Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Anosmia (3)

Fever (2)

Cough (2)

Falls (2)

Severe infection (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    An ELISA SERO protocol with resolution at high sample concentration reveals reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in unexposed individuals

    Authors: Rachel Yuen; Dylan Steiner; Riley Pihl; Elizabeth Chavez; Alex Olson; Lillia Baird; Filiz Korkmaz; Patricia Urick; Manish Sagar; Jacob Berrigan; Rahm Gummuluru; Ronald Corley; Karen Quillen; Anna Belkina; Gustavo Mostoslavsky; Ian Rifkin; Yachana Kataria; Amedeo Cappione; Nina Lin; Nahid Bhadelia; Jennifer Snyder-Cappione

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.15.20192765 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted work, economy, and way of life. The SARS-CoV-2 virus displays unique features including widely varying symptoms and outcomes between infected individuals. Sensitive measurement of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO would provide new insight into virus transmission TRANS dynamics, pre-existing cross-reactive immunity, and the nuances of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. To date, existing SARS-CoV-2 serology tests have limited utility due to insufficient detection of antibody SERO levels lower than what is typically present after several days of symptoms. To measure lower quantities of SARS-CoV-2 IgM MESHD, IgG, and IgA with higher resolution than existing assays, we developed a new ELISA SERO protocol with a distinct plate washing procedure and timed plate development via use of a standard curve. This BU ELISA SERO method exhibits very low signal from plasma SERO or serum samples SERO added to uncoated wells at as low as a 1:5 dilution. Use of this method revealed circulating SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) reactive antibodies SERO from blood SERO samples drawn prior to May 2019. Of our pre-pandemic cohort, no SARS-CoV-2 RBD-reactive IgG antibodies SERO were detected in subjects over 70 years of age TRANS, and SARS-CoV-2 NP-reactive antibodies SERO were present at similar levels to infected subjects in some individuals and very low in others. Also, samples drawn in May 2020 from two individuals with no symptoms or no known virus exposure contained SARS-CoV-2 RBD-reactive antibodies SERO at intermediate amounts compared with other subject groups (higher than pre-pandemic and lower than confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD). The one asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 convalescent subject in our study possessed comparable amounts of SARS-CoV-2 NP-specific IgM and IgG but drastically lower IgA than the symptomatic counterparts. Also, our assay detected positive signal from samples that gave negative results in a commercially available Lateral Flow Device (LFD) and the EUA approved Abbott IgG chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay SERO for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO detection. We propose that this improved ELISA SERO protocol, which is straightforward to perform, low cost, and uses readily available commercial reagents, is a useful tool to elucidate new information about SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and has promising implications for improved detection of all analytes measurable by this platform.

    COVID-19 and human milk: SARS-CoV-2, antibodies, and neutralizing SERO capacity

    Authors: Ryan M Pace; Janet E Williams; Kirsi M Järvinen; Mandy B Belfort; Christina DW Pace; Kimberly A Lackey; Alexandra C Gogel; Phuong Nguyen-Contant; Preshetha Kanagaiah; Theresa Fitzgerald; Rita Ferri; Bridget Young; Casey Rosen-Carole; Nichole Diaz; Courtney Meehan; Beatrice Caffe; Mark Y Sangster; David J Topham; Mark A McGuire; Antti Seppo; Michelle K McGuire; Margaret E Ackerman; Lisa M Schilling; Vignesh Subbian; David Vizcaya; Lin Zhang; Ying Zhang; Hong Zhu; Li Liu; Peter Rijnbeek; George Hripcsak; Jennifer C.E Lane; Edward Burn; Christian Reich; Marc A Suchard; Talita Duarte-Salles; Krisitn Kosta; Patrick B Ryan; DANIEL PRIETO-ALHAMBRA; Christoph Lange; Georg Laue; Clemes Lier; Matthias Lindner; Georgios Marinos; Robert Markewitz; Jacob Nattermann; Rainer Noth; Peter Pickkers; Klaus F. Rabe; Alina Renz; Christoph Roecken; Jan Rupp; Annika Schaffarzyk; Alexander Scheffold; Jonas Schulte-Schrepping; Domagoj Schunck; Dirk Skowasch; Thomas Ulas; Klaus-Peter Wandinger; Michael Wittig; Johannes Zimmermann; Hauke Busch; Bimba F. Hoyer; Christoph Kaleta; Jan Heyckendorf; Matthijs Kox; Jan Rybniker; Stefan Schreiber; Joachim Schultze; Philip Rosenstiel; - HCA Lung Biological Network; - Deutsche COVID-19 Omics Initiative (DeCOI)

