Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 41
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    Epidemiology and clinical outcome of COVID-19: A multi-centre cross sectional study from Bangladesh

    Authors: Adnan Mannan; H.M. Hamidullah Mehedi; Naim Hasan Chy; Md. Omar Qayum; Farhana Akter; Abdur Rob; Prasun Biswas; Sanjida Hossain; Mustak Ibn Ayub; Nardin Rezk; Annarita Giliberti; Alessandra Renieri; Yiheng Chen; Sirui Zhou; Vincenzo Forgetta; J Brent Richards

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20191114 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To investigate SARS-CoV-2 associated epidemiology and clinical outcomes in Bangladesh to understand the course of COVID-19 pandemic and suggest prevention measures. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted among 1,021 RT-PCR confirmed but recovered COVID-19 cases from six participating hospitals in Bangladesh. Results: Of the total sample, 111 (10.9%) cases were asymptomatic TRANS while the number of symptomatic cases were 910 (89.1%). Higher prevalence SERO of COVID-19 persisted in the male TRANS population (75%) and for the 31-40 age group TRANS. More than 85% of the samples reported BCG vaccination mark. Common symptoms observed in our study samples were fever HP fever MESHD (72.4%), cough HP (55.9%), loss of taste MESHD (40.7%) and body ache MESHD (40%); whereas for the biochemical parameters, Neutrophil (46.4%), D-dimer (46.1%), Ferritin (37.9%) and SGPT (36.8%) levels were found elevated. Post-COVID complications including pain HP pain MESHD (31.8%), loss of concentration (24.4%) and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD or depression (23.1%) were found significantly prevalent. Conclusion: Our study has shown that adult TRANS males TRANS aged TRANS between 31-40 in Bangladesh are more vulnerable to being infected with COVID-19. With an indication for the rising trend of the asymptomatic TRANS cases, deployment of interventions to curb further community spread is necessary to avoid the grave outcomes of COVID-19 in Bangladesh.

    Prevalence SERO and risk factors of disability and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD in a retrospective cohort of 432 survivors of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (Covid-19) from China

    Authors: Siyi Zhu; Qiang Gao; Lin Yang; Yonghong Yang; Wenguang Xia; Xiguo Cai; Yanping Hui; Di Zhu; Yanyan Zhang; Guiqing Zhang; Shuang Wu; Yiliang Wang; Zhiqiang Zhou; Hongfei Liu; Changjie Zhang; Bo Zhang; Jianrong Yang; Mei Feng; Zhong Ni; Baoyu Chen; Chunping Du; Hongchen He; Yun Qu; Quan Wei; Chengqi He; Jan D. Reinhardt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182246 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence SERO of disability and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD in Covid-19 survivors at discharge from hospital and analyze relative risk by exposures. Design: Multi-center retrospective cohort study. Setting: Twenty-eight hospitals located in eight provinces of China. Methods: A total of 432 survivors with laboratory-confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection participated MESHD in this study. At discharge, we assessed instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) with Lawton's IADL scale, dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) with the Barthel Index, and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD with Zung's self-reported anxiety HP anxiety MESHD scale. Exposures included comorbidity, smoking, setting (Hubei vs. others), disease severity, symptoms, and length of hospital stay. Other risk factors considered were age TRANS, gender TRANS, and ethnicity (Han vs. Tibetan). Results: Prevalence SERO of at least one IADL problem was 36.81% (95% CI: 32.39-41.46). ADL dependence was present in 16.44% (95% CI: 13.23-20.23) and 28.70% (95% CI: 24.63- 33.15) were screened positive for clinical anxiety MESHD anxiety HP. Adjusted risk ratio (RR) of IADL limitations (RR 2.48, 95% CI: 1.80-3.40), ADL dependence (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.15-3.76), and probable clinical anxiety HP anxiety MESHD (RR 2.53, 95% CI 1.69-3.79) were consistently elevated in survivors with severe Covid-19. Age TRANS was an additional independent risk factor for IADL limitations and ADL dependence; and setting (Hubei) for IADL limitations and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD. Tibetan ethnicity was a protective factor for anxiety HP anxiety MESHD but a risk factor for IADL limitations. Conclusion: A significant proportion of Covid-19 survivors had disability and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD at discharge from hospital. Health systems need to be prepared for an additional burden resulting from rehabilitation needs of Covid-19 survivors.

