Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Cough (205)

Fever (183)

Fatigue (63)

Pneumonia (60)

Hypertension (52)


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 205
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    On the Analysis of Mortality Risk Factors for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: a Data-driven Study Using the Major Brazilian Database

    Authors: Fernanda Sumika Hojo Souza; Natália Satchiko Hojo-Souza; Ben Dêivide de Oliveira Batista; Cristiano Maciel da Silva; Daniel Ludovico Guidoni; Arjumand Siddiqi; Nasser Ali Asad Al-Ansari; Zaina Al Kanaani; Abdullatif Al Khal; Einas Al Kuwari; Ahmed Al-Mohammed; Naema Hassan Abdulla Al Molawi; Huda Mohamad Al Naomi; Adeel A Butt; Peter Coyle; Reham Awni El Kahlout; Imtiaz Gillani; Anvar Hassan Kaleeckal; Naseer Ahmad Masoodi; Anil George Thomas; Hanaa Nafady Hego; Ali Nizar Latif; Riyazuddin Mohammad Shaik; Nourah B M Younes; Hanan F. Abdul Rahim; Hadi M. Yassine; Mohamed G. Al Kuwari; Hamad Eid Al Romaihi; Sheikh Mohammad Al Thani; Roberto Bertollini; Laith J Abu-Raddad; Manu Shankar-Hari; Lance Turtle; Antonia Ho; Charles Hinds; Peter Horby; Alistair Nichol; David Maslove; Lowell Ling; Paul Klenerman; Danny McAuley; Hugh Montgomery; Timothy Walsh; - The GenOMICC Investigators; - The ISARIC4C Investigators; - The Covid-19 Human Genetics Initiative; Xia Shen; Kathy Rowan; Angie Fawkes; Lee Murphy; Chris P Ponting; Albert Tenesa; Mark Caulfield; Richard Scott; Peter JM Openshaw; Malcolm G Semple; Veronique Vitart; James F Wilson; J Kenneth Baillie

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.24.20200766 Date: 2020-09-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Brazil became the epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic in a brief period of a few months after the first officially registered case. The knowledge of the epidemiological/clinical profile and the risk factors of Brazilian COVID-19 patients can assist in the decision making of physicians in the implementation of early and most appropriate measures for poor prognosis patients. However, these reports are missing. Here we present a comprehensive study that addresses this demand. Methods: This data-driven study was based on the Brazilian Ministry of Health Database (SIVEP-Gripe, 2020) regarding notified cases of hospitalized COVID-19 patients during the period from February 26 to August 10, 2020. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, comorbidities and other additional information of patients were analyzed. Results: The hospitalization rate was higher for male TRANS gender TRANS (56.56%) and for older age TRANS patients of both sexes. Overall, the mortality rate was quite high (41.28%) among hospitalized patients, especially those over 60 years of age TRANS. Most prevalent symptoms were cough HP cough MESHD, dyspnoea MESHD, fever HP fever MESHD, low oxygen saturation and respiratory distress HP. Heart disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, neurological disease MESHD, and pneumopathy were the most prevalent comorbidities. A high prevalence SERO of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with heart disease MESHD (65.7%) and diabetes MESHD (53.55%) and with a high mortality rate of around 50% was observed. The ICU admission rate was 39.37% and of these 62.4% died. 24.4% of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), with high mortality among them (82.98%). The main mortality risk predictors were older age TRANS and IMV requirement. In addition, socioeconomic conditions have been shown to significantly influence the disease outcome, regardless of age TRANS and comorbidities. Conclusion: Our study provides a comprehensive overview of the hospitalized Brazilian COVID-19 patients profile and the mortality risk factors. The analysis also evidenced that the disease outcome is influenced by multiple factors, as unequally affects different segments of population.


    Authors: Ayan Saha; Mohammad Moinul Ahsan; Tarek-Ul Quader; Mohammad Umer Sharif Shohan; Sabekun Naher; Preya Dutta; Al-Shahriar Akash; H M Hamidullah Mehedi; A S M Arman Ullah Chowdhury; Hasanul Karim; Tazrina Rahman; Ayesha Parvin; Dilcia Sambrano; Yamitzel Zaldivar; Danilo Franco; Sandra Lopez Verges; Dexi Zhang; Fanjing Fan; Baojun Wang; Xavier Saez Llorens; Rodrigo DeAntonio; Ivonne Torres-Atencio; Eduardo Ortega-Barria; Rao Kosagisharaf; Ricardo Lleonart; Li Chong; Amador Goodridge; - COVID-19 SEROLOGY COLLABORATOR GROUP