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.16.20196071 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: It is not known whether SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted from mother to infant during breastfeeding, and if so whether the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh this risk. This study was designed to evaluate 1) if SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in milk and on the breast of infected MESHD women, 2) concentrations of milk-borne anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, and 3) the capacity of milk to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infectivity MESHD. Methods: We collected 37 milk samples and 70 breast swabs (before and after breast washing) from 18 women recently diagnosed with COVID-19. Samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RT-qPCR. Milk was also analyzed for IgA and IgG specific for the nucleocapsid protein, receptor binding domain (RBD), S2 subunit of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, as well as 2 seasonal coronaviruses using ELISA SERO; and for its ability to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Results: We did not detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in any milk sample. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected on several breast swabs, although only one was considered conclusive. All milk contained SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG, and levels of anti-RBD IgA correlated with SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Strong correlations between levels of IgA and IgG to SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses were noted. Conclusions: Our data do not support maternal-to- child TRANS transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 via milk; however, risk of transmission TRANS via breast skin MESHD should be further evaluated. Importantly, milk produced by infected mothers is a source of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG and neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 activity. These results support recommendations to continue breastfeeding during mild-to-moderate maternal COVID-19 illness.

    Seroprevalence SERO and seroconversion rates to SARS-CoV-2 in interns, residents, and medical doctors in a University Hospital in Bogota, Colombia

    Authors: Beatriz Elena Ariza; Yulieth Ximena Torres; Diana Salgado; Magda Cepeda; Carlos Gomez; Julio Cesar Castellanos; Fernando Suarez; Adriana Cuellar; Claudia Cecilia Cardozo; Juana Angel; Manuel Antonio Franco; Timothy D Flietstra; Amy J Schuh; Panayampalli S Satheshkumar; Jasmine M Chaitram; S Michele Owen; M G Finn; Jason M Goldstein; Joel M Montgomery; Christina F Spiropoulou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.15.20195313 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives To determine the prevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO and the incidence of seroconversion in the first month of follow-up among interns, residents, and medical doctors attending patients at a University Hospital, to explore for associations of seroprevalence SERO and seroconversion with risk factors and symptoms compatible with COVID-19, and to explore the concordance of CLA, LFA, and ELFA. Design or methods We conducted a cross-sectional and a prospective study among medical doctors and medical trainees at Hospital Universitario San Ignacio in Bogota (Colombia) during June, July, and August to assess seroprevalence SERO and seroconversion rates in this population was performed using CLA IgG for SARS-CoV-2. LFA IgG and IgM and ELFA IgM were also determined to explore concordance with CLA IgG. Results At baseline, 8 (2.28% 95%CI 1.16-4.43%) individuals were IgG positive for SARS-CoV-2 by CLA. At the end of the study, 21 (5.98% 95%CI 3.94-8.97%) individuals seroconverted by CLA IgG. In all, 29 individuals had IgG by CLA and of these 11 (3.13% 95%CI 1.76-5.52%) were asymptomatic TRANS. No associations with risk factors for infection MESHD were identified. CLA had moderate concordance with LFA IgG and ELFA, but minimal with LFA IgM. Conclusions Our report is one of the first in Latina America on seroprevalence SERO and seroconversion rates in medical healthcare workers. It emphasizes the importance of avoiding focusing only on symptomatic individuals to screen this population for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, since of all individuals that have evidence of previous infection MESHD many (37.93%) may be pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic TRANS and may contribute to infection MESHD/ disease spread TRANS.

