Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Variation in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in school- children TRANS across districts, schools and classes

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene A Abela; Sarah H Haile; Jacob Blankenberger; Ruedi Jung; Celine Capelli; Christoph Berger; Anja Frei; Michael Huber; Merle Schanz; Magdalena Schwarzmueller; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Peter Hau; Christopher Bohr; Ralph Burkhardt; Andre Gessner; Bernd Salzberger; Frank Hanses; Florian Hitzenbichler; Daniel Heudobler; Florian Lueke; Tobias Pukrop; Wolfgang Herr; Daniel Wolff; Hendrik Poeck; Christoph Brochhausen; Petra Hoffmann; Michael Rehli; Marina Kreutz; Kathrin Renner

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.18.20191254 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Understanding transmission TRANS and impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in school children TRANS is critical to implement appropriate mitigation measures. Objective: To determine the variation in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in school children TRANS across districts, schools, grades, and classes, and the relationship of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO with self-reported symptoms. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements of a longitudinal cohort study (Ciao Corona) from June-July 2020. Setting: 55 randomly selected schools and classes stratified by district in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland (1.5 million inhabitants). Participants: Children TRANS, aged TRANS 6-16 years old, attending grades 1-2, 4-5 and 7-8. Exposure: Exposure to circulating SARS-CoV-2 between February and June 2020 including public lock-down and school closure (March 16-May 10, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: Variation in seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in children TRANS across 12 cantonal districts, schools, and grades using a Luminex-based antibody test SERO with four targets for each of IgG, IgA and IgM. Clustering of cases within classes. Analysis of associations of seropositivity and symptoms. Comparison of seroprevalence SERO with a randomly selected adult TRANS population, based on Luminex-based IgG and IgA antibody test SERO of Corona Immunitas. Results: In total, 55 schools and 2585 children TRANS were recruited (1337 girls, median age TRANS 11, age TRANS range 6-16 years). Overall seroprevalence SERO was 2.8 % (95% CI 1.6-4.1%), ranging from 1.0% to 4.5% across districts. Seroprevalence SERO was 3.8% (1.9-6.1%) in grades 1-2, 2.5% (1.1-4.2%) in grades 4-5, and 1.5% (0.5-3.0%) in grades 7-8. At least one case was present in 36/55 tested schools and in 43/128 classes with [≥]50% participation rate and [≥]5 children TRANS tested. 73% of children TRANS reported COVID-19 compatible symptoms since January 2020, but none were reported more frequently in seropositive compared to seronegative children TRANS. Seroprevalence SERO of children TRANS was very similar to seroprevalence SERO of randomly selected adults TRANS in the same region in June-July 2020, measured with the same Corona Immunitas test, combining IgG and IgA (3.1%, 95% CI 1.4-5.4%, versus 3.3%, 95% CI 1.4-5.5%). Conclusions and Relevance: Seroprevalence SERO was inversely related to age TRANS and revealed a dark figure of around 90 when compared to 0.03% confirmed PCR+ cases in children TRANS in the same area by end of June. We did not find clustering of SARS-CoV-2 seropositive cases in schools so far, but the follow-up of this school-based study will shed more light on transmission TRANS within and outside schools. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04448717, registered June 26, 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04448717

    An ELISA SERO protocol with resolution at high sample concentration reveals reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in unexposed individuals

    Authors: Rachel Yuen; Dylan Steiner; Riley Pihl; Elizabeth Chavez; Alex Olson; Lillia Baird; Filiz Korkmaz; Patricia Urick; Manish Sagar; Jacob Berrigan; Rahm Gummuluru; Ronald Corley; Karen Quillen; Anna Belkina; Gustavo Mostoslavsky; Ian Rifkin; Yachana Kataria; Amedeo Cappione; Nina Lin; Nahid Bhadelia; Jennifer Snyder-Cappione