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.24.20201285 Date: 2020-09-25 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: This study aimed to analyse the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of critical COVID-19 cases and investigate risk factors including comorbidities and age TRANS in relation with the clinical aftermath of COVID-19 in critical cases in Bangladesh. Methods: In this retrospective study, epidemiological and clinical characteristics, complications, laboratory results, and clinical management of the patients were studied from data obtained from 168 individuals diagnosed with an advanced prognosis of COVID-19 admitted in two hospitals in Bangladesh. Results: Individuals in the study sample contracted COVID-19 through community transmission TRANS. 56.5% (n = 95) cases died in intensive care units (ICU) during the study period. The median age TRANS was 56 years and 79.2% (n=134) were male TRANS. Typical clinical manifestation included Acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) related complications (79.2%), fever HP fever MESHD (54.2%) and cough HP (25.6%) while diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (52.4%), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (41.1%) and heart diseases MESHD (16.7%) were the conventional comorbidities. Clinical outcomes were detrimental due to comorbidities rather than age TRANS and comorbid individuals over 50 were at more risk. In the sample, oxygen saturation was low (< 95% SpO2) in 135 patients (80.4%) and 158 (93.4%) patients received supplemental oxygen. Identical biochemical parameters were found in both deceased and surviving cases. Administration of antiviral drug Remdesivir and the glucocorticoid, Dexamethasone increased the proportion of surviving patients slightly. Conclusions: Susceptibility to developing critical illness MESHD due to COVID-19 was found more in comorbid males TRANS. These atypical patients require more clinical attention from the prospect of controlling mortality rate in Bangladesh.

    The COUGHVID crowdsourcing dataset: A corpus for the study of large-scale cough HP analysis algorithms

    Authors: Lara Orlandic; Tomas Teijeiro; David Atienza

    id:2009.11644v1 Date: 2020-09-24 Source: arXiv

    Cough HP audio signal classification has been successfully used to diagnose a variety of respiratory conditions, and there has been significant interest in leveraging Machine Learning (ML) to provide widespread COVID-19 screening. However, there is currently no validated database of cough HP sounds with which to train such ML models. The COUGHVID dataset provides over 20,000 crowdsourced cough HP recordings representing a wide range of subject ages TRANS, genders TRANS, geographic locations, and COVID-19 statuses. First, we filtered the dataset using our open-sourced cough HP detection algorithm. Second, experienced pulmonologists labeled more than 2,000 recordings to diagnose medical abnormalities present in the coughs HP, thereby contributing one of the largest expert-labeled cough HP datasets in existence that can be used for a plethora HP of cough HP audio classification tasks. Finally, we ensured that coughs HP labeled as symptomatic and COVID-19 originate from countries with high infection rates, and that their expert labels are consistent. As a result, the COUGHVID dataset contributes a wealth of cough HP recordings for training ML models to address the world's most urgent health crises.


    Authors: Ngozi Mirabel Otuonye; Testimony J. Olumade; Mercy Mayowa Ojetunde; Susan Abba Holdbrooke; Joy Boluwatife Ayoola; Itse Yusuf Nyam; Bamidele Iwalokun; Chika Onwuamah; Mabel Uwandu; Babatunde Lawal Salako; Akinola Abayomi; Akin Osibogun; Abimbola Bowale; Bodunrin Osikomaiya; Babafemi Thomas; Bamidele Mutiu; Nkiruka Nnonyelum Odunukwe

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.15.20195412 Date: 2020-09-24 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving global situation, infecting over 25 million people and causing more than 850,000 deaths. Several signs and symptoms have been described to be characteristic of the disease. However, there is a dearth of report on the description of the clinical characteristics of the disease in patients from Nigeria. This study was designed to provide a description of the clinical and demographic characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Nigeria. Methods: This study is a case series that includes patients that are evaluated between June and August 30, 2020, and diagnosed with COVID-19. Patient health records were reviewed and evaluated to describe the clinical characteristics on presentation. Results: A total of 154 COVID-19 patients were included in this study, with a mean age TRANS (S.D.) of 46.16 (13.701). Most of the patients survived (mortality rate of 2.6%), and were symptomatic (89.6%). There were more males TRANS (74.7%) than females TRANS, and the most common symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD, breathing difficulty, dry cough and malaise MESHD cough HP and malaise. Co-morbidities were also present in almost half of the study participants (49.4%). Conclusion: This study presents the most extensive description, to date, on the clinical and demographic characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Nigeria. Males TRANS are more likely than females TRANS to be infected with COVID-19 and the most occurring symptoms are fever HP fever MESHD, breathing difficulty, malaise, dry cough MESHD cough HP and chest pain HP chest pain MESHD. Old age TRANS and the presence of co-morbidities may also be associated with developing the severe disease. Key words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Signs, Symptoms, Nigeria.

