TRANS by these three kinds of unconventional patients in Wenzhou may be an important characteristic of infection MESHD in other mid-sized cities in the world. This study evaluated the epidemic characteristics of Wenzhou after having cases imported from Hubei Province and the effects after adopting a series of strict prevention and control strategy. 

    Low awareness of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in healthy adults TRANS

    Authors: Katja van den Hurk; Eva-Maria Merz; Femmeke J. Prinsze; Marloes L.C. Spekman; Franke A. Quee; Steven Ramondt; Ed Slot; Hans Vrielink; Elisabeth M.J. Huis in 't Veld; Hans L. Zaaijer; Boris M. Hogema

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171561 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenges governments worldwide to balance appropriate virus control measures and their societal and economic consequences. These control measures include the identification, isolation and testing of potentially infected individuals. As this relies on an individual's awareness of infection, we investigated the extent to which healthy adults TRANS suspected having had COVID-19, and how COVID-19 suspicion and symptoms relate to antibodies SERO indicative of a past infection with the severe HP infection with the severe MESHD acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). Methods and findings Individuals donating plasma SERO anywhere in the Netherlands between May 11th and 18th were screened for total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using ELISA SERO and invited to participate in an online questionnaire about COVID-19-related symptoms and awareness. Antibody SERO and questionnaire data were complete for 3,676 individuals, including 239 (6.5%) that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Here, we show that a 38% of the individuals that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO reported having had no or only very mild symptoms at any time during the peak of the epidemic. The loss of taste and/or smell in particular was significantly associated with seropositivity, independent of age TRANS and sex. Forty-eight percent of antibody SERO-positive persons did not suspect having had COVID-19, in spite of most of them reporting symptoms. Conclusions Awareness of infection MESHD was low among individuals that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, even at the peak of the epidemic. Improved awareness and recognition of COVID-19 symptoms and tracing TRANS of asymptomatic TRANS contacts is crucial to halting SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS.

    High number of RNA copies in asymptomatic TRANS individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 in an area of the Colombian Caribbean

    Authors: Salim Mattar; Caty Martinez-Bravo; Ricardo Rivero; Hector Contreras; Alvaro Faccini_Martinez; Camilo Guzman; Ketty Galeano; Nelson Alvis; Veronica Contreras; German Arrieta; Marco Gonzalez; Jorge Miranda; Martha Lucia Ospina; Francisco Camargo-Assis; Marcela Mercado-Reyes; Evelyn Garay; Alejandra Garcia-Perez; Yesica Lopez; Vaneza Tique

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background.   Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging viral pandemic disease MESHD. In the last six months, SARS-CoV-2 has caused millions of reported cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. As other world regions, nowadays, South America has not contained the pandemic's advance since it lacks the hospital and economic capacities. Public health implications of transmission TRANS, while the asymptomatic TRANS infection is a critical concern at the current pandemic.Objective: Describe the socio-demographic, clinical, and viral kinetics features of a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD individuals from the Colombian Caribbean. Methods: Six hundred eighty-six clinical samples of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD cases and contacts individuals from several hospital centers in the department of Córdoba, Colombia, were received at our laboratory between April 9th and May 16th, 2020. RNA was extracted using lysis buffers and spin columns. The samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR (Reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction) using commercially available multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of 3 target genes of SARS-CoV-2 (AllplexTM, 2019-nCoV assay, Korea). Viral copies quantification was done using a standard curve constructed from seriated dilutions of a SARS-CoV-2 positive control. Statics descriptive methods were used. Results: Thirty-five nasopharyngeal samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD; the average age TRANS was 43 (range, 1-95 years). Seventeen of 35 (49%) of the patients showed symptoms. Most of them had a cough HP, fever HP fever MESHD, and odynophagia HP; three of the patients reported having arthralgia HP arthralgia MESHD. Only two patients required hospitalization. None of the patients had known co-morbidities. RT-qPCR results show that two of the symptomatic patients had significantly higher RNA copies than the rest. Eighteen of 35 (51%) individuals were asymptomatic TRANS, and the average age TRANS was 30 (range, 6-61 years). Four asymptomatic TRANS individuals showed a higher copy than some symptomatic patients; nonetheless, the average of RNA copies 8.26 x10+10 was lower than the symptomatic.Conclusions: the population studied was young, with an average of 43 years in symptomatic and 30 years of asymptomatic TRANS; this is important because of the high impact in the economy. Because a large proportion of infections may result from transmission TRANS from asymptomatic TRANS or pre-symptomatic persons, the usefulness of public health interventions in Colombian provinces should be based on molecular screening in a vast conglomerate population and quantify the viral load. 

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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