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.15.20192765 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted work, economy, and way of life. The SARS-CoV-2 virus displays unique features including widely varying symptoms and outcomes between infected individuals. Sensitive measurement of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO would provide new insight into virus transmission TRANS dynamics, pre-existing cross-reactive immunity, and the nuances of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. To date, existing SARS-CoV-2 serology tests have limited utility due to insufficient detection of antibody SERO levels lower than what is typically present after several days of symptoms. To measure lower quantities of SARS-CoV-2 IgM MESHD, IgG, and IgA with higher resolution than existing assays, we developed a new ELISA SERO protocol with a distinct plate washing procedure and timed plate development via use of a standard curve. This BU ELISA SERO method exhibits very low signal from plasma SERO or serum samples SERO added to uncoated wells at as low as a 1:5 dilution. Use of this method revealed circulating SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) reactive antibodies SERO from blood SERO samples drawn prior to May 2019. Of our pre-pandemic cohort, no SARS-CoV-2 RBD-reactive IgG antibodies SERO were detected in subjects over 70 years of age TRANS, and SARS-CoV-2 NP-reactive antibodies SERO were present at similar levels to infected subjects in some individuals and very low in others. Also, samples drawn in May 2020 from two individuals with no symptoms or no known virus exposure contained SARS-CoV-2 RBD-reactive antibodies SERO at intermediate amounts compared with other subject groups (higher than pre-pandemic and lower than confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD). The one asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 convalescent subject in our study possessed comparable amounts of SARS-CoV-2 NP-specific IgM and IgG but drastically lower IgA than the symptomatic counterparts. Also, our assay detected positive signal from samples that gave negative results in a commercially available Lateral Flow Device (LFD) and the EUA approved Abbott IgG chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay SERO for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO detection. We propose that this improved ELISA SERO protocol, which is straightforward to perform, low cost, and uses readily available commercial reagents, is a useful tool to elucidate new information about SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and has promising implications for improved detection of all analytes measurable by this platform.

    COVID-19 and human milk: SARS-CoV-2, antibodies, and neutralizing SERO capacity

    Authors: Ryan M Pace; Janet E Williams; Kirsi M Järvinen; Mandy B Belfort; Christina DW Pace; Kimberly A Lackey; Alexandra C Gogel; Phuong Nguyen-Contant; Preshetha Kanagaiah; Theresa Fitzgerald; Rita Ferri; Bridget Young; Casey Rosen-Carole; Nichole Diaz; Courtney Meehan; Beatrice Caffe; Mark Y Sangster; David J Topham; Mark A McGuire; Antti Seppo; Michelle K McGuire; Margaret E Ackerman; Lisa M Schilling; Vignesh Subbian; David Vizcaya; Lin Zhang; Ying Zhang; Hong Zhu; Li Liu; Peter Rijnbeek; George Hripcsak; Jennifer C.E Lane; Edward Burn; Christian Reich; Marc A Suchard; Talita Duarte-Salles; Krisitn Kosta; Patrick B Ryan; DANIEL PRIETO-ALHAMBRA; Christoph Lange; Georg Laue; Clemes Lier; Matthias Lindner; Georgios Marinos; Robert Markewitz; Jacob Nattermann; Rainer Noth; Peter Pickkers; Klaus F. Rabe; Alina Renz; Christoph Roecken; Jan Rupp; Annika Schaffarzyk; Alexander Scheffold; Jonas Schulte-Schrepping; Domagoj Schunck; Dirk Skowasch; Thomas Ulas; Klaus-Peter Wandinger; Michael Wittig; Johannes Zimmermann; Hauke Busch; Bimba F. Hoyer; Christoph Kaleta; Jan Heyckendorf; Matthijs Kox; Jan Rybniker; Stefan Schreiber; Joachim Schultze; Philip Rosenstiel; - HCA Lung Biological Network; - Deutsche COVID-19 Omics Initiative (DeCOI)

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.16.20196071 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: It is not known whether SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted from mother to infant during breastfeeding, and if so whether the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh this risk. This study was designed to evaluate 1) if SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in milk and on the breast of infected MESHD women, 2) concentrations of milk-borne anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, and 3) the capacity of milk to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infectivity MESHD. Methods: We collected 37 milk samples and 70 breast swabs (before and after breast washing) from 18 women recently diagnosed with COVID-19. Samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RT-qPCR. Milk was also analyzed for IgA and IgG specific for the nucleocapsid protein, receptor binding domain (RBD), S2 subunit of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, as well as 2 seasonal coronaviruses using ELISA SERO; and for its ability to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Results: We did not detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in any milk sample. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected on several breast swabs, although only one was considered conclusive. All milk contained SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG, and levels of anti-RBD IgA correlated with SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Strong correlations between levels of IgA and IgG to SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses were noted. Conclusions: Our data do not support maternal-to- child TRANS transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 via milk; however, risk of transmission TRANS via breast skin MESHD should be further evaluated. Importantly, milk produced by infected mothers is a source of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG and neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 activity. These results support recommendations to continue breastfeeding during mild-to-moderate maternal COVID-19 illness.