    Anxiety HP Anxiety MESHD, Depression and Functional impairment during the COVID-19 Pandemic among Health Care Workers

    Authors: Rajan Shrestha; Bijay Khatri; Suman Ranjitkar; Santoshi Adhikari

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundCOVID-19 is an infectious disease MESHD caused by a newly discovered coronavirus that is pandemic, with more than 338 thousand cases worldwide. Geometrically increasing numbers of cases and deaths from COVID 19 in the world, both medical staff and the public have been experiencing psychological problems MESHD, including anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, depression MESHD, and stress, which can cause disability and functional impairment of the individual. One of the most stressful situations is the unpredictability of the situation and the uncertainty of when to control the disease and the seriousness of the risk. These challenges and stress can trigger a common mental disorder MESHD. This study aimed to determine the burden of stress anxiety MESHD anxiety HP and depression MESHD among all employees of Eye and ENT hospitals.MethodologyA hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out among all the employees of Hospital for Children TRANS Eye ENT and Rehabilitation Services Bhaktapur during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown using an online self-administered questionnaire through Google forms. The tools were adopted from Hospital Anxiety HP Anxiety MESHD and Depression scale (HADS) Nepali version on a Likert's scale of 0 to 3 validated by Risal A. et al. and WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS S2.0) on a Likert's scale of 1 to 5 to assess functional impairment.ResultsThe mean age TRANS (SD) of the participants (n=86) was 32.53 (7.92) years. Male TRANS and female TRANS participants was equal in number. The point prevalence SERO of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression MESHD was 25.6% and 14.0%, respectively. Females TRANS had a higher prevalence SERO of both anxiety HP anxiety MESHD (39.5% vs 11.6%, p<0.01) and depression MESHD (18.6% vs 9.3%, p=0.351). The mean (SD) anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, depression MESHD and functional impairment scores were 7.27 (4.621), 5.13 (4.023) and 19.47 (6.228), respectively. Females TRANS had a very strong association with both anxiety HP anxiety MESHD (AOR=5.008 (95% CI; 1.593-15.741)) and depression MESHD (AOR=2.173 (95% CI; 0.599-7.882)). Married participants had a positive association with anxiety HP anxiety MESHD (AOR 4.379 (95% CI; 1.121-17.106)) and depression MESHD (AOR 1.542 (95% CI; 0.379-6.276)). Clinical and supporting staff both had a higher prevalence SERO of both anxiety HP anxiety MESHD (31.0% and 20.5%, p=0.265) and depression MESHD (16.7% and 11.4%, p=0.478). The mean 12-item WHO disability assessment schedule score (WHODAS 2.0) among all participants and participants with anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression MESHD was 19.47 (95% CI: 18.13-20.80), 21.27 (95% CI: 18.08-24.46) and 19.92 (15.28-24.56), respectively. The life activities domain of WHODAS 2.0 was significantly higher in participants with anxiety HP anxiety MESHD (1.91 vs 1.56, p<0.01) and depression MESHD (1.75 vs 1.63, p<0.001) than in those without anxiety HP anxiety MESHD.ConclusionAnxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown were highly prevalent both in clinical and non-clinical employees, causing mild to moderate functional impairment.

    COVID-19 pandemic and self-reported symptoms of depression MESHD, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and stress among health care workers in Ethiopia MESHD

    Authors: kemal Jemal; Berhanu Senbeta; Tinsae Abeya Geleta; Mukemil Awol

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThe Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major problem in many of the world nations including Ethiopia. Moreover, it is a public health emergency of the community concern and poses a mental health problem to health care workers (HCWs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the level of self-reporting symptoms of depression MESHD, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers in Ethiopia.MethodsAn institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey from June 25, 2020, to July 25, 2020, in Ethiopia. The data were collected using a self-reported Depression MESHD, Anxiety HP Anxiety MESHD, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Data were cleaned, coded, and entered using Epi info version 7.5.1 and exported for analyzed to the Social Science package software Version 23 Statistical Package. Moreover, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the associated factors at p-value less than 0.05.ResultsA total of 816 HCWs responded to self-reporting questions. From HCWs who screened positive for depression MESHD, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and stress; 60.3%, 78%, and 33.8% of them had scored moderate to extremely severe symptoms of depression MESHD, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and stress respectively. Females TRANS, HCWs who working in Oromiya Specialized Zone, medical laboratory professionals, and HCWs who have working in the COVID-19 treatment isolation department were significantly associated with depression MESHD, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and stress.ConcussionIn this study, health care workers had reported a high prevalence SERO of depression MESHD, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and stress symptoms. Female TRANS gender TRANS, Oromiya especial zone, medical laboratory professionals, and HCWs who have working in the COVID-19 treatment isolation centers were significantly associated with depression MESHD, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and stress. Psychological intervention for health care workers in central Ethiopia needs special attention.

