Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 110
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    Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Karnataka State, South India: Transmission TRANS dynamics of symptomatic vs. asymptomatic TRANS infections

    Authors: Narendra Kumar; Shafeeq K S Hameed; Giridhara R Babu; Manjunatha M Venkataswamy; Prameela Dinesh; Prakash B G Kumar; Daisy A John; Anita Desai; Ravi Vasanthapuram; Jonathan Flint; Eleazar Eskin; Chongyuan Luo; Shangxin Yang; Omai B Garner; Yi Yin; Joshua S Bloom; Leonid Kruglyak; Jason M Goldstein; Joel M Montgomery; Christina F Spiropoulou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.17.20196501 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In this report, we describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, specifically examining how the symptomatic persons drove the transmission TRANS in the state of Karnataka, India, during the lockdown phase. Methods: The study included all the cases reported from March 8 to May 31, 2020 in the state. Any person with history of international or domestic travel TRANS from high burden states, those presenting with Influenza-like or Severe Acute Respiratory Illness MESHD and high-risk contacts of COVID19 cases, who were SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive were included. Detailed analysis based on contact TRANS tracing TRANS data available from line-list of the state surveillance unit was performed using cluster analysis software package. Findings: Amongst the 3404 COVID-19 positive cases, 3096 (91%) were asymptomatic TRANS while 308 (9%) were symptomatic. Majority of the asymptomatic TRANS cases were in the age TRANS range of 16-50 years while symptomatic cases were between 31-65 years. Most of those affected were males TRANS. Cluster analysis of 822 cases indicated that the secondary attack rate TRANS, size of the cluster (dispersion) and occurrence of overt clinical illness is significantly higher when the index case in a cluster was symptomatic compared to an asymptomatic TRANS. Interpretation: Our findings indicate that both asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases transmit the infection MESHD; however, the main driving force behind the spread of infection within the state was significantly higher from symptomatic cases. This has major implications for policies related to testing. Active search for symptomatic cases, subjecting them to testing and treatment should be prioritized for containing the spread of COVID-19.

    Healthcare workers in elderly TRANS care: a source of silent SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS?

    Authors: Mirjam Jeanne Dorine Dautzenberg; Andrea Eikelenboom-Boskamp; Jacqueline Janssen; Miranda Drabbe; Ewoud de Jong; Eefke Weesendorp; Marion Koopmans; Andreas Voss; Matthew Hickman; Ellen Brooks Pollock; Jan Lukas Robertus; Maria Gabrani; Michal Rosen-Zvi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20178731 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Healthcare workers (HCWs), including those with mild symptoms, may be an important source of COVID-19 within elderly TRANS care. Objective: To gain insight into the spread of SARS-CoV-2 among HCWs working in elderly TRANS care settings. Design: Cross-sectional study among HCWs working in elderly TRANS care in the South-East of the Netherlands, testing for SARS-CoV-2, between March 31 and April 17, 2020. Setting: HCWs working in geriatric rehabilitation, somatic and psychogeriatric wards or small-scale living groups and district nursing, with a total of 5245 HCWs within 4 organisations. Participants: 621 HCWs with mild respiratory symptoms. Main Outcomes: Number of HCWs testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in pharyngeal swabs, using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR targeting the SARS-CoV-2 E-gene, N-gene, and RdRP. HCWs filled out a survey to collect information on symptoms and possible sources of infection MESHD. Results: 133/615 (21.6%) HCWs tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, ranging from 15.6 to 44.4% per elderly TRANS care organisation, and from 0 to 64.3% per separate location of the organizations, respectively. 74.6% of tested HCWs were nursing staff, 1.7% elderly TRANS care physicians, 20.3% other HCWs with patient contact and 3.4% HCWs without patient contact. In the univariate analysis, fever HP fever MESHD, runny or stuffy nose, anosmia HP anosmia MESHD, general malaise, myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD and ocular pain HP ocular pain MESHD were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity, while gastro-intestinal symptoms and respiratory symptoms, other than runny or stuffy nose were not. Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 positivity were contact with patients or colleagues with suspected or proven COVID-19. Whole genome sequencing of 22 samples in 2 facilities strongly suggests spread within facilities. Conclusions and Relevance: We found a high SARS-CoV-2 prevalence SERO among HCWs in nursing homes and district nursing, supporting the hypothesis of undetected spread within elderly TRANS care facilities. Structural testing of elderly TRANS care HCWs, including track and trace of contacts TRANS, should be performed to control this spread, even when only mild symptoms are present.

