Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in peritoneal fluid from patients with kidney disease MESHD and COVID-19: report of two cases

    Authors: Margarita Ibarra-Hernandez; María de la Luz Alcantar-Vallín; Rodolfo I. Cabrera-Silva; Karina Sánchez-Reyes; Monserrat Alvarez-Zavala; Judith C. De Arcos-Jiménez; Luz A. González-Hernández; Vida V. Ruiz-Herrera; Sara A. Aguirre-Díaz; Roxana García-Salcido; Guillermo García-García; Jaime F. Andrade-Villanueva

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-79032/v1 Date: 2020-09-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has a broad clinical presentation, involving multiple organs besides the respiratory system. Currently, there is little evidence available on the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in peritoneal fluid (PF). In this study, we describe the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the PF of two patients with COVID 19 and kidney disease MESHD.Case presentation: Case 1: A 71-year-old woman with a history of end-stage kidney disease MESHD who presented with a 15-day evolution of progressive dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, accompanied by dry cough MESHD cough HP and fever HP fever MESHD; IgM antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 were detected on admission. Real-time SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the PF was positive. Three days after admission the patient's respiratory distress HP improved and she was discharged after 8 days of hospitalization.Case 2: A 78-year-old woman, with type 2 diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, a 15-day history of polypnea, and a 5-day onset of fever HP fever MESHD and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD. IgM and IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 were detected on admission, as well as a positive nasopharyngeal qRT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2. During hospitalization she developed acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD, requiring peritoneal dialysis, SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed in PF by qRT-PCRConclusions: These two cases highlights the importance of increasing the level of awareness for the presence and possible SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS through non-respiratory routes, like peritoneal fluid.Emphasis should be given to appropriate preventive strategies for minimizing the risk of transmission TRANS of COVID-19 from patients on peritoneal dialysis in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    A hydrophobic-interaction-based mechanism trigger docking between the SARS CoV 2 spike and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

    Authors: Jiacheng Li; Xiaoliang Ma; Shuai Guo; Chengyu Hou; Liping Shi; Hongchi Zhang; Bing Zheng; Chencheng Liao; Lin Yang; Lin Ye; Xiaodong He

    id:2008.11883v1 Date: 2020-08-27 Source: arXiv

    A recent experimental study found that the binding affinity between the cellular receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) in spike (S) protein of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is more than 10-fold higher than that of the original severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) MESHD. However, main-chain structures of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD are almost the same with that of the SARS-CoV RBD MESHD. Understanding physical mechanism responsible for the outstanding affinity between the SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2 is the "urgent challenge" for developing blockers, vaccines and therapeutic antibodies SERO against the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Considering the mechanisms of hydrophobic interaction, hydration shell, surface tension, and the shielding effect of water molecules, this study reveals a hydrophobic-interaction-based mechanism by means of which SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2 bind together in an aqueous environment. The hydrophobic interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2 protein is found to be significantly greater than that between SARS-CoV S MESHD and ACE2. At the docking site, the hydrophobic portions of the hydrophilic side chains of SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD are found to be involved in the hydrophobic interaction between SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2. We propose a method to design live attenuated viruses by mutating several key amino acid residues of the spike protein to decrease the hydrophobic surface areas at the docking site. Mutation of a small amount of residues can greatly reduce the hydrophobic binding of the coronavirus to the receptor, which may be significant reduce infectivity and transmissibility TRANS of the virus.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD and Transmission TRANS Depends on Heparan Sulfates and Is Blocked by Low Molecular Weight Heparins

    Authors: Marta Bermejo-Jambrina; Julia Eder; Tanja M Kaptein; Leanne C Helgers; Philip J Brouwer; John L van Hamme; Alexander P Vlaar; Frank E.H.P van Baarle; Godelieve J de Bree; Bernadien Maartje Nijmeijer; Neeltje A Kootstra; Marit J van Gils; Rogier W Sanders; Teunis B.H. Geijtenbeek; Christiane Schueler; Saskia Stenzel; Elisabeth Braun; Johanna Weiss; Daniel Sauter; Jan Muench; Steffen Stenger; Kei Sato; Alexander Kleger; Christine Goffinet; Konstantin Maria Johannes Sparrer; Frank Kirchhoff; Austin D. Swafford; Karsten Zengler; Susan Cheng; Michael Inouye; Teemu Niiranen; Mohit Jain; Veikko Salomaa; Jeffrey D. Esko; Nathan E Lewis; Rob Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.255810 Date: 2020-08-18 Source: bioRxiv

    The current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) and new outbreaks worldwide highlight the need for preventive treatments. Although angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary receptor for SARS-CoV-2, we identified heparan sulfate proteoglycans expressed by epithelial cells, alveolar MESHD macrophages and dendritic cells as co-receptors for SARS-CoV-2. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of epithelial cells and alveolar MESHD macrophages, and virus dissemination by dendritic cells. Notably, potent neutralizing antibodies SERO from COVID-19 patients interfered with SARS-CoV-2 binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, underscoring the importance of heparan sulfate proteoglycans as receptors and uncover that SARS-CoV-2 binding to heparan sulfates is an important mechanism for neutralization. These results have imperative implications for our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry and reveal an important target for novel prophylactic intervention.