    Persistent fatigue HP fatigue MESHD following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is common and independent of severity of initial infection MESHD

    Authors: Liam Townsend; Adam H Dyer; Karen Jones; Jean Dunne; Rachel Kiersey; Fiona Gaffney; Laura O'Connor; Aoife Mooney; Deirdre Leavy; Katie Ridge; Catherine King; Fionnuala Cox; Kate O'Brien; Joanne Dowds; Jamie Sugrue; David Hopkins; Patricia Byrne; Tara Kingston; Cliona Ni Cheallaigh; Parthiban Nadarajan; Anne Marie McLaughlin; Nollaig M Bourke; Colm Bergin; Cliona O'Farrelly; Ciaran Bannan; Niall Conlon

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164293 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Fatigue HP is a common symptom in those presenting with symptomatic COVID-19 infection MESHD. However, it is unknown if COVID-19 results in persistent fatigue HP fatigue MESHD in those recovered from acute infection MESHD. We examined the prevalence SERO of fatigue HP fatigue MESHD in individuals recovered from the acute phase of COVID-19 illness using the Chalder Fatigue HP Score (CFQ-11). We further examined potential predictors of fatigue HP fatigue MESHD following COVID-19 infection MESHD, evaluating indicators of COVID-19 severity, markers of peripheral immune activation and circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Of 128 participants (49.5 {+/-} 15 years; 54% female TRANS), more than half reported persistent fatigue HP (52.3%; 45/128) at 10 weeks (median) after initial COVID-19 symptoms. There was no association between COVID-19 severity (need for inpatient admission, supplemental oxygen or critical care) and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD following COVID-19. Additionally, there was no association between routine laboratory markers of inflammation MESHD and cell turnover (leukocyte, neutrophil or lymphocyte counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein) or pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-6 or sCD25) and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD post COVID-19. Female TRANS gender TRANS and those with a pre-existing diagnosis of depression MESHD/ anxiety HP anxiety MESHD were over-represented in those with fatigue HP fatigue MESHD. Our findings demonstrate a significant burden of post-viral fatigue HP fatigue MESHD in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD after the acute phase of COVID-19 illness. This study highlights the importance of assessing those recovering from COVID-19 for symptoms of severe fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, irrespective of severity of initial illness, and may identify a group worthy of further study and early intervention.

    Mental Health Impacts for International Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic in China

    Authors: Xiaoping Wang; Khamlesh Hujjaree; Fanglan Wang

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    The outbreak of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), has led to the quarantine of many residents in their homes worldwide. Some of these people might develop mental health problems, and many solutions have been put in place to address the mental health issues of patients and health professionals affected by the disease. However, not much attention has been given to international students studying in China. The present study aims to conduct an online survey to investigate the mental health status of international students from Changsha city, China.Materials and Methods: A WeChat-based survey program comprised of questions on demographic information gender TRANS, grade year, duration and status of quarantine, duration of sleep, worries about graduation, being able to go to school and presence or absence of a sense of security; as well as questions from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety HP Anxiety MESHD Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale and State-Trait Anxiety HP Anxiety MESHD Inventory(STAI).Results: The prevalence SERO of depression MESHD was 59.4% and the prevalence SERO of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD was 37.8%. The STAI-Y1 STATE scores had a mean value (mean) of 41.42, standard deviation (S.D) of 10.89 and STAI-Y2 TRAIT scores had a mean value (mean) of 41.85, standard deviation (S.D) of 11.13.  The risk factors of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD or depression MESHD were Sleep duration, worrying about graduation in varying degrees, School time, and feeling secure in varying degrees. Higher the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score and higher Generalized Anxiety HP Anxiety MESHD Disorder-7 score and higher STAI-Y1 STATE scores were associated with higher STAI-Y2 TRAIT scores.Conclusion: The present study implies that the university needs to consider planning for acute and long-term psychological help services for international students.

