Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (3)

Anosmia (3)

Cough (2)

Myalgia (1)

Falls (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Seroprevalence SERO and seroconversion rates to SARS-CoV-2 in interns, residents, and medical doctors in a University Hospital in Bogota, Colombia

    Authors: Beatriz Elena Ariza; Yulieth Ximena Torres; Diana Salgado; Magda Cepeda; Carlos Gomez; Julio Cesar Castellanos; Fernando Suarez; Adriana Cuellar; Claudia Cecilia Cardozo; Juana Angel; Manuel Antonio Franco; Timothy D Flietstra; Amy J Schuh; Panayampalli S Satheshkumar; Jasmine M Chaitram; S Michele Owen; M G Finn; Jason M Goldstein; Joel M Montgomery; Christina F Spiropoulou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.15.20195313 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives To determine the prevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO and the incidence of seroconversion in the first month of follow-up among interns, residents, and medical doctors attending patients at a University Hospital, to explore for associations of seroprevalence SERO and seroconversion with risk factors and symptoms compatible with COVID-19, and to explore the concordance of CLA, LFA, and ELFA. Design or methods We conducted a cross-sectional and a prospective study among medical doctors and medical trainees at Hospital Universitario San Ignacio in Bogota (Colombia) during June, July, and August to assess seroprevalence SERO and seroconversion rates in this population was performed using CLA IgG for SARS-CoV-2. LFA IgG and IgM and ELFA IgM were also determined to explore concordance with CLA IgG. Results At baseline, 8 (2.28% 95%CI 1.16-4.43%) individuals were IgG positive for SARS-CoV-2 by CLA. At the end of the study, 21 (5.98% 95%CI 3.94-8.97%) individuals seroconverted by CLA IgG. In all, 29 individuals had IgG by CLA and of these 11 (3.13% 95%CI 1.76-5.52%) were asymptomatic TRANS. No associations with risk factors for infection MESHD were identified. CLA had moderate concordance with LFA IgG and ELFA, but minimal with LFA IgM. Conclusions Our report is one of the first in Latina America on seroprevalence SERO and seroconversion rates in medical healthcare workers. It emphasizes the importance of avoiding focusing only on symptomatic individuals to screen this population for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, since of all individuals that have evidence of previous infection MESHD many (37.93%) may be pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic TRANS and may contribute to infection MESHD/ disease spread TRANS.

    A dual antigen ELISA SERO allows the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO seroprevalence SERO in a low transmission TRANS setting

    Authors: Sarah Hicks; Kai Pohl; Teresa Neeman; Hayley McNamara; Kate Parsons; Jin-Shu He; Sidra Ali; Samina Nazir; Louise Rowntree; Thi Nguyen; Katherine Kedzierska; Denise Doolan; Carola Vinuesa; Matthew Cook; Nicholas Coatsworth; Paul Myles; Florian Kurth; Leif Sander; Russell Gruen; Graham Mann; Amee George; Elizabeth Gardiner; Ian Cockburn; Bala Pesala; Debojyoti Chakraborty; Souvik Maiti

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20191031 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: medRxiv

    Estimates of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO have been hampered by inadequate assay sensitivity SERO and specificity. Using an ELISA SERO-based approach to that combines data about IgG responses to both the Nucleocapsid and Spike-receptor binding domain antigens, we show that near-optimal sensitivity SERO and specificity can be achieved. We used this assay to assess the frequency of virus-specific antibodies SERO in a cohort of elective surgery patients in Australia and estimated seroprevalence SERO in Australia to be 0.28% (0 to 0.72%). These data confirm the low level of transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in Australia before July 2020 and validate the specificity of our assay.