    Host immune response driving SARS-CoV-2 evolution

    Authors: Rui Wang; Yuta Hozumi; Yong-Hui Zheng; Changchuan Yin; Guo-Wei Wei

    id:2008.07488v2 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: arXiv

    The transmission TRANS and evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) are of paramount importance to the controlling and combating of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently, near 15, 000 SARS-CoV-2 MESHD single mutations have been recorded, having a great ramification to the development of diagnostics, vaccines, antibody SERO therapies, and drugs. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 evolutionary characteristics and general trend. In this work, we present a comprehensive genotyping analysis of existing SARS-CoV-2 mutations. We reveal that host immune response via APOBEC and ADAR gene editing gives rise to near 65\% of recorded mutations. Additionally, we show that children TRANS under age TRANS five and the elderly TRANS may be at high risk from COVID-19 because of their overreacting to the viral infection MESHD. Moreover, we uncover that populations of Oceania and Africa react significantly more intensively to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD than those of Europe and Asia, which may explain why African Americans were shown to be at increased risk of dying from COVID-19, in addition to their high risk of getting sick from COVID-19 caused by systemic health and social inequities. Finally, our study indicates that for two viral genome sequences of the same origin, their evolution order may be determined from the ratio of mutation type C$>$T over T$>$C.

    Evaluation of commercially available immuno-magnetic agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO for rapid point-of-care diagnostics of COVID-19

    Authors: Maria Engel Moeller; Jeppe Fock; Pearlyn Pah; Antia De La Campa Veras; Melanie Bade; Marco Donolato; Simone Bastrup Israelsen; Jesper Eugen-Olsen; Thomas Benfield; Frederik Neess Engsig; Justin Manalac; Ana R Otrelo-Cardoso; Tho D Pham; Arjun Rustagi; Angela J Rogers; Nigam H Shah; Catherine A Blish; Jennifer R Cochran; Kari C Nadeau; Theodore S Jardetzky; James L Zehnder; Taia T Wang; Peter S Kim; Saurabh Gombar; Robert Tibshirani; Benjamin A Pinsky; Scott D Boyd

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.15.20172080 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Fast, accurate and simple blood SERO-based assays for quantification of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO are urgently needed to identify infected individuals and keep track of the spread of disease TRANS. Methods: The study included 35 plasma SERO samples from 22 individuals with confirmed COVID-19 by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and 40 non COVID-19 plasma SERO samples. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgA or IgG antibodies SERO were detected by a microfluidic quantitative immunomagnetic assay (IMA)(ViroTrack Sero COVID IgM+IgA/IgG Ab, Blusense Diagnostics, Denmark) and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO (( ELISA SERO) (EuroImmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika, Germany). Results: Of the 35 plasma SERO samples from the COVID-19 patients, 29 (82.9%) were positive for IgA/IgM or IgG by IMA and 29 samples (82.9%) were positive by ELISA SERO. Sensitivity SERO for only one sample per patient was 68% for IgA+IgM and 73% IgG by IMA and 73% by ELISA SERO. For samples collected 14 days after symptom onset TRANS, the sensitivity SERO of both IMA and ELISA SERO was around 90%. Specificity of the IMA reached 100% compared to 95% for ELISA IgA SERO and 97.5% for ELISA IgG SERO. Conclusion: IMA for COVID-19 is a rapid simple-to-use point of care test with sensitivity SERO and specificity similar to a commercial ELISA SERO.

    A case report of moderate COVID-19 with an extremely long-term viral shedding period in China

    Authors: yonghong wang; chaoyuan liu; qinghui meng; shuang gui; yu wu; pengjiang cheng; peng wang; xiuyong liao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-59700/v1 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundAn ongoing outbreak of novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) from Wuhan, China, is currently recognized as a global public health emergency, which has subsequently spread to the rest of China and other countries. The WHO raised the COVID-19 alert to the highest level. The virus is a new highly contagious via human-to-human transmission TRANS. The median duration of viral shedding is 20.0 days. We report that the longest duration of viral shedding was 32.0 days from illness onset in a patient with moderate COVID-19 admitted to QianJiang Central Hospital.Case presentationA 37-year-old male TRANS sought medical advice while suffering from fever HP fever MESHD, dry cough MESHD cough HP, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, dizziness MESHD, runny nose and diarrhoea MESHD. Five days before the visit, he had a history of travel TRANS from affected geographic areas. The patient had a positive RT-PCR test, and chest CT images showed multiple nodules and mixed ground-glass opacification with consolidation in both lungs. Laboratory findings showed that his lymphocyte and CD4+ counts were below the normal range. The patient was given antiviral treatment, including arbidol, lopinavir, IFN-α, and traditional Chinese medicine, and other necessary support care. All clinical symptoms and CT imaging manifestation abnormalities resolved during the course of therapy.ConclusionAlthough the positive RT-PCR tests were verified in consecutive upper respiratory specimens, the clinical symptoms, CT imaging findings, CD4 + lymphocyte counts, and IgG antibody SERO levels had obviously improved. Positive tests may be detecting pieces of inactive viruses, which would not be transmissible in individual cases.

