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    Authors: NURUL AZMAWATI MOHAMED; NIZAM BAHAROM; WAN SHAHIDA WAN SULAIMAN; ZETTI ZAINOL RASHID; KON KEN WONG; UMI KALSOM ALI; SITI NORLIA OTHMAN; MUTTAQILLAH NAJIHAN ABD SAMAD; NAJMA KORI; PETRICK PERIYASAMY; NOR AZIZAN ZAKARIA; AGNI NHIRMAL KUMAR SUGUMAR; NUR EZZATY MOHAMMAD KAZMIN; XIONG KHEE CHEONG; SITI MARIYAM SANIMAN; ILINA ISAHAK; Kevin Wing; Peter Inglesby; Rohini Mathur; Henry Drysdale; Angel YS Wong; Helen I McDonald; Jonathan Cockburn; Harriet Forbes; John Parry; Frank Hester; Sam Harper; Liam Smeeth; Ian J Douglas; William G Dixon; Stephen JW Evans; Laurie Tomlinson; Ben Goldacre; Sacha Gnjatic; Noam Harpaz; Silvio Danese; Adeeb Rahman; Nikhil A Kumta; Alessio Aghemo; Francesca Petralia; Harm van Bakel; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Saurabh Mehandru

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20180448 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Gargling had been reported to have significant roles in the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections HP respiratory tract infections MESHD. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of regular gargling to eliminate SARS-CoV-2 in the oropharynx and nasopharynx. Methodology: This pilot, open labeled, randomized, parallel study compared the effect of 30 seconds, 3 times/day gargling using 1% povidone-iodine (PVP-I), essential oils and tap water on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance among COVID-19 patients in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Progress was monitored by day 4,6 and 12 PCR (Ct value), gargling and symptoms diary as well as clinical observations. Results: Five confirmed Stage 1 COVID-19 patients were recruited for each arm. The age TRANS range was from 22 to 56 years old. The majority were males TRANS. Two respondents had co-morbidities, which were asthma HP asthma MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD. Viral clearance was achieved at day 6 in 100%, 80%, 20% and 0% for 1% PVP-I, essential oils, tap water and control group respectively. Analysis of 1% PVP-I group versus control group showed significant p-value for comparison of PCR results on Day 4, Day 6 and Day 12. Conclusions: This preliminary study showed that gargling with 1% PVP-I and essential oils show great potential to be part of the treatment and management of Stage 1 COVID-19. Larger studies are required to ascertain the benefit of gargling for different stages of COVID-19 patients. This study was registered in clinicaltrial.gov (NCT04410159).

    Dynamic characteristics of Influenza A epidemic in children TRANS during the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak

    Authors: Xia Wang; Pin Liu; Shuwen Feng; Junwen Zhen; Yan Wu; Zhenyu Pan; Dongchi Zhao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-60623/v1 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: At the beginning of the outbreak of coronavirus infected disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), children TRANS in Wuhan were experiencing an extremely strong influenza A epidemic. This study is aimed to explore the epidemic dynamics characteristics of children TRANS with influenza A and its correlation with the early stage spread of COVID-19 in Wuhan.Methods: This is a retrospective single-center clinical study.From November 28, 2019 to January 23, 2020, a total of 7904 outpatient children TRANS with signs of respiratory tract infection HP respiratory tract infection MESHD were admitted, and a total of 10102 throat swabs were collected. All the detection were performed to the throat swabs of patients, which include the epidemic statues, detection rate, duration of Flu A and B persistence in airway, and the positive rate of COVID-19 nucleic acid.Results: A total of 10102 throat swabs were obtained from children TRANS with respiratory symptoms, including 5450 (53.9%) male TRANS and 4652 (46.1%) female TRANS. 2899 (28.7%) cases were positive for Influenza A. There were 617 (6.1% ) cases of Influenza B . In group of Influenza A , the lowest positive rate was in the infants less than 1 year old (18.4%), and the highest in the group 12 year old (32.1%). During the period of high prevalence SERO of influenza A, there was a low level of infection of influenza B. The detection rate of each age group TRANS fluctuated from 3% to 10%. 73.7% of children TRANS's influenza A and B virus turned negative within 7 days, and very few children TRANS's respiratory influenza virus can last even more than 1 month. Among 35 throat swabs detected with qRT-PCR, 11 (31.4%) were positive for Flu A, and all children TRANS were negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2).Conclusions: In the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, children TRANS in Wuhan were experiencing a high intensity of influenza A pandemic, and there was no the mixed infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD with influenza A. COVID-19 spread caught up the tail of influenza A pandemic. 