    Susceptibility of domestic swine to experimental infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 MESHD

    Authors: Brad Pickering; Greg Smith; Mathieu Pinette; Carissa Embury-Hyatt; Estella Moffat; Peter Marszal; Charles E Lewis; Leighton Coates; Andrei A. Golosov; Callum J. Dickson; Camilo Velez-Vega; José S. Duca; Josh V. Vermaas; Yui Tik Pang; Atanu Acharya; Jerry M Parks; Jeremy C. Smith; James C. Gumbart; Tom P Gordon; Amy W Chung; Miles P Davenport; Stephen J Kent

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.10.288548 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2, the agent responsible for COVID-19 has been shown to infect MESHD a number of species. The role of domestic livestock and the risk associated for humans in close contact TRANS remains unknown for many production animals. Determination of the susceptibility of pigs to SARS-CoV-2 is critical towards a One Health approach to manage the potential risk of zoonotic transmission TRANS. Here, we show pigs are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 following oronasal inoculation. Viral RNA was detected in group oral fluids and nasal wash from at least two animals while live virus was isolated from a pig. Further, antibodies SERO could be detected in two animals at 11 and 13 days post infection MESHD, while oral fluid samples at 6 days post inoculation indicated the presence of secreted antibodies SERO. These data highlight the need for additional livestock assessment to determine the potential role domestic animals may contribute towards the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

    Pre-clinical studies of a recombinant adenoviral mucosal vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Anne C Moore; Emery G Dora; Nadine Peinovich; Kiersten P Tucker; Karen Lin; Mario Cortese; Sean Tucker; Maribel Huaringa Nunez; Nancy Rojas Serrano; Omar Caceres Rey

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.283853 Date: 2020-09-06 Source: bioRxiv

    There is an urgent need to develop efficacious vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 that also address the issues of deployment, equitable access, and vaccine acceptance. Ideally, the vaccine would prevent virus infection MESHD and transmission TRANS as well as preventing COVID-19 disease. We previously developed an oral adenovirus-based vaccine technology that induces both mucosal and systemic immunity in humans. Here we investigate the immunogenicity of a range of candidate adenovirus-based vaccines, expressing full or partial sequences of the spike and nucleocapsid proteins, in mice. We demonstrate that, compared to expression of the S1 domain or a stabilized spike antigen, the full length, wild-type spike antigen induces significantly higher neutralizing antibodies SERO in the periphery and in the lungs, when the vaccine is administered mucosally. Antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were induced by this leading vaccine candidate at low and high doses. This full-length spike antigen plus nucleocapsid adenovirus construct has been prioritized for further clinical development.

    Spike mutation D614G alters SARS-CoV-2 fitness MESHD and neutralization susceptibility

    Authors: Jessica A Plante; Yang Liu; Jianying Liu; Hongjie Xia; Bryan A Johnson; Kumari G Lokugamage; Xianwen Zhang; Antonio E Muruato; Jing Zou; Camila R Fontes-Garfias; Divya Mirchandani; Dionna Scharton; John P Bilello; Zhiqiang Ku; Zhiqiang An; Birte Kalveram; Alexander N Freiberg; Vineet D Menachery; Xuping Xie; Kenneth S Plante; Scott C Weaver; Pei-Yong Shi; Pieter S. Hiemstra; Bruce A. Ponder; Mika J Makela; Kristiina Malmstrom; Robert C. Rintoul; Paul A. Reyfman; Fabian J. Theis; Corry-A Brandsma; Ian Adcock; Wim Timens; Cheng J. Xu; Maarten van den Berge; Roland F. Schwarz; Gerard H. Koppelman; Martijn C. Nawijn; Alen Faiz

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.278689 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: bioRxiv

    A spike protein mutation D614G became dominant in SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the mutational impact on viral spread and vaccine efficacy remains to be defined. Here we engineer the D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 strain and characterize its effect on viral replication, pathogenesis, and antibody SERO neutralization. The D614G mutation significantly enhances SARS-CoV-2 replication on human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues, through an improved infectivity of virions with the spike receptor-binding domain in an "up" conformation for binding to ACE2 receptor. Hamsters infected with D614 or G614 variants developed similar levels of weight loss HP weight loss MESHD. However, the G614 virus produced higher infectious titers in the nasal washes and trachea, but not lungs, than the D614 virus. The hamster results confirm clinical evidence that the D614G mutation enhances viral loads in the upper respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients and may increases transmission TRANS. For antibody SERO neutralization, sera from D614 virus-infected hamsters consistently exhibit higher neutralization titers against G614 virus than those against D614 virus, indicating that (i) the mutation may not reduce the ability of vaccines in clinical trials to protect against COVID-19 and (ii) therapeutic antibodies SERO should be tested against the circulating G614 virus before clinical development. ImportanceUnderstanding the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic is essential for disease control and prevention. A spike protein mutation D614G emerged and became dominant soon after the pandemic started. By engineering the D614G mutation into an authentic wild-type SARS-CoV-2 strain, we demonstrate the importance of this mutation to (i) enhanced viral replication on human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues, (ii) improved viral fitness in the upper airway of infected hamsters, and (iii) increased susceptibility to neutralization. Together with clinical findings, our work underscores the importance of this mutation in viral spread, vaccine efficacy, and antibody SERO therapy.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    A hydrophobic-interaction-based mechanism trigger docking between the SARS CoV 2 spike and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

    Authors: Jiacheng Li; Xiaoliang Ma; Shuai Guo; Chengyu Hou; Liping Shi; Hongchi Zhang; Bing Zheng; Chencheng Liao; Lin Yang; Lin Ye; Xiaodong He

    id:2008.11883v1 Date: 2020-08-27 Source: arXiv

    A recent experimental study found that the binding affinity between the cellular receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) in spike (S) protein of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is more than 10-fold higher than that of the original severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) MESHD. However, main-chain structures of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD are almost the same with that of the SARS-CoV RBD MESHD. Understanding physical mechanism responsible for the outstanding affinity between the SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2 is the "urgent challenge" for developing blockers, vaccines and therapeutic antibodies SERO against the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Considering the mechanisms of hydrophobic interaction, hydration shell, surface tension, and the shielding effect of water molecules, this study reveals a hydrophobic-interaction-based mechanism by means of which SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2 bind together in an aqueous environment. The hydrophobic interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2 protein is found to be significantly greater than that between SARS-CoV S MESHD and ACE2. At the docking site, the hydrophobic portions of the hydrophilic side chains of SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD are found to be involved in the hydrophobic interaction between SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2. We propose a method to design live attenuated viruses by mutating several key amino acid residues of the spike protein to decrease the hydrophobic surface areas at the docking site. Mutation of a small amount of residues can greatly reduce the hydrophobic binding of the coronavirus to the receptor, which may be significant reduce infectivity and transmissibility TRANS of the virus.

    The influence of major S protein mutations of SARS-CoV-2 on the potential B cell epitopes

    Authors: Xianlin Yuan; Liangping Li; Krisitn Podack; Matthew M Seavey; Padmini Jayaraman; Rahul Jasuja; Natasa Strbo; Shuetsu Fukushi; Dennis de Meulder; Peter van Run; Mart M Lamers; Bart Rijnders; Casper Rokx; Frank J.M. van Kuppeveld; Frank Grosveld; Dubravka Drabek; Corine GeurtsvanKessel; Marion Koopmans; Berend Jan Bosch; Thijs Kuiken; Barry Rockx; Greggory E Mojares; Michael P Eagan; Kristy L Ziontz; Paul Mastrokyriakos; Stuart L Goldberg; Felecia Cerrato; Maha Farhat; Damien Slater; Jason B Harris; John Branda; David Hooper; Jessie M Gaeta; Travis P. Baggett; James O'Connell; Andreas Gnirke; Tami D Lieberman; Anthony Philippakis; Meagan Burns; Catherine Brown; Jeremy Luban; Edward T Ryan; Sarah E Turbett; Regina C LaRocque; William P. Hanage; Glen Gallagher; Lawrence C Madoff; Sandra Smole; Virginia M. Pierce; Eric S Rosenberg; Pardis Sabeti; Daniel J Park; Bronwyn L MacInnis

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.24.264895 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly transmitted worldwide and results in the COVID-19 pandemic. Spike glycoprotein on surface is a key factor of viral transmission TRANS, and has appeared a lot of variants due to gene mutations, which may influence the viral antigenicity and vaccine efficacy. Here, we used bioinformatic tools to analyze B-cell epitopes of prototype S protein and its 9 common variants. 12 potential linear and 53 discontinuous epitopes of B-cells were predicted from the S protein prototype. Importantly, by comparing the epitope alterations between prototype and variants, we demonstrate that B-cell epitopes and antigenicity of 9 variants appear significantly different alterations. The dominant D614G variant impacts the potential epitope least, only with moderately elevated antigenicity, while the epitopes and antigenicity of some mutants(V483A, V367F, etc.) with small incidence in the population change greatly. These results suggest that the currently developed vaccines should be valid for a majority of SARS-CoV-2 infectors MESHD. This study provides a scientific basis for large-scale application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and for taking precautions against the probable appearance of antigen escape induced by genetic variation after vaccination. Author SummaryThe global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has lasted for more than half a year and has not yet been contained. Until now there is no effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 caused disease (COVID-19). Successful vaccine development seems to be the only hope. However, this novel coronavirus belongs to the RNA virus, there is a high mutation rate in the genome, and these mutations often locate on the Spike proteins of virus, the gripper of the virus entering the cells. Vaccination induce the generation of antibodies SERO, which block Spike protein. However, the Spike protein variants may change the recognition and binding of antibodies SERO and make the vaccine ineffective. In this study, we predict neutralizing antibody SERO recognition sites (B cell epitopes) of the prototype S protein of SARS-COV2, along with several common variants using bioinformatics tools. We discovered the variability in antigenicity among the mutants, for instance, in the more widespread D614G variant the change of epitope was least affected, only with slight increase of antigenicity. However, the antigenic epitopes of some mutants change greatly. These results could be of potential importance for future vaccine design and application against SARS-CoV2 variants.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD and Transmission TRANS Depends on Heparan Sulfates and Is Blocked by Low Molecular Weight Heparins

    Authors: Marta Bermejo-Jambrina; Julia Eder; Tanja M Kaptein; Leanne C Helgers; Philip J Brouwer; John L van Hamme; Alexander P Vlaar; Frank E.H.P van Baarle; Godelieve J de Bree; Bernadien Maartje Nijmeijer; Neeltje A Kootstra; Marit J van Gils; Rogier W Sanders; Teunis B.H. Geijtenbeek; Christiane Schueler; Saskia Stenzel; Elisabeth Braun; Johanna Weiss; Daniel Sauter; Jan Muench; Steffen Stenger; Kei Sato; Alexander Kleger; Christine Goffinet; Konstantin Maria Johannes Sparrer; Frank Kirchhoff; Austin D. Swafford; Karsten Zengler; Susan Cheng; Michael Inouye; Teemu Niiranen; Mohit Jain; Veikko Salomaa; Jeffrey D. Esko; Nathan E Lewis; Rob Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.255810 Date: 2020-08-18 Source: bioRxiv

    The current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) and new outbreaks worldwide highlight the need for preventive treatments. Although angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary receptor for SARS-CoV-2, we identified heparan sulfate proteoglycans expressed by epithelial cells, alveolar MESHD macrophages and dendritic cells as co-receptors for SARS-CoV-2. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of epithelial cells and alveolar MESHD macrophages, and virus dissemination by dendritic cells. Notably, potent neutralizing antibodies SERO from COVID-19 patients interfered with SARS-CoV-2 binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, underscoring the importance of heparan sulfate proteoglycans as receptors and uncover that SARS-CoV-2 binding to heparan sulfates is an important mechanism for neutralization. These results have imperative implications for our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry and reveal an important target for novel prophylactic intervention.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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