    Retrospective study of COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO among tissue donors at the onset of the outbreak before implementation of strict lockdown measures in France

    Authors: Nicolas Germain; Stephanie Herwegh; Anne Sophie Hatzfeld; Laurence Bocket; Brigitte Prevost; Pierre Marie Danze; Philippe Marchetti; Rachael Dodd; Brooke Nickel; Kristen Pickles; Samuel Cornell; Thomas Dakin; Kirsten J McCaffery; Aboubacar Sidiki Magassouba; Arsen Arakelyan; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192518 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered organ and tissue donations as well as transplantation practices. SARS-CoV-2 serological tests SERO could help in the selection of donors. We assessed COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO in a population of tissue donors, at the onset of the outbreak in France, before systematic screening of donors for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Methods: 235 tissue donors at the Lille Tissue bank between November 1, 2019 and March 16, 2020 were included. Archived serum SERO samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using two FDA-approved kits. Results: Most donors were at higher risks for severe COVID-19 illness including age TRANS over 65 years (142/235) and/or presence of co-morbidities (141/235). According to the COVID-19 risk assessment of transmission TRANS, 183 out of 235 tissue donors presented with a low risk level and 52 donors with an intermediate risk level of donor derived infection MESHD. Four out of the 235 (1.7%) tested specimens were positive for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO: 2 donors with anti-N protein IgG and 2 other donors with anti-S protein total Ig. None of them had both type of antibodies SERO. Conclusion: Regarding the seroprevalence SERO among tissue donors, we concluded that the transmission TRANS probability to recipient via tissue products was very low at the beginning of the outbreak.

    Model-informed COVID-19 vaccine prioritization strategies by age TRANS and serostatus

    Authors: Kate M Bubar; Stephen M Kissler; Marc Lipsitch; Sarah Cobey; Yonatan Grad; Daniel B Larremore

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.08.20190629 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: medRxiv

    When a vaccine for COVID-19 becomes available, limited initial supply will raise the question of how to prioritize the available doses and thus underscores the need for transparent, evidence-based strategies that relate knowledge of, and uncertainty in, disease transmission, risk TRANS, vaccine efficacy, and existing population immunity. Here, we employ a model-informed approach to vaccine prioritization that evaluates the impact of prioritization strategies on cumulative incidence and mortality and accounts for population factors such as age TRANS, contact structure, and seroprevalence SERO, and vaccine factors including imperfect and age TRANS-varying efficacy. This framework can be used to evaluate and compare existing strategies, and it can also be used to derive an optimal prioritization strategy to minimize mortality or incidence. We find that a transmission TRANS-blocking vaccine should be prioritized to adults TRANS ages TRANS 20-49y to minimize cumulative incidence and to adults TRANS over 60y to minimize mortality. Direct vaccination of adults TRANS over 60y minimizes mortality for vaccines that do not block transmission TRANS. We also estimate the potential benefit of using individual-level serological tests SERO to redirect doses to only seronegative individuals, improving the marginal impact of each dose. We argue that this serology-informed vaccination approach may improve the efficiency of vaccination efforts while partially addressing existing inequities in COVID-19 burden and impact.

    Covid-19 Belgium: Extended SEIR-QD model with nursery homes and long-term scenarios-based forecasts from school opening

    Authors: Nicolas Franco; Brian Lambert; Cale Kochenour; Anthony C. Robinson; Nita Bharti; Theresa L White; Melissa Campbell; Bertie Geng; Rupak Datta; Anne L Wyllie; Nathan D Grubaugh; Arnau Casanovas-Massana; M Catherine Muenker; Ryan Handoko; Akiko Iwasaki; - The Yale IMPACT Research Team; Richard A Martinello; Albert I Ko; Dana M Small; Shelli F Farhadian; Angel YS Wong; Helen I McDonald; Jonathan Cockburn; Harriet Forbes; John Parry; Frank Hester; Sam Harper; Liam Smeeth; Ian J Douglas; William G Dixon; Stephen JW Evans; Laurie Tomlinson; Ben Goldacre; Sacha Gnjatic; Noam Harpaz; Silvio Danese; Adeeb Rahman; Nikhil A Kumta; Alessio Aghemo; Francesca Petralia; Harm van Bakel; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Saurabh Mehandru

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20190108 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    We model the evolution of the covid-19 epidemic in Belgium with an age TRANS-structured extended SEIR-QD epidemic model with separated consideration for nursery homes. All parameters of the model are estimated using a MCMC method, except integrated data on social contacts. The model is calibrated on hospitals' data, number of deaths MESHD, nursery homes' tests and serological SERO tests. We present the current situation on September 2020 as well as long-term scenarios-based forecasts with the possibility of a second wave in function of new transmissions TRANS from contacts at school.