    Low awareness of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in healthy adults TRANS

    Authors: Katja van den Hurk; Eva-Maria Merz; Femmeke J. Prinsze; Marloes L.C. Spekman; Franke A. Quee; Steven Ramondt; Ed Slot; Hans Vrielink; Elisabeth M.J. Huis in 't Veld; Hans L. Zaaijer; Boris M. Hogema

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171561 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenges governments worldwide to balance appropriate virus control measures and their societal and economic consequences. These control measures include the identification, isolation and testing of potentially infected individuals. As this relies on an individual's awareness of infection, we investigated the extent to which healthy adults TRANS suspected having had COVID-19, and how COVID-19 suspicion and symptoms relate to antibodies SERO indicative of a past infection with the severe HP infection with the severe MESHD acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). Methods and findings Individuals donating plasma SERO anywhere in the Netherlands between May 11th and 18th were screened for total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using ELISA SERO and invited to participate in an online questionnaire about COVID-19-related symptoms and awareness. Antibody SERO and questionnaire data were complete for 3,676 individuals, including 239 (6.5%) that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Here, we show that a 38% of the individuals that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO reported having had no or only very mild symptoms at any time during the peak of the epidemic. The loss of taste and/or smell in particular was significantly associated with seropositivity, independent of age TRANS and sex. Forty-eight percent of antibody SERO-positive persons did not suspect having had COVID-19, in spite of most of them reporting symptoms. Conclusions Awareness of infection MESHD was low among individuals that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, even at the peak of the epidemic. Improved awareness and recognition of COVID-19 symptoms and tracing TRANS of asymptomatic TRANS contacts is crucial to halting SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS.

    SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO survey among 18,000 healthcare and administrative personnel at hospitals, pre-hospital services, and specialist practitioners in the Central Denmark Region

    Authors: Sanne Jespersen; Susan Mikkelsen; Thomas Greve; Kathrine Agergaard Kaspersen; Martin Tolstrup; Jens Kjaergaard Boldsen; Jacob Dvinge Redder; Kent Nielsen; Anders Moensted Abildgaard; Henrik Albert Kolstad; Lars Oestergaard; Marianne Kragh Thomsen; Holger Jon Moeller; Christian Erikstrup

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171850 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform a large seroprevalence SERO survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) among Danish healthcare workers to identify high risk groups. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: All healthcare workers and administrative personnel at the seven hospitals, pre-hospital services and specialist practitioner clinics in the Central Denmark Region were invited by e-mail to be tested for antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 by a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody SERO enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO, Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co., Ltd., Beijing, China). Participants: A total of 25,950 participants were invited. Of these, 17,987 (69%) showed up for blood SERO sampling, and 17,971 had samples available for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing. Main outcome measures: 1) Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO; 2) Risk factors for seropositivity; 3) Association of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies SERO. Results: After adjustment for assay sensitivity SERO and specificity, the overall seroprevalence SERO was 3.4% (CI: 2.5%-3.8%). The seroprevalence SERO was higher in the western part of the region than in the eastern part (11.9% vs 1.2%, difference: 10.7 percentage points, CI: 9.5-12.2). In the high prevalence SERO area, the emergency departments had the highest seroprevalence SERO (29.7%) while departments without patients or with limited patient contact had the lowest seroprevalence SERO (2.2%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with age TRANS, sex, and profession as the predictors showed that nursing staff, medical doctors, and biomedical laboratory scientists had a higher risk than medical secretaries, who served as reference (OR = 7.3, CI: 3.5-14.9; OR = 4., CI: 1.8-8.9; and OR = 5.0, CI: 2.1-11.6, respectively). Among the total 668 seropositive participants, 433 (64.8%) had previously been tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 50.0% had a positive RT-PCR result. A total of 98% of individuals who had a previous positive viral RNA test were also found to be seropositive. Conclusions: We found large differences in the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in staff working in the healthcare sector within a small geographical area of Denmark and signs of in-hospital transmission TRANS. Half of all seropositive staff had been tested positive by PCR prior to this survey. This study raises awareness of precautions which should be taken to avoid in-hospital transmission TRANS. Additionally, regular testing of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered to identify areas with increased transmission TRANS. Trial registration: The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (1-16-02-207-20).

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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