    COVID-19 and Guillain-Barre Syndrome - a Case report

    Authors: Amira Sidig; Khabab Abbasher; Mutaz F. Digna; Mohamed Elsayed; Hussien Abbasher; Mohammed Abbasher; Abbasher Hussien

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48327/v1 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Coronaviruses are a family of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and avians. Guillain-Barre syndrome MESHD is a rare disorder in which the body's immune system attacks peripheral nerves.The case:A 65 years old Sudanese male TRANS with no diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD or hypertension HP hypertension MESHD present to the clinic; On examination, he has upper and lower limb weakness MESHD ( quadriplegia MESHD). The condition was preceded by upper respiratory tract infection HP respiratory tract infection MESHD. Chest X-ray showed features of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD Chest CT scan showed multiple bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidation typical of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Brain MRI was normal. The COVID-19 nasal swab test was positive. Nerve conduction study showed evidence of polyradiculopathies MESHD with dominant demyelination MESHD supporting the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome MESHD. The patients died after seven days; because of progressive respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD.

    Clinical course and characteristics of Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 in Xiaoshan, Hangzhou: A Retrospective study

    Authors: Yongtao Zheng; Hexiang Jia; Fuliang Wang; Xiangjue Sun; Dongbo Yang; Miaojian Xu; Diwei Xu; Chao Lu; Bo Ge; Shenglan Chen; Biao Li; Ting Chen; Zhibo Li; Yuanmei Feng; Fenhua Lai

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-22080/v1 Date: 2020-04-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern ( Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019) on January 30th, this study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 in Xiaoshan, Hangzhou, and evaluate scientific basis for disease control and prevention. Methods: A total of 30 patients had been admitted to hospital from Jan 22 to Feb 22, 2020, all of them were laboratory confirmed SARS-Cov-2. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory data were collected from Hospital information system and Epidemiological investigation reports. All data was performed by descriptive analysis, Chi-square test or non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate. Two sided p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: 30 patients were enrolled, the median age TRANS was 44.5 years (IQR 33.8-52.3) and 17 (56.7%) patients were female TRANS, 14 (46.7%) patients were native and had no exposure to Hubei Province. At the time of study submission, only one patient had not been discharged and no patients died during the study. The median hospital stay was 16.0 days (IQR 12.5-20.5) and the median course of disease was 20.5 days (IQR 17.0-23.3). The most common symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD (66.7%), dry cough MESHD cough HP (26.7%), and pharyngalgia (23.3%) on first admission. Most patients were generally illness or more mild, but 10 (33.3%) patients received oxygen therapy and 14 (46.7%) patients received hormone therapy during their hospitalization. Almost half of patients showed mild lymphocytopenia MESHD and 40% patients had elevated concentrations of CRP in the early stages of COVID-19.Conclusions: Among the 30 patients were confirmed with SARA-Cov-2 infection MESHD in Xiaoshan, Hangzhou, most of them had clinical presentation of respiratory tract infection HP respiratory tract infection MESHD, but the median course of disease was more than 2 weeks. Further systematic prospective studies about COVID-19 should be urgently needed.

    Coincidence of COVID-19 epidemic and olfactory dysfunction MESHD outbreak

    Authors: Seyed Hamid Reza Bagheri; Ali Mohammad Asghari; Mohammad Farhadi; Ahmad Reza Shamshiri; Ali Kabir; Seyed Kamran Kamrava; Maryam Jalessi; Alireza Mohebbi; Rafieh Alizadeh; Ali Asghar Honarmand; Babak Ghalehbaghi; Alireza Salimi

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.23.20041889 Date: 2020-03-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background Recent surge of olfactory dysfunction MESHD in patients who were referred to ENT clinics and concurrent COVID-19epidemic in Iran motivated us to evaluate anosmic/hyposmic patients to find any relation between these two events. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with an online checklist on voluntary cases in all provinces of Iran between the 12th and 17th March, 2020. Cases was defined as self-reported anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/ hyposmia HP in responders fewer than 4 weeks later (from start the of COVID-19 epidemic in Iran). Variables consist of clinical presentations, related past medical history, family history of recent respiratory tract infection HP respiratory tract infection MESHD and hospitalization. Results In this study 10069 participants aged TRANS 32.5 +/- 8.6 (7-78) years, 71.13% female TRANS and 81.68% non-smoker completed online checklist. They reported 10.55% a history of a trip out of home town and 1.1% hospitalization due to respiratory problems recently. From family members TRANS 12.17% had a history of severe respiratory disease MESHD in recent days and 48.23% had anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/ hyposmia HP. Correlation between the number of olfactory disorder MESHD and reported COVID-19 patients in all 31 provinces till 16th March 2020 was highly significant (Spearman correlation coefficient=0.87, p-Value<0.001). The onset of anosmia HP anosmia MESHD was sudden in 76.24% and till the time of filling the questionnaire in 60.90% of patients decreased sense of smell was constant. Also 83.38 of this patients had decreased taste sensation HP decreased taste sensation MESHD in association with anosmia HP anosmia MESHD. Conclusions It seems that we have a surge in outbreak of olfactory dysfunction MESHD happened in Iran during the COVID-19 epidemic. The exact mechanism of anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/ hyposmia HP in COVID-19 patients needs further investigations.

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