    Retrospective study of COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO among tissue donors at the onset of the outbreak before implementation of strict lockdown measures in France

    Authors: Nicolas Germain; Stephanie Herwegh; Anne Sophie Hatzfeld; Laurence Bocket; Brigitte Prevost; Pierre Marie Danze; Philippe Marchetti; Rachael Dodd; Brooke Nickel; Kristen Pickles; Samuel Cornell; Thomas Dakin; Kirsten J McCaffery; Aboubacar Sidiki Magassouba; Arsen Arakelyan; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192518 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered organ and tissue donations as well as transplantation practices. SARS-CoV-2 serological tests SERO could help in the selection of donors. We assessed COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO in a population of tissue donors, at the onset of the outbreak in France, before systematic screening of donors for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Methods: 235 tissue donors at the Lille Tissue bank between November 1, 2019 and March 16, 2020 were included. Archived serum SERO samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using two FDA-approved kits. Results: Most donors were at higher risks for severe COVID-19 illness including age TRANS over 65 years (142/235) and/or presence of co-morbidities (141/235). According to the COVID-19 risk assessment of transmission TRANS, 183 out of 235 tissue donors presented with a low risk level and 52 donors with an intermediate risk level of donor derived infection MESHD. Four out of the 235 (1.7%) tested specimens were positive for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO: 2 donors with anti-N protein IgG and 2 other donors with anti-S protein total Ig. None of them had both type of antibodies SERO. Conclusion: Regarding the seroprevalence SERO among tissue donors, we concluded that the transmission TRANS probability to recipient via tissue products was very low at the beginning of the outbreak.

    Estimating Asymptomatic TRANS and Undetected Cases in the COVID-19 Outbreak in Wuhan

    Authors: Xi Huo; Jing Chen; Shigui Ruan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-75913/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan started in December 2019 and was under control by the end of March 2020 with a total of 50,006 confirmed cases TRANS by the implementation of a series of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) including unprecedented lockdown of the city. This study analyzes the complete outbreak data from Wuhan, assesses the impact of these public health interventions, and estimates asymptomatic TRANS and undetected cases in the outbreak.Methods: By taking different stages of the outbreak into account, we developed a time-dependent compartmental model to describe the dynamics of disease transmission TRANS and case detection and reporting. Model coefficients were parameterized by using the reported cases and following key events and escalated control strategies. Then the model was used to calibrate the complete outbreak data by using the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) method. Finally we used the model to estimate asymptomatic TRANS and undetected cases and approximate the overall antibody SERO prevalence SERO level.Results: We found that the transmission TRANS rate between Jan 24 and Feb 1 was twice as large as that before the lockdown on Jan 23 and 67.6% (95% CI [0.584; 0.759]) of detectable infections occurred during this period.. Based on the reported estimates that around 20% of infections were asymptomatic TRANS and their transmission TRANS ability was about 70% of symptomatic ones, we estimated that there were about 14,448 undetected cases (95% CI [12,364; 23,254]), which yields an estimate of a total of 64,454 infected cases (95% CI [62,370; 73,260]), and the overall antibody SERO prevalence SERO level in the population of Wuhan was 0.745% (95% CI [0.693%, 0.814%]) by March 31, 2020.Conclusions: We conclude that the control of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan was achieved via the enforcement of a combination of multiple NPIs: the lockdown on Jan 23, the stay-at-home order on Feb 2, the massive isolation of all symptomatic individuals via newly constructed special shelter hospitals on Feb 6, and the large scale screening process on Feb 18. Our results indicate that the population in Wuhan is far away from establishing herd immunity and provide insights for other affected countries and regions in designing control strategies and adjusting reopen plans.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Universal PCR and antibody testing SERO demonstrate little to no transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in a rural community

    Authors: Ayesha Appa; Saki Takahashi; Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer; Gabriel Chamie; Aenor Sawyer; - CLIAHUB Consortium; Elias Duarte; Jill Hakim; Keirstinne Turcios; Joanna Vinden; Owen Janson; Aashish Manglik; Michael J. Peluso; Steven G Deeks; Timothy J. Henrich; Leonel Torres; Mary Rodgers; John Hackett; Charles Y Chiu; Diane Havlir; Bryan Greenhouse

