Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 21
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    Susceptibility of domestic swine to experimental infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 MESHD

    Authors: Brad Pickering; Greg Smith; Mathieu Pinette; Carissa Embury-Hyatt; Estella Moffat; Peter Marszal; Charles E Lewis; Leighton Coates; Andrei A. Golosov; Callum J. Dickson; Camilo Velez-Vega; José S. Duca; Josh V. Vermaas; Yui Tik Pang; Atanu Acharya; Jerry M Parks; Jeremy C. Smith; James C. Gumbart; Tom P Gordon; Amy W Chung; Miles P Davenport; Stephen J Kent

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.10.288548 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2, the agent responsible for COVID-19 has been shown to infect MESHD a number of species. The role of domestic livestock and the risk associated for humans in close contact TRANS remains unknown for many production animals. Determination of the susceptibility of pigs to SARS-CoV-2 is critical towards a One Health approach to manage the potential risk of zoonotic transmission TRANS. Here, we show pigs are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 following oronasal inoculation. Viral RNA was detected in group oral fluids and nasal wash from at least two animals while live virus was isolated from a pig. Further, antibodies SERO could be detected in two animals at 11 and 13 days post infection MESHD, while oral fluid samples at 6 days post inoculation indicated the presence of secreted antibodies SERO. These data highlight the need for additional livestock assessment to determine the potential role domestic animals may contribute towards the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

    Insights into the practical effectiveness of RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 from serologic data, a cohort study

    Authors: Zhen Zhang; Qifang Bi; Shisong Fang; Lan Wei; Xin Wang; Jianfan He; Yongsheng Wu; Xiaojian Liu; Wei Gao; Renli Zhang; Qiru Su; Andrew Azman; Justin Lessler; Xuan Zou; Wenfeng Gong; Brenda Clemente; Jerel Vega; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20182469 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Virologic detection of SARS-CoV-2 through Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has limitations for surveillance. Serologic tests SERO can be an important complementary approach. Objective: Assess the practical performance SERO of RT-PCR based surveillance protocols, and the extent of undetected SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in Shenzhen, China. Design: Cohort study nested in a public health response. Setting: Shenzhen, China; January-May 2020. Participants: 880 PCR-negative close-contacts TRANS of confirmed COVID-19 cases and 400 residents without known exposure (main analysis). Fifty-seven PCR-positive case contacts (timing analysis). Measurements: Virological testing by RT-PCR. Measurement of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in PCR-negative contacts 2-15 weeks after initial testing using total Ab ELISA SERO. Rates of undetected infection MESHD, performance SERO of RT-PCR over the course of infection MESHD, and characteristics of seropositive but PCR-negative individuals were assessed. Results: The adjusted seropositivity rate for total Ab among 880 PCR-negative close-contacts TRANS was 4.1% (95%CI, 2.9% to 5.7%), significantly higher than among residents without known exposure to cases (0.0%, 95%CI, 0.0% to 1.0%). PCR-positive cases were 8.0 times (RR; 95% CI, 5.3 to 12.7) more likely to report symptoms than the PCR-negative individuals who were seropositive, but otherwise similar. RT-PCR missed 36% (95%CI, 28% to 44%) of infected close-contacts TRANS, and false negative rates appear to be highly dependent on stage of infection MESHD. Limitations: No serological data were available on PCR-positive cases. Sample size was limited, and only 20% of PCR-negative contacts met inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Even rigorous RT-PCR testing protocols may miss a significant proportion of infections MESHD, perhaps in part due to difficulties timing testing of asymptomatics TRANS for optimal sensitivity SERO. Surveillance and control protocols relying on RT-PCR were, nevertheless, able to contain community spread in Shenzhen.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Low awareness of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in healthy adults TRANS

    Authors: Katja van den Hurk; Eva-Maria Merz; Femmeke J. Prinsze; Marloes L.C. Spekman; Franke A. Quee; Steven Ramondt; Ed Slot; Hans Vrielink; Elisabeth M.J. Huis in 't Veld; Hans L. Zaaijer; Boris M. Hogema