    Knowledge, beliefs, mental health, substance use, and behaviors related to the COVID-19 pandemic among U.S. adults TRANS: A national online survey

    Authors: Ralph J. DiClemente; Ariadna Capasso; Shahmir H. Ali; Abbey M. Jones; Joshua Foreman; Yesim Tozan

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Given the urgent need for data to inform public health messaging to mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, this national survey sought to assess the state of COVID-19-related knowledge, beliefs, mental health, substance use changes, and behaviors among a sample of U.S. adults TRANS.Methods: A survey of U.S. adults TRANS was administered online from March 20-30, 2020. The survey collected data on socio-demographic characteristics; COVID-19-related knowledge, awareness and adoption of preventive practices; depression MESHD and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD (assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-4); stress (adapted Impact of Event Scale-6); pessimism; and changes in tobacco and alcohol use. Differences between age groups TRANS (18-39 years, 40-59 years and ≥60 years) were tested using Pearson’s chi-squared tests or ANOVAs; associations between drinking and smoking and depression MESHD, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and stress were tested using adjusted logistic regression models.Results: Approximately, half of the sample (NTotal=6,391) were 50-69 years old and 58% were female TRANS. COVID-19 knowledge (Mean=12·0; SD=1.2; Range=0-13) and protective practice awareness (Mean=9·1; SD=0·8; Range 0-10) were high. However, only 84% of respondents were aware of the protective value of alcohol-based hand sanitizers and 19% had purchased facemasks. Among respondents, 44% had a score consistent with depression MESHD and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD (PHQ-4 score≥6); and 52% reported high stress scores (≥median of 1.33). COVID-19-related anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression MESHD were associated with increased drinking (AOR=1.79; 95% CI=1.49, 2.15, p<0.001) and smoking (AOR=2.17; 95% CI=1.64, 2.88, p<0.001). High stress scores were also associated with increased drinking (AOR=1.80; 95% CI=1.49, 2.17, p<0.001) and smoking (AOR=1.75; 95% CI=1.31, 2.33, p<0.001) among respondents.Conclusions: In spite of high knowledge about COVID-19 and protective practices, important gaps were identified. High prevalence SERO of poor mental health outcomes and associated increases in drinking and smoking warrant ongoing risk communications tailoring to effectively disseminate information and expanding psychosocial and substance use treatment services, particularly online telehealth services, to mitigate the negative mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Psychological Distress in Nepalese Residents during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Community Level Survey

    Authors: Dhan Bahadur Shrestha; Bikash Bikram Thapa; Nagendra Katuwal; Bikal Shrestha; Chiran Pant; Bina Basnet; Pankaj Mandal; Amol Gurung; Ankita Agrawal; Ramhari Rouniyar

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented health and economic impact. Psychological stress, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression are affecting not only COVID-19 patients but also health professionals, and general population. Restrictive measures; fear of contracting COVID-19; hardship to carry out livelihood is causing traumas MESHD to mental health. Nepal is a developing country from South Asia where the COVID-19 pandemic is yet to reach at peak. This online survey has been carried out to understand impact of COVID 19 on mental health of Nepalese community dwellers.Methods: The COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress MESHD Index (CPDI) questionnaire adapted from the Shanghai Mental Health Centre was used for collecting data in this online survey. Data were collected from 11 April-17 May 2020. Collected data extracted to Microsoft excel-13 and imported and analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version-22. An initial univariate analysis was conducted for all variables to assess the distribution and logistic regression analyses were done to estimate the odds ratios of relevant predicting variables.Results: A total of 410 participants completed the whole self-rated questionnaires. Mean age TRANS of study participants was 34.8 (± 11.7) with male TRANS preponderance. Overall 88.5% of the respondents were not in distress (score less than 28) while, 11% had mild to moderate distress and 0.5% had severely distress. The prevalence SERO of distress is higher among age > 45 years age group TRANS, female TRANS gender TRANS, and post-secondary educated. Health professional were more likely to get distressed. Respondents with post-secondary education higher odds (OR = 3.32 (p = 0.020) of developing distress as compared to respondents with secondary education or lower.Conclusion: There is lower rate of psychological distress in city dwellers and people with low education. Adequate and timely focus should be directed to mental health awareness, psychosocial support with extra focus on vulnerable groups like health care workers, female TRANS and elderly TRANS individuals.