    Covid-19 Belgium: Extended SEIR-QD model with nursery homes and long-term scenarios-based forecasts from school opening

    Authors: Nicolas Franco

    id:2009.03450v1 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: arXiv

    We model the evolution of the covid-19 epidemic in Belgium with an age TRANS-structured extended SEIR-QD epidemic model with separated consideration for nursery homes. All parameters of the model are estimated using a MCMC method, except integrated data on social contacts. The model is calibrated on hospitals' data, number of deaths MESHD, nursery homes' tests and serological SERO tests. We present the current situation on September 2020 as well as long-term scenarios-based forecasts with the possibility of a second wave in function of new transmissions TRANS from contacts at school.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    High SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO in Children TRANS and Adults TRANS in the Austrian Ski Resort Ischgl

    Authors: Ludwig Knabl; Tanmay Mitra; Janine Kimpel; Annika Roessler; Andre Volland; Andreas Walser; Hanno Ulmer; Lisa Pipperger; Sebastian C Binder; Lydia Riepler; Katie Bates; Arnab Bandyopadhyay; Marta Schips; Mrinalini Ranjan; Barbara Falkensammer; Wegene Borena; Michael Meyer-Hermann; Dorothee von Laer; David Wyllie

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.20.20178533 Date: 2020-08-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Early March 2020, a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the ski resort Ischgl in Austria initiated the spread of SARS-CoV-2 throughout Austria and Northern Europe. Methods: Between April 21 and 27, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study targeting the full population of Ischgl (n= 1867), of which 79% could be included (n=1473, incl. 214 children TRANS), was performed. For each individual, the study involved a SARS-CoV-2 PCR, antibody testing SERO and structured questionnaires. A mathematical model was used to help understand the influence of the determined seroprevalence SERO on virus transmission TRANS. Findings: The seroprevalence SERO was 42.4% (95% CI 39.8-44.7). Individuals under 18 showed a significantly lower seroprevalence SERO of 27.1% (95% CI 21.3-33.6) than adults TRANS (45%; 95% CI 42.2-47.7; OR of 0.455, 95% CI 0.356-0.682, p<0.001). Of the seropositive individuals, 83.7% had not been diagnosed to have had SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD previously. The clinical course was generally mild. Over the previous two months, two COVID-19-related deaths had been recorded, corresponding to an infection fatality rate (IFR) of 0.25% (95% CI 0.03-0.91). Only 8 (0.5 %) individuals were newly diagnosed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 during this study. Interpretation: Ischgl was hit early and hard by SARS-CoV-2 leading to a high local seroprevalence SERO of 42.4%, which was lower in individuals below the age TRANS of 18 than in adults TRANS. Mathematical modeling suggests that a drastic decline of newly infected individuals in Ischgl by the end of April occured due to the dual impact from the non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) and a significant immunization of the Ischgl population. Funding: Helmholtz Association, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, German Research Foundation (DFG), state Tyrol.

    Antibody SERO prevalence SERO for SARS-CoV-2 in England following first peak of the pandemic: REACT2 study in 100,000 adults TRANS

    Authors: Helen Ward; Christina J Atchison; Matthew Whitaker; Kylie E. C. Ainslie; Joshua Elliott; Lucy C Okell; Rozlyn Redd; Deborah Ashby; Christl A. Donnelly; Wendy Barclay; Ara Darzi; Graham Cooke; Steven Riley; Paul Elliott; Rachel Vreeman; Joseph Masci; Nick A Maskell; Shaney Barratt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20173690 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background England, UK has experienced a large outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. As in USA and elsewhere, disadvantaged communities have been disproportionately affected. Methods National REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission TRANS-2 (REACT-2) seroprevalence SERO study using self-administered lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFIA) test for IgG among a random population sample of 100,000 adults TRANS over 18 years in England, 20 June to 13 July 2020. Results Completed questionnaires were available for 109,076 participants, yielding 5,544 IgG positive results and adjusted (for test performance SERO), re-weighted (for sampling) prevalence SERO of 6.0% (95% CI: 5.8, 6.1). Highest prevalence SERO was in London (13.0% [12.3, 13.6]), among people of Black or Asian (mainly South Asian) ethnicity (17.3% [15.8, 19.1] and 11.9% [11.0, 12.8] respectively) and those aged TRANS 18-24 years (7.9% [7.3, 8.5]). Care home workers with client-facing roles had adjusted odds ratio of 3.1 (2.5, 3.8) compared with non-essential workers. One third (32.2%, [31.0-33.4]) of antibody SERO positive individuals reported no symptoms. Among symptomatic cases, the majority (78.8%) reported symptoms during the peak of the epidemic in England in March (31.3%) and April (47.5%) 2020. We estimate that 3.36 million (3.21, 3.51) people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 in England to end June 2020, with an overall infection MESHD fatality ratio of 0.90% (0.86, 0.94). Conclusion The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in England disproportionately affected ethnic minority groups and health and care home workers. The higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD in these groups may explain, at least in part, their increased risk of hospitalisation and mortality from COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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