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171561 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenges governments worldwide to balance appropriate virus control measures and their societal and economic consequences. These control measures include the identification, isolation and testing of potentially infected individuals. As this relies on an individual's awareness of infection, we investigated the extent to which healthy adults TRANS suspected having had COVID-19, and how COVID-19 suspicion and symptoms relate to antibodies SERO indicative of a past infection with the severe HP infection with the severe MESHD acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). Methods and findings Individuals donating plasma SERO anywhere in the Netherlands between May 11th and 18th were screened for total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using ELISA SERO and invited to participate in an online questionnaire about COVID-19-related symptoms and awareness. Antibody SERO and questionnaire data were complete for 3,676 individuals, including 239 (6.5%) that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Here, we show that a 38% of the individuals that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO reported having had no or only very mild symptoms at any time during the peak of the epidemic. The loss of taste and/or smell in particular was significantly associated with seropositivity, independent of age TRANS and sex. Forty-eight percent of antibody SERO-positive persons did not suspect having had COVID-19, in spite of most of them reporting symptoms. Conclusions Awareness of infection MESHD was low among individuals that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, even at the peak of the epidemic. Improved awareness and recognition of COVID-19 symptoms and tracing TRANS of asymptomatic TRANS contacts is crucial to halting SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS.

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in children TRANS with household exposition to adults TRANS with COVID-19: preliminary findings

    Authors: danilo buonsenso; Piero Valentini; Cristina De Rose; Davide Pata; Dario Sinatti; Domenico Speziale; Rosalba Ricci; Angelo Carfi; Francesco Landi; Maurizio Sanguinetti; Michela Sali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20169912 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    wheather children TRANS are easily susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is still a debated question and a currently a hot topic, particularly in view of important decisions on school opening. For this reason, we decide to describe preliminary data showing the prevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in children TRANS with known household exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, our report shows that household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 is high in both adults TRANS and children TRANS, with similar rates of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in all age groups TRANS, including the younger children TRANS. A total of 44 out of 80 household contacts TRANS (55%) of index patients had anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG. In particular, 16 (59,26%) adult TRANS partners had IgG antibodies SERO compared with 28 (52,83%) of pediatric contacts (P > 0.05). Among the pediatric population, children TRANS [≥] 5 years of age TRANS had similar probability of having SARS-CoV-2 IgG (21/39, 53.8%) compared with those < 5 years (7/14, 50%) (P > 0.05). Adult TRANS partners and children TRANS also had a probability of having SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Interestingly, 35.7% of children TRANS and 33.3% of adults TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 IgG were previously diagnosed as COVID-19 cases. Since this evidence of high rate of IgG in children TRANS exposed to SARS-CoV-2 has public health implication, with this comment we highlight the need of establishing appropriate guidelines for school opening and other social activities related to childhood.

    Transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 following exposure in school settings: experience from two Helsinki area exposure incidents.

    Authors: Timothee Dub; Elina Erra; Lotta Hagberg; Emmi Sarvikivi; Camilla Virta; Asko Jarvinen; Pamela Osterlund; Niina Ikonen; Anu Haveri; Merit Melin; Timo J Lukkarinen; Hanna Nohynek

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20156018 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The role of children TRANS in SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS is unclear. We investigated two COVID-19 school exposure incidents in the Helsinki area. Methods: We conducted two retrospective cohort studies after schools exposures, with a household transmission TRANS extension. We defined a case as an exposed person with either a positive RT-PCR, or positive microneutralisation testing (MNT) as confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein IgG antibodies SERO detection via fluorescent microsphere immunoassay SERO (FMIA). We recruited close school contacts and families of school cases, calculated attack rates TRANS (AR) on school level and families, and identified transmission chains TRANS. Findings: In incident A, the index was a pupil. Participation rate was 74% (89/121), and no cases were identified. In incident B, the index was a member of school personnel. Participation rate was 81% (51/63). AR was 16% (8/51): 6 pupils and 1 member of school personnel were MNT and FMIA positive; 1 pupil had a positive RT-PCR, but negative serology samples. We visited all school cases' families (n=8). The AR among close household contacts TRANS was 42% (9/20 in 3/8 families) but other plausible sources were always reported. At three months post-exposure, 6/8 school cases were re-sampled and still MNT positive. Interpretation: When the index was a child TRANS, no school transmission TRANS was identified, while the occurrence of an adult TRANS case led to a 16% AR. Further cases were evidenced in 3 families, but other transmission chains TRANS were plausible. It is likely that transmission TRANS from children TRANS to adults TRANS is limited. Funding: The Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare funded this study.