    Dynamic Change of COVID-19 Seroprevalence SERO among Asymptomatic TRANS Population in Tokyo during the Second Wave

    Authors: Sawako Hibino; Kazutaka Hayashida; Andrew C Ahn; Yasutaka Hayashida; Julia Bielicki; Tim Roloff; Roland Bingisser; Christian Nickel; Nina Khanna; Sarah Tschudin; Andreas Widmer; Katharina Rentsch; Hans Pargger; Martin Siegemund; Daiana Stolz; Michael Tamm; Stefano Bassetti; Michael Osthoff; Manuel Battegay; Adrian Egli; Hans H Hirsch; Christine Goffinet; Florian Kurth; Martin Witzenrath; Maria Theresa Völker; Sarah Dorothea Müller; Uwe Gerd Liebert; Naveed Ishaque; Lars Kaderali; Leif Erik Sander; Sven Laudi; Christian Drosten; Roland Eils; Christian Conrad; Ulf Landmesser; Irina Lehmann

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.21.20198796 Date: 2020-09-23 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Fatality rates related to COVID-19 in Japan have been low compared to Western Countries and have decreased despite the absence of lockdown. Serological tests SERO monitored across the course of the second wave can provide insights into the population-level prevalence SERO and dynamic patterns of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Objective: To assess changes in COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO among asymptomatic TRANS employees working in Tokyo during the second wave. Design: We conducted an observational cohort study. Healthy volunteers working for a Japanese company in Tokyo were enrolled from disparate locations to determine seropositivity against COVID19 from May 26 to August 25, 2020. COVID-19 IgM and IgG antibodies SERO were determined by a rapid COVID19 IgM/IgG test kit using fingertip blood SERO. Across the company, tests were performed and acquired weekly. For each participant, serology tests were offered twice, separated by approximately a month, to provide self-reference of test results and to assess for seroconversion and seroreversion. Setting: Workplace setting within a large company. Participants: Healthy volunteers from 1877 employees of a large Japanese company were recruited to the study from 11 disparate locations across Tokyo. Participants having fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, or shortness of breath MESHD at the time of testing were excluded. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Seropositivity rate (SPR) was calculated by pooled data from each two-weeks window across the cohort. Either IgM or IgG positivity was defined as seropositive. Changes in immunological status against SARS-CoV-2 were determined by comparing results between two tests obtained from the same individual. Results: Six hundred fifteen healthy volunteers (mean + SD 40.8 + 10.0; range 19-69; 45.7 % female TRANS) received at least one test. Seroprevalence SERO increased from 5.8 % to 46.8 % over the course of the summer. The most dramatic increase in SPR occurred in late June and early July, paralleling the rise in daily confirmed cases TRANS within Tokyo, which peaked on August 4. Out of the 350 individuals (mean + SD 42.5 + 10.0; range 19-69; 46.0 % female TRANS) who completed both offered tests, 21.4 % of those individuals who tested seronegative became seropositive and seroreversion was found in 12.2 % of initially seropositive participants. 81.1% of IgM positive cases at first testing became IgM negative in approximately one month. Conclusions and Relevance: COVID-19 infection MESHD may have spread widely across the general population of Tokyo despite the very low fatality rate. Given the temporal correlation between the rise in seropositivity and the decrease in reported COVID-19 cases that occurred without a shut-down, herd immunity may be implicated. Sequential testing for serological SERO response against COVID-19 is useful for understanding the dynamics of COVID-19 infection at the population-level.

    Features of patients that died for COVID-19 in a Hospital in the south of Mexico: A observational cohort study