    Effectiveness of digital interventions to improve household and community infection MESHD prevention and control behaviours and to reduce incidence of respiratory and/or gastro-intestinal infections: A rapid systematic review

    Authors: Natalie Gold; Xiao-Yang Hu; Sarah Denford; Ru-Yu Xia; Lauren Towler; Julia Groot; Rachel Gledhill; Merlin Willcox; Ben Ainsworth; Sascha Miller; Michael Moore; Paul Little; Richard Amlôt; Tim Chadborn; Lucy Yardley; Julien Riou; Theresa Stadler; Carmela Troncoso; Effy Vayena; Viktor von Wyl

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20164947 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    Background Digital interventions have potential to efficiently support improved hygiene practices to reduce transmission TRANS of COVID-19. Objective To evaluate the evidence for digital interventions to improve hygiene practices within the community. Methods We reviewed articles published between 01 January 2000 and 26 May 2019 that presented a controlled trial of a digital intervention to improve hygiene behaviours in the community. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL), China National Knowledge Infrastructure and grey literature. Trials in hospitals were excluded, as were trials aiming at prevention of sexually transmitted infections; only target diseases with transmission TRANS mechanisms similar to COVID-19 (e.g. respiratory and gastrointestinal infections MESHD) were included. Trials had to evaluate a uniquely digital component of an intervention. Study designs were limited to randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after trials, and interrupted time series analyses. Outcomes could be either incidence of infections MESHD or change in hygiene behaviours. The Risk of Bias 2 tool was used to assess study quality. Results We found seven studies that met the inclusion criteria. Six studies reported successfully improving self-reported hygiene behaviour or health outcomes, but only one of these six trials confirmed improvements using objective measures (reduced consultations and antibiotic prescriptions), Germ Defence. Settings included kindergartens, workplaces, and service station restrooms. Modes of delivery were diverse: WeChat, website, text messages, audio messages to mobiles, electronic billboards, and electronic personal care records. Four interventions targeted parents TRANS of young children TRANS with educational materials. Two targeted the general population; these also used behaviour change techniques or theory to inform the intervention. Only one trial had low risk of bias, Germ Defence; the most common concerns were lack of information about the randomisation, possible bias in reporting of behavioural outcomes, and lack of an analysis plan and possible selective reporting of results. Conclusion There was only one intervention that was judged to be at low risk of bias, Germ Defence, which reduced incidence and severity of illness, as confirmed by objective measures. Further evaluation is required to determine the effectiveness of the other interventions reviewed.

    Parents TRANS' and guardians' views and experiences of accessing routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: A mixed methods study in England

    Authors: Sadie L Bell; Richard Clarke; Pauline Paterson; Sandra Mounier-Jack; Ma Li; Lin Lin; J Carolyn Graff; Lotfi Aleya; Arnold Postlethwaite; Weikuan Gu; Hong Chen; Julia Laviano; Daniela Maymo; Daniel Gotta; Alfredo Martinez; Pablo Bonvehi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20186569 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To explore parents TRANS' and guardians' views and experiences of accessing National Health Service (NHS) general practices for routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in England. Design: Mixed methods approach involving an online cross-sectional survey (conducted between 19th April and 11th May 2020) and semi-structured telephone interviews (conducted between 27th April and 27th May 2020). Participants: 1252 parents TRANS and guardians ( aged TRANS 16+ years) who reported living in England with a child TRANS aged TRANS 18 months or under completed the survey. Nineteen survey respondents took part in follow-up interviews. Results: The majority of survey respondents (85.7%) considered it important for their children TRANS to receive routine vaccinations on schedule during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, several barriers to vaccination were identified. These included a lack of clarity around whether vaccination services were operating as usual, particularly amongst respondents from lower income households and those self-reporting as Black, Asian, Chinese, Mixed or Other ethnicity; difficulties in organising vaccination appointments; and fears around contracting COVID-19 while attending general practice. Concerns about catching COVID-19 while accessing general practice were weighed against concerns about children TRANS acquiring a vaccine-preventable disease if they did not receive scheduled routine childhood vaccinations. Many parents TRANS and guardians felt their child TRANS's risk of acquiring a vaccine-preventable disease was low as the implementation of stringent physical distancing measures (from March 23rd 2020) meant they were not mixing with others. Conclusion: To promote routine childhood vaccination uptake during the current COVID-19 outbreak, further waves of COVID-19 infection MESHD, and future pandemics, prompt and sustained national and general practice level communication is needed to raise awareness of vaccination service continuation and the importance of timely vaccination, and invitation-reminder systems for vaccination need to be maintained. To allay concerns about the safety of accessing general practice, practices should communicate the measures being implemented to prevent COVID-19 transmission TRANS.