    Psychological state and family functioning of University of Ibadan students during the COVID-19 lockdown

    Authors: Lucia Yetunde Ojewale

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20149997 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The curtailment of social gatherings as well as lack of online academic engagement, due to the COVID-19 lockdown, could have potentially damaging effects on the psychological state of university students in Nigeria. This study examined the prevalence SERO of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression, including associated factors and coping methods among undergraduate students in a Nigerian university. It also examined the association between psychological state and family functioning. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and involved 386 undergraduate students across the main faculties. The university's ethical review board approved the study with approval number UI/EC/20/0242. An online questionnaire, using Google form, was circulated among the students through their faculty representatives. The Hospital Anxiety HP Anxiety MESHD and Depression scale (HADs) was used in assessing anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression MESHD, while family functioning was assessed using the McMaster Family Assessment Device, ( FAD MESHD). Data was entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), and analysis carried out using descriptive statistics, chi-square, independent t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Post-Hoc analysis and linear logistics regression, at 0.05. Results: The mean age TRANS was 21 {+/-} 2.9 years, with a female TRANS population of 60.1%. Prevalence SERO of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression MESHD were 41.5% and 31.9% respectively. Students in health-related faculties were significantly less anxious than those in other faculties. Inability to afford three square meals, negative family functioning, having a chronic illness and living in a State/Region with a high incidence of COVID-19, was significantly associated with depression MESHD. These factors jointly accounted for 14% of depression MESHD seen in undergraduate students. Most of the students coped by engaging themselves in social media, watching television/movies and participating in other online skill development programmes. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence SERO of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression MESHD among university students with poor family functioning, inability to afford three meals/day, living in a state with a high incidence of COVID-19 and having a chronic illness, contributing to depression MESHD. Measures need to be taken to support undergraduate students and their families to prevent the negative consequences of poor mental health. Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; undergraduate students; anxiety HP anxiety MESHD; depression MESHD; psychological state; family-functioning, coping.

    The mental health impact of the covid-19 pandemic onhealthcare workers, and interventions to help them: a rapid systematic review

    Authors: Ashley Elizabeth Muller; Elisabet Vivianne Hafstad; Jan Peter William Himmels; Geir Smedslund; Signe Flottorp; Synne Stensland; Stijn Stroobants; Stijn Van de Velde; Gunn Elisabeth Vist

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.03.20145607 Date: 2020-07-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The covid-19 pandemic has heavily burdened, and in some cases overwhelmed, healthcare systems throughout the world. Healthcare workers are not only at heightened risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD, but also of adverse mental health outcomes. Identification of organizational, collegial and individual risk and resilience factors impacting the mental health of healthcare workers are needed to inform preparedness planning and sustainable response. Methods: We performed a rapid systematic review to identify, assess and summarize available research on the mental health impact of the covid-19 pandemic on healthcare workers. On 11 May 2020, we utilized the Norwegian Institute of Public Health's Live map of covid-19 evidence, the visualization of a database of 20,738 screened studies, to identify studies for inclusion. We included studies reporting on any type of mental health outcome in any type of healthcare workers during the pandemic. We described interventions reported by the studies, and narratively summarized mental health-related outcomes, as study heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. We assessed study quality using design-specific instruments. Results: We included 59 studies, reporting on a total of 54,707 healthcare workers. The prevalence SERO of general psychological distress across the studies ranged from 7-97% (median 37%), anxiety HP anxiety MESHD 9-90% (median 24%), depression MESHD 5-51% (median 21%), and sleeping problems 34-65% (median 37%). Seven studies reported on implementing mental health interventions, and most focused on individual symptom reduction, but none reported on effects of the interventions. In most studies, healthcare workers reported low interest in and use of professional help, and greater reliance on social support and contact with family and friends TRANS. Exposure to covid-19 was the most commonly reported correlate of mental health problems, followed by female TRANS gender TRANS, and worry about infection MESHD or about infecting others. Social support correlated with less mental health problems. Discussion: Healthcare workers in a variety of fields, positions, and exposure risks are reporting anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, depression MESHD, sleep problems, and distress during the covid-19 pandemic, but most studies do not report comparative data on mental health symptoms. before the pandemic. There seems to be a mismatch between risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes among healthcare workers in the current pandemic and their needs and preferences, and the individual psychopathology focus of current interventions. Efforts to help healthcare workers sustain healthy relationships to colleagues, family and friends TRANS over time may be paramount to safeguard what is already an important source of support during the prolonged crisis. Expanding interventions' focus to incorporate organizational, collegial and family factors to support healthcare workers responding to the pandemic could improve acceptability and efficacy of interventions. Other: The protocol for this review is available online. No funding was received.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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