    Authors: Jesus Arturo Ruiz-Quinonez Sr.; Crystell Guzman-Priego Sr.; German Alberto Nolasco-Rosales Sr.; Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate; Oscar Israel Flores-Barrientos; Victor Narvaez-Osorio; Guadalupe del Carmen Baeza-Flores; Thelma Beatriz Gonzalez-Castro; Carlos Ramon Lopez-Brito; Carlos Alberto Denis-Garcia; Agustin Perez-Garcia; Isela Esther Juarez-Rojop; Zhen Cui; Qing Ye; Geng Chen; Kui-Kui Lu; Yin Chen; Yu-Tao Chen; Hong-Xing Pan; Bao-Li Zhu; Cheng-Feng Qin; Xiangxi Wang; Feng-Cai Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.21.20199117 Date: 2020-09-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Due to the wide spread of SARS-CoV2 around the world, the risk of death MESHD in individuals with metabolic comorbidities has dangerously increased. Mexico has a high number of infected individuals and deaths by COVID-19, as well as an important burden of metabolic diseases MESHD. However, reports about features of Mexican individuals with COVID-19 are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate demographic features, clinical characteristics, and the pharmacological treatment of individuals who died by COVID-19 in the south of Mexico. Methods: We performed an observational study including 185 deceased individuals with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Data were retrieved from medical records. Categorical data was expressed as proportions (%) and numerical data were expressed as mean, standard deviation. Comorbidities and overlapping symptoms where plotted as Venn diagrams. Drug clusters were plotted as dendrograms. Results: The mean age TRANS was 59.53 years. There was a male TRANS predominance (60.1%). The mean hospital stay was 4.75 days. The most frequent symptoms were dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD (88.77%), fever HP fever MESHD (71.42%) and dry cough MESHD cough HP (64.28%). Present comorbidities were diabetes MESHD (60.63%), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (59.57%) and obesity HP obesity MESHD (43.61%). The main drugs used were azithromycin (60.6%), hydroxychloroquine (53.0%) and oseltamivir (27.3%). Conclusions: Mexican individuals who died of COVID-19 had shorter hospital stays, higher frequency of shortness of breath MESHD, and higher prevalence SERO of diabetes MESHD compared with individuals from other countries. Also, there was a high frequency of off-label use of drugs for their treatment.

    Ruling In and Ruling Out COVID-19: Computing SARS-CoV-2 Infection Risk TRANS Infection Risk TRANS From Symptoms, Imaging and Test Data.

    Authors: Chistopher D'Ambrosia; Henrik Christensen; Eliah Aronoff-Spencer

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.18.20197582 Date: 2020-09-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Assigning meaningful probabilities of SARS CoV2 infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS presents a diagnostic challenge across the continuum of care. Methods: We integrated patient symptom and test data using machine learning and Bayesian inference to quantify individual patient risk of SARS CoV 2 infection MESHD. We trained models with 100,000 simulated patient profiles based on thirteen symptoms, estimated local prevalence SERO, imaging, and molecular diagnostic performance SERO from published reports. We tested these models with consecutive patients who presented with a COVID 19 compatible illness at the University of California San Diego Medical Center over 14 days starting in March 2020. Results: We included 55 consecutive patients with fever HP fever MESHD (78%) or cough HP cough MESHD (77%) presenting for ambulatory (n=11) or hospital care (n=44). 51% (n=28) were female TRANS, 49% were age TRANS <60. Common comorbidities included diabetes MESHD (22%), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (27%), cancer MESHD (16%) and cardiovascular disease MESHD (13%). 69% of these (n=38) were RT-PCR confirmed positive for SARS CoV2 infection, 11 had repeated negative nucleic acid testing and an alternate diagnosis. Bayesian inference network, distance metric learning, and ensemble models discriminated between patients with SARS CoV2 infection MESHD and alternate diagnoses with sensitivities SERO of 81.6 to 84.2%, specificities of 58.8 to 70.6%, and accuracies of 61.4 to 71.8%. After integrating imaging and laboratory test statistics with the predictions of the Bayesian inference network, changes in diagnostic uncertainty at each step in the simulated clinical evaluation process were highly sensitive to location, symptom, and diagnostic test choices. Conclusions: Decision support models that incorporate symptoms and available test results can help providers diagnose SARS CoV2 infection MESHD in real world settings.

    Clinical-epidemiological and treatment characteristics of children TRANS with COVID-19 in a tertiary referral center in Peru

    Authors: Christian Chiara-Chilet; Medalit Luna-Vilchez; Julio Maquera-Afaray; Blanca Salazar-Mesones; Diana Portillo-Alvarez; Ramiro Priale-Miranda; Franklin Mendoza-Torres; Aldo Munayco-Perez; Yeny Baca-Cama; Mitsi Santiago-Abad; Jose W Lopez; - Pediatric COVID-19 Working Group INSN SB; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Peter Hau; Christopher Bohr; Ralph Burkhardt; Andre Gessner; Bernd Salzberger; Frank Hanses; Florian Hitzenbichler; Daniel Heudobler; Florian Lueke; Tobias Pukrop; Wolfgang Herr; Daniel Wolff; Hendrik Poeck; Christoph Brochhausen; Petra Hoffmann; Michael Rehli; Marina Kreutz; Kathrin Renner