    Long, thin transmission chains TRANS of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 MESHD) may go undetected for several weeks at low to moderate reproductive numbers TRANS: Implications for containment and elimination strategy

    Authors: Gerry F Killeen; Deanna C Clemmer; Justin B Cox; Yetunde I Kayode; Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez; Harry E Taylor; Timothy P Endy; Joel R Wilmore; Gary Winslow; Sarah Tschudin-Sutter; Simon Fuchs; Julia Anna Bielicki; Hans Pargger; Martin Siegemund; Christian H. Nickel; Roland Bingisser; Michael Osthoff; Stefano Bassetti; Rita Schneider-Sliwa; Manuel Battegay; Hans H. Hirsch; Adrian Egli

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20187948 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: medRxiv

    Especially at low to moderate reproductive numbers TRANS, the generally mild, non-specific symptomology of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) allows long MESHD, thin transmission chains TRANS to go undetected by passive surveillance over several weeks. This phenomenon has important implications: (1) Surveillance becomes less sensitive and reliable as an indicator of freedom from infection at the low reproductive numbers TRANS required to achieve elimination end points, passive surveillance systems may need to document an absence of new cases for at least a month to establish certainty of elimination. (2) Reproductive numbers TRANS should be kept as low as possible throughout such follow up periods without confirmed cases TRANS, to ensure such long, thin, undetected transmission chains TRANS all collapse before restrictions are eased and reproduction numbers TRANS are allowed to rebound. (3) While contact tracing TRANS systems may be highly effective when applied to large clusters in foci of elevated transmission TRANS where wide, rapidly expanding transmission chains TRANS are detected within two viral generations, large fractions of community transmission TRANS occurring through thinner, more extended transmission chains TRANS at lower reproductive numbers TRANS are often be too long to trace TRANS retrospectively and will be underrepresented in surveillance data. (4) Wherever surveillance systems are weak and/or younger age groups TRANS with lower rates of overt symptoms dominate transmission TRANS, containment effectiveness of contact tracing TRANS and isolation may be more severely limited, even at the higher reproduction numbers TRANS associated with larger outbreaks. While, contact tracing TRANS and isolation will remain vital for at least partially containing larger outbreaks, containment and elimination of SARS-CoV-2 will have to rely primarily upon the more burdensome and presumptive population-wide prevention measures that have proven so effective thus far against community transmission TRANS. Furthermore, these will have to be sustained at a much more stringent level and for longer periods after the last detected case than was necessary for SARS-CoV-1.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Are COVID-19 proximity tracing TRANS apps working under real-world conditions? Indicator development and assessment of drivers for app (non-)use

    Authors: Viktor von Wyl; Marc Hoeglinger; Chloe Sieber; Marco Kaufmann; Andre Moser; Miquel Serra-Burriel; Tala Ballouz; Dominik Menges; Anja Frei; Milo Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.29.20184382 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Digital proximity tracing TRANS (DPT) apps have been released to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS, but it remains unclear how their effectiveness should be monitored. The aim of this study was to formalize indicators for measuring the fulfillment of assumptions for appropriate proximity tracing TRANS app functioning. Six indicators were developed to monitor the SwissCovid app functioning and effectiveness in the Swiss population. Using official statistics and survey data, we calculated indicator values and examined socio-demographic factors associated with the SwissCovid app utilization. Indicators show that 1 in 3 adults TRANS in Switzerland have downloaded the app. However, only 15% of new cases also triggered DPT-app notifications, and indicators also reveal ignored app notifications. In the full survey sample (n=2098), higher monthly household income or being a non-smoker were associated with higher SwissCovid app uptake; older age TRANS or having a non-Swiss nationality with a lower uptake. In a subsample including more detailed information (n=701), high trust in health authorities was associated with higher SwissCovid app uptake. The indicators help to monitor key drivers of DPT-apps effectiveness and hint to non-compliance issues. Streamlining procedures, removing technical hurdles, and communicating the usefulness of DPT-apps are crucial to promote uptake, compliance, and ultimately effectiveness of DPT-apps for pandemic mitigation.

    Potential reduction in transmission TRANS of COVID-19 by digital contact tracing TRANS systems

    Authors: Michael J Plank; Alex James; Audrey Lustig; Nicholas Steyn; Rachelle N Binny; Shaun C Hendy; Arco van der Spek; Paulien Tolsma; Ariene Rietveld; Miranda Brouwer; Noortje Bouwmeester-Vincken; Frank Harders; Renate Hakze-van der Honing; Marjolijn C.A. Wegdam-Blans; Ruth Bouwstra; Corine GeurtsvanKessel; Annemiek van der Eijk; Francisca Velkers; Lidwien Smit; Arjan Stegeman; Wim H.M. van der Poel; Marion Koopmans

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.27.20068346 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Digital tools are being developed to support contact tracing TRANS as part of the global effort to control the spread of COVID-19. These include smartphone apps, Bluetooth-based proximity detection, location tracking, and automatic exposure notification features. Evidence on the effectiveness of alternative approaches to digital contact tracing TRANS is so far limited. We use an age TRANS-structured branching process model of the transmission TRANS of COVID-19 in different settings to estimate the potential of manual contact tracing TRANS and digital tracing TRANS systems to help control the epidemic. We investigate the effect of the uptake rate and proportion of contacts recorded by the digital system on key model outputs: the effective reproduction number TRANS, the mean outbreak size after 30 days, and the probability of elimination. We show that effective manual contact tracing TRANS can reduce the effective reproduction number TRANS from 2.4 to around 1.5. The addition of a digital tracing TRANS system with a high uptake rate over 75% could further reduce the effective reproduction number TRANS to around 1.1. Fully automated digital tracing TRANS without manual contact tracing TRANS is predicted to be much less effective. We conclude that, for digital tracing TRANS systems to make a significant contribution to the control of COVID-19, they need be designed in close conjunction with public health agencies to support and complement manual contact tracing TRANS by trained professionals.

    Risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation rises exponentially with age TRANS, inversely proportional to T-cell production

    Authors: Sam Palmer; Nik Cunniffe; Ruairi Donnelly; Matheus Filgueira Bezerra; Filipe Zimmer Dezordi; Lais Ceschini Machado; Larissa Krokovsky; Elisama Helvecio; Alexandre Freitas da Silva; Luydson Richardson Silva Vasconcelos; Antonio Mauro Rezende; Severino Jefferson Ribeiro da Silva; Kamila Gaudencio da Silva Sales; Bruna Santos Lima Figueiredo de Sa; Derciliano Lopes da Cruz; Claudio Eduardo Cavalcanti; Armando de Menezes Neto; Caroline Targino Alves da Silva; Renata Pessoa Germano Mendes; Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva; Michelle da Silva Barros; Wheverton Ricardo Correia do Nascimento; Rodrigo Moraes Loyo Arcoverde; Luciane Caroline Albuquerque Bezerra; Sinval Pinto Brandao Filho; Constancia Flavia Junqueira Ayres; Gabriel Luz Wallau

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.25.20181487 Date: 2020-08-31 Source: medRxiv

    Here we report that COVID-19 hospitalisation rates follow an exponential relationship with age TRANS, increasing by 4.5% per year of life (95% CI: 4.2-5.2%). This mirrors the exponential decline of thymus volume and T-cell production (decreasing by 4.5% per year). COVID-19 can therefore be added to the list of other diseases with this property, including those caused by MRSA, West Nile virus, Streptococcus Pneumonia HP and certain cancers, such as chronic myeloid leukemia HP and brain cancers. In addition, incidence of severe disease and mortality due to COVID-19 are both higher in men, consistent with the degree to which thymic involution (and the decrease in T-cell production with age TRANS) is more severe in men compared to women. For under 20s, COVID-19 incidence is remarkably low. A Bayesian analysis of daily hospitalisations, accounting for contact-based TRANS and environmental transmission TRANS, indicates that non- adults TRANS are the only age group TRANS to deviate significantly from the exponential relationship. Our model fitting suggests under 20s have 53-77% additional immune protection beyond that predicted by strong thymus function alone. We found no evidence for differences between age groups TRANS in susceptibility to overall infection, or, relative infectiousness to others. The simple inverse relationship between risk and thymus size we report here suggests that therapies based on T-cell mechanisms may be a promising target.

    Analysis of Stress, Anxiety HP Anxiety MESHD and Depression of Children TRANS During COVID-19

    Authors: Samir Bandyopadhyay; Shawni Dutta

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0636.v1 Date: 2020-08-28 Source:

    Coronavirus is believed to have originated from a wet market in Wuhan, China, and has spread all over the world, resulting in a large number of hospitalizations and deaths. Social scientists are just beginning to understand its consequences on human behavior. One policy that public health officials put in place to help stop the spread of the virus were stay-at-home/shelter-in-place lockdown-style orders. Schools, Colleges and Universities across the country have now been shut down till now due to Covid-19. Some Governments in India impose lockdown to reduce the crises created by this unknown virus. It is now difficult to make final assessments by school, school leaving examinations and entrance tests for undergraduate and post-graduate courses. This disruption implies for students across the socio-economic spectrum, both in terms of learning outcomes , food and economic security. Here the aim is to discuss the implications of lockdown-induced in schools in both urban and rural areas in India.The whole world implemented a nationwide lockdown to curb the transmission TRANS of the virus. A survey was over Five hundred families to complete a questionnaire with questions around symptoms of depression MESHD, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, stress, and family affluence. The humans who do not have enough supplies to sustain the lockdown were most affected Families with affluence were found to be negatively correlated with stress, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and depression MESHD. Stress, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and depression MESHD more than others are seen in students and healthcare professionals. The main aim of the paper is to find out how symptoms of depression MESHD, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and stress on parents TRANS due to COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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