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.15.20175786 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The absence of systematic surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 has curtailed accurate appraisal of transmission TRANS intensity. Our objective was to perform case detection of an entire rural community to quantify SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS using PCR and antibody testing SERO. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence SERO and cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the rural town of Bolinas, California (population 1,620), four weeks following shelter-in-place orders. Residents and county essential workers were tested between April 20th-24th, 2020. Prevalence SERO by PCR and seroprevalence SERO combining data from two forms of antibody testing SERO were performed in parallel (Abbott ARCHITECT IgG to nucleocapsid protein and in-house IgG ELISA SERO to the receptor binding domain). Results: Of 1,891 participants, 1,312 were confirmed Bolinas residents (>80% community ascertainment). Zero participants were PCR positive. Assuming 80% sensitivity SERO, it would have been unlikely to observe these results (p<0.05) if there were >3 active infections in the community. Based on antibody SERO results, estimated prevalence SERO of prior infection was 0.16% (95% CrI: 0.02%, 0.46%). Seroprevalence SERO estimates using only one of the two tests would have been higher, with greater uncertainty. The positive predictive value SERO (PPV) of a positive result on both tests was 99.11% (95% CrI: 95.75%, 99.94%), compared to PPV 44.19%-63.32% (95% CrI range 3.25%-98.64%) if only one test was utilized. Conclusions: Four weeks following shelter-in-place, active and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in a rural Northern California community was extremely rare. In this low prevalence SERO setting, use of two antibody tests SERO increased the PPV and precision of seroprevalence SERO estimates.

    Antibody SERO prevalence SERO for SARS-CoV-2 in England following first peak of the pandemic: REACT2 study in 100,000 adults TRANS

    Authors: Helen Ward; Christina J Atchison; Matthew Whitaker; Kylie E. C. Ainslie; Joshua Elliott; Lucy C Okell; Rozlyn Redd; Deborah Ashby; Christl A. Donnelly; Wendy Barclay; Ara Darzi; Graham Cooke; Steven Riley; Paul Elliott; Rachel Vreeman; Joseph Masci; Nick A Maskell; Shaney Barratt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20173690 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background England, UK has experienced a large outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. As in USA and elsewhere, disadvantaged communities have been disproportionately affected. Methods National REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission TRANS-2 (REACT-2) seroprevalence SERO study using self-administered lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFIA) test for IgG among a random population sample of 100,000 adults TRANS over 18 years in England, 20 June to 13 July 2020. Results Completed questionnaires were available for 109,076 participants, yielding 5,544 IgG positive results and adjusted (for test performance SERO), re-weighted (for sampling) prevalence SERO of 6.0% (95% CI: 5.8, 6.1). Highest prevalence SERO was in London (13.0% [12.3, 13.6]), among people of Black or Asian (mainly South Asian) ethnicity (17.3% [15.8, 19.1] and 11.9% [11.0, 12.8] respectively) and those aged TRANS 18-24 years (7.9% [7.3, 8.5]). Care home workers with client-facing roles had adjusted odds ratio of 3.1 (2.5, 3.8) compared with non-essential workers. One third (32.2%, [31.0-33.4]) of antibody SERO positive individuals reported no symptoms. Among symptomatic cases, the majority (78.8%) reported symptoms during the peak of the epidemic in England in March (31.3%) and April (47.5%) 2020. We estimate that 3.36 million (3.21, 3.51) people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 in England to end June 2020, with an overall infection MESHD fatality ratio of 0.90% (0.86, 0.94). Conclusion The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in England disproportionately affected ethnic minority groups and health and care home workers. The higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD in these groups may explain, at least in part, their increased risk of hospitalisation and mortality from COVID-19.

    SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO survey among 18,000 healthcare and administrative personnel at hospitals, pre-hospital services, and specialist practitioners in the Central Denmark Region

    Authors: Sanne Jespersen; Susan Mikkelsen; Thomas Greve; Kathrine Agergaard Kaspersen; Martin Tolstrup; Jens Kjaergaard Boldsen; Jacob Dvinge Redder; Kent Nielsen; Anders Moensted Abildgaard; Henrik Albert Kolstad; Lars Oestergaard; Marianne Kragh Thomsen; Holger Jon Moeller; Christian Erikstrup

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171850 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform a large seroprevalence SERO survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) among Danish healthcare workers to identify high risk groups. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: All healthcare workers and administrative personnel at the seven hospitals, pre-hospital services and specialist practitioner clinics in the Central Denmark Region were invited by e-mail to be tested for antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 by a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody SERO enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO, Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co., Ltd., Beijing, China). Participants: A total of 25,950 participants were invited. Of these, 17,987 (69%) showed up for blood SERO sampling, and 17,971 had samples available for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing. Main outcome measures: 1) Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO; 2) Risk factors for seropositivity; 3) Association of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies SERO. Results: After adjustment for assay sensitivity SERO and specificity, the overall seroprevalence SERO was 3.4% (CI: 2.5%-3.8%). The seroprevalence SERO was higher in the western part of the region than in the eastern part (11.9% vs 1.2%, difference: 10.7 percentage points, CI: 9.5-12.2). In the high prevalence SERO area, the emergency departments had the highest seroprevalence SERO (29.7%) while departments without patients or with limited patient contact had the lowest seroprevalence SERO (2.2%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with age TRANS, sex, and profession as the predictors showed that nursing staff, medical doctors, and biomedical laboratory scientists had a higher risk than medical secretaries, who served as reference (OR = 7.3, CI: 3.5-14.9; OR = 4., CI: 1.8-8.9; and OR = 5.0, CI: 2.1-11.6, respectively). Among the total 668 seropositive participants, 433 (64.8%) had previously been tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 50.0% had a positive RT-PCR result. A total of 98% of individuals who had a previous positive viral RNA test were also found to be seropositive. Conclusions: We found large differences in the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in staff working in the healthcare sector within a small geographical area of Denmark and signs of in-hospital transmission TRANS. Half of all seropositive staff had been tested positive by PCR prior to this survey. This study raises awareness of precautions which should be taken to avoid in-hospital transmission TRANS. Additionally, regular testing of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered to identify areas with increased transmission TRANS. Trial registration: The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (1-16-02-207-20).

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in children TRANS with household exposition to adults TRANS with COVID-19: preliminary findings

    Authors: danilo buonsenso; Piero Valentini; Cristina De Rose; Davide Pata; Dario Sinatti; Domenico Speziale; Rosalba Ricci; Angelo Carfi; Francesco Landi; Maurizio Sanguinetti; Michela Sali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20169912 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    wheather children TRANS are easily susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is still a debated question and a currently a hot topic, particularly in view of important decisions on school opening. For this reason, we decide to describe preliminary data showing the prevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in children TRANS with known household exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, our report shows that household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 is high in both adults TRANS and children TRANS, with similar rates of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in all age groups TRANS, including the younger children TRANS. A total of 44 out of 80 household contacts TRANS (55%) of index patients had anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG. In particular, 16 (59,26%) adult TRANS partners had IgG antibodies SERO compared with 28 (52,83%) of pediatric contacts (P > 0.05). Among the pediatric population, children TRANS [≥] 5 years of age TRANS had similar probability of having SARS-CoV-2 IgG (21/39, 53.8%) compared with those < 5 years (7/14, 50%) (P > 0.05). Adult TRANS partners and children TRANS also had a probability of having SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Interestingly, 35.7% of children TRANS and 33.3% of adults TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 IgG were previously diagnosed as COVID-19 cases. Since this evidence of high rate of IgG in children TRANS exposed to SARS-CoV-2 has public health implication, with this comment we highlight the need of establishing appropriate guidelines for school opening and other social activities related to childhood.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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