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.18.20186866 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has a great impact on children TRANS's health. This study describes the clinical, epidemiological and treatment characteristics of children TRANS presenting COVID-19 at the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Nino San Borja (INSN-SB) Methods This was a retrospective study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from March to July 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment information were collected. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to determine differences between patients in general wards and the intensive care unit (ICU). Results We included 91 patients, 33 being females TRANS (36.3%). The most affected age group TRANS was children TRANS > 2 years of age TRANS (63 cases) with a median age TRANS of 6 years (IQR 3-10), and 61.5% were from Lima. The previous contact was determined in 30.8% of cases. A positive SARS CoV-2 PCR result was obtained in 50.6%. The presence of comorbidity was 53.8%. The most frequent symptoms were: fever HP (39.6%), general malaise (23.1%), cough HP (19.8%), and respiratory distress HP (14.3%). The presence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome MESHD in children TRANS (MIS-C) was confirmed in 6 patients. Antibiotics were administered in 76.9%. The most frequent radiological pattern was bilateral interstitial infiltrates (57.7%). Mortality was higher in patients in the ICU than in the hospitalization ward (27.3% vs. 4.3%, respectively; p = 0.02) Conclusions COVID-19 in children TRANS presents mild and moderate clinical manifestations. The presence of comorbidity is an important factor for hospitalization, and mortality is high upon admission to critical care units.

    Analysis of clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and therapy of 134 cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective analysis.

    Authors: Rui Zhang; Jie Zhang; Jiebing Chen

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:As everyone knows, the pandemic COVID-19 is spreading in the whole world. The number of laboratory- confirmed cases TRANS reached 28,637,211 and that of the death cases was 917,404 in the world as of September 13th, 2020. We sought to analyse the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and therapy of some cases with COVID-19.Methods: In this retrospective study, we extracted the data on 134 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Wuhan Xinzhou District People's Hospital from January 16th to April 24th , 2020. Cases were confirmed TRANS by real-time RT-PCR and abnormal radiologic findings. Outcomes were followed up until May 1th , 2020. Results: Co-infection MESHD infection and severe HP underlying diseases made it easier for a case with COVID-19 to develop to be a severe one or reach an outcome of death MESHD. Age TRANS above 60 years old, male TRANS and symptoms such as fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD, headaches HP headaches MESHD and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD were related to severe COVID-19 and an outcome of death MESHD. In addition, higher temperature, blood SERO leukocyte count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, D-dimer level, alanine aminotransferase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity,α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and creatine kinase activity were also related to severe COVID-19 and an outcome of death MESHD, and so was lower lymphocyte count. Administration of gamma globulin seemed helpful for reducing the mortality of patients with severe COVID-19, however the P value was greater than 0.05 (P=0.180), which mean under the same condition, studies of larger samples are needed in the future.                 Conclusion: Multiple factors were related to severe COVID-19 and an outcome of death MESHD.  Administration of gamma globulin seemed helpful for reducing the mortality of severe cases. More related studies are needed in the future.

    Predicting clinical outcome with phenotypic clusters in COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD: 2 an analysis of 12,066 hospitalized patients from the Spanish registry SEMI-3 COVID-19.

    Authors: Manuel Rubio-Rivas; Xavier Corbella; Jose Maria Mora-Lujan; Jose Loureiro Amigo; Almudena Lopez Sampalo; Carmen Yera Bergua; Pedro Jesus Esteve Atienzar; Luis Felipe Diez Garcia; Ruth Gonzalez Ferrer; Susana Plaza Canteli; Antia Perez Pineiro; Begona Cortes Rodriguez; Leyre Jorquer Vidal; Ignacio Perez Catalan; Marta Leon Tellez; Jose Angel Martin Oterino; Maria Candelaria Martin Gonzalez; Jose Luis Serrano Carrillo de Albornoz; Eva Garcia Sardon; Jose Nicolas Alcala Pedrajas; Anabel Martin Urda Diez Canseco; Maria Jose Esteban Giner; Pablo Telleria Gomez; Ricardo Gomez Huelgas; Jose Manuel Ramos Rincon; Nina la Cour Freiesleben; Henriette Svarre Nielsen

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.14.20193995 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: medRxiv

    (1) Background: This study aims to identify different clinical phenotypes in COVID-19 88 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD using cluster analysis and to assess the prognostic impact among identified clusters in 89 such patients. (2) Methods: Cluster analysis including 11 phenotypic variables was performed in a 90 large cohort of 12,066 COVID-19 patients, collected and followed-up from March 1, to July 31, 2020, 91 from the nationwide Spanish SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. (3) Results: Of the total of 12,066 patients 92 included in the study, most were males TRANS (7,052, 58.5%) and Caucasian (10,635, 89.5%), with a mean 93 age TRANS at diagnosis of 67 years