    Viral RNA level, serum SERO antibody SERO responses, and transmission risk TRANS in discharged COVID-19 patients with recurrent positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA test results: a population-based observational cohort study

    Authors: Chao Yang; Min Jiang; Xiaohui Wang; Xiujuan Tang; Shisong Fang; Hao Li; Le Zuo; Yixiang Jiang; Yifan Zhong; Qiongcheng Chen; Chenli Zheng; Lei Wang; Shuang Wu; Weihua Wu; Hui Liu; Jing Yuan; Xuejiao Liao; Zhen Zhang; Yiman Lin; Yijie Geng; Huan Zhang; Huanying Zheng; Min Wan; Linying Lu; Xiaohu Ren; Yujun Cui; Xuan Zou; Tiejian Feng; Junjie Xia; Ruifu Yang; Yingxia Liu; Shujiang Mei; Baisheng Li; Zhengrong Yang; Qinghua Hu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20125138 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background Managing discharged COVID-19 (DC) patients with recurrent positive (RP) SARS-CoV-2 RNA test results is challenging. We aimed to comprehensively characterize the viral RNA level and serum SERO antibody SERO responses in RP-DC patients and evaluate their viral transmission risk TRANS. Methods A population-based observational cohort study was performed on 479 DC patients discharged from February 1 to May 5, 2020 in Shenzhen, China. We conducted RT-qPCR, antibody SERO assays, neutralisation assays, virus isolation, whole genome sequencing (WGS), and epidemiological investigation of close contacts TRANS. Findings Of 479 DC patients, the 93 (19%) RP individuals, including 36 with multiple RP results, were characterised by young age TRANS (median age TRANS: 34 years, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 29-38 years). The median discharge-to-RP length was 8 days (95% CI: 7-14 days; maximum: 90 days). After readmission, RP-DC patients exhibited mild (28%) or absent (72%) symptoms, with no disease progression. The viral RNA level in RP-DC patients ranged from 1.9-5.7 log10 copies/mL (median: 3.2, 95% CI: 3.1-3.5). At RP detection, the IgM, IgG, IgA, total antibody, and neutralising SERO antibody SERO (NAb) seropositivity rates in RP-DC patients were 38% (18/48), 98% (47/48), 63% (30/48), 100% (48/48), and 91% (39/43), respectively. Regarding antibody SERO levels, there was no significant difference between RP-DC and non-RP-DC patients. The antibody SERO level remained constant in RP-DC patients pre- and post-RP detection. Virus isolation of nine representative specimens returned negative results. WGS of six specimens yielded only genomic fragments. No clinical symptoms were exhibited by 96 close contacts TRANS of 23 RP-DC patients; their viral RNA (96/96) and antibody SERO (20/20) test results were negative. After full recovery, 60% of patients (n=162, 78 no longer RP RP-DC and 84 non-RP-DC) had NAb titres of [≥]1:32. Interpretation RP may occur in DC patients following intermittent and non-stable excretion of low viral RNA levels. RP-DC patients pose a low risk of transmitting SARS-CoV-2. An NAb titre of [≥]1:32 may provide a reference indicator for evaluating humoral responses in COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials.

    SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO prevalence SERO in health care workers: Preliminary report of a single center study

    Authors: Michael Brant-Zawadzki; Deborah Fridman; Philip Robinson; Matthew Zahn; Randy German; Marcus Breit; Junko Hara

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20158329 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 has driven a pandemic crisis. Serological surveys have been conducted to establish prevalence SERO for covid-19 antibody SERO in various cohorts and communities. However, the prevalence SERO among healthcare workers is still being analyzed. The present study reports on initial sero-surveillance conducted on healthcare workers at a regional hospital system in Orange County, California, during May and June, 2020. Study participants were recruited from the entire hospital employee workforce and the independent medical staff. Data were collected for job title, location, covid-19 symptoms, a PCR test history, travel TRANS record since January 2020, and existence of household contacts TRANS with covid-19. A blood SERO sample was collected from each subject for serum SERO analysis for IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2. Of 3,013 tested individuals, a total 2,932 were included in the analysis due to some missing data. Observed prevalence SERO of 1.06% (31 antibody SERO positive cases), adjusted prevalence SERO of 1.13% for test sensitivity SERO and specificity were identified. Significant group differences between positive vs. negative were observed for age TRANS (z = 2.65, p = .008), race (p = .037), presence of fever HP fever MESHD (p < .001) and loss of smell (p < .001). Possible explanation for this low prevalence SERO includes a relatively low local geographic community prevalence SERO (~4.4%) at the time of testing, the hospital's timely procurement of personal protective equipment, rigorous employee education MESHD, patient triage and treatment protocol development and implementation. In addition, possible greater presence of cross-reactive adaptive T cell mediated immunity in healthcare workers vs. the general population may have contributed. Determining antibody SERO prevalence SERO in front-line workers, and duration of antibody SERO presence may help stratify the workforce for risk, establish better health place policies and procedures, and potentially better mitigate transmission TRANS.

    Presymptomatic Transmission TRANS and Diverse Progression of Familial Clustering Covid-19 Cases in Zhoushan, China

    Authors: Miao Liu; Leijie Liu; Ping Li; Yibo Ding; Ting Wu; Weina Tang; Zhongfa Wang; Guangwen Cao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44177/v1 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2)-caused emerging infectious disease MESHD, firstly identified in Wuhan (Hubei, China), is pandemic. However, data concerning presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS and disease diversity among family members TRANS are limited. Herein, We investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of presymptomatic transmission TRANS-caused familial clustering cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Zhoushan island, China.Methods All family members TRANS were tested for SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA by quantitative reverse transcription PCR in 3 different samples and serum SERO antibody SERO immunoglobin M (IgM) and IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Exposure identification, laboratory test, and imaging were performed according to the national guideline of COVID-19 (7th edition, China).Results Of the 6 cases, index case who ever met his relative with COVID-19 from Xianning, Hubei on January 26–31, 2020, transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to his family members TRANS in Zhoushan via visiting family during January 31 and February 3, 2020. The index was identified as common-type COVID-19 on February 6, 2020. All 5 family members TRANS were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Of those, a 7-year-old girl was an asymptomatic TRANS carrier TRANS whereas her grandparents, especially her grandfather, were very sick. Case 6 (grandfather) remained positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in his sputum specimen in subsequent 2 months. Case 2 (mother) tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all samples but positive for IgM and IgG to SARS-CoV-2 since February 9, 2020.Conclusions Presymptomatic transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 causes familial cluster of COVID-19. Exposed to the same source of infection MESHD, family members TRANS present their differences in disease severity and viral clearance.

    Community-level SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO Survey in urban slum dwellers of Buenos Aires City, Argentina: a participatory research.

    Authors: Silvana Figar; Vanina Pagotto; Lorena Luna; Julieta Salto; Magdalena Wagner Manslau; Alicia Mistchenko; ANDREA GAMARNIK; Ana Maria Gomez Saldano; Fernan Quiros

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20153858 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background By July 1st, the incidence rate of RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2 infection was 5.9% in Barrio Padre Mugica, one of the largest slums in Buenos Aires City. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 three months after the first case was reported. Methods Between June 10th and July 1st, a cross-sectional design was carried out on people over 14 years old, selected from a probabilistic sample of households. A finger prick sample was tested by ELISA SERO to detect IgG-class antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. Multilevel model was applied to understand sector, household and individual conditions associated with seroconvert. Results Prevalence SERO based on IgG was 53.4% (95%IC 52.8% to 54.1%). Among the IgG positive cases, 15% reported having compatible symptoms at some point in the past two months. There is evidence of within-household clustering effect (rho=0.52; 95% IC 0.36-0.67); living with a PCR- confirmed case TRANS doubled the chance of being SARS-CoV2 IgG positive (OR 2.13; 95% IC 1.17-3.85). The highest risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD was found in one of the most deprived areas of the slum, the Bajo autopista sector. Discussion High seroprevalence SERO is shown, for each symptomatic RT-qPCR-confirmed diagnosis, 9 people were IgG positive, indicating a high rate of undetected (probable asymptomatic TRANS) infections. Given that transmission TRANS among family members TRANS is a leading driver of the disease`s spread, it is unsurprising that crowded housing situations in slums are directly associated with higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and consequently high seroprevalence SERO levels. This study contributes to the understanding of population immunity against SARS-CoV2, its relation to living conditions and viral spread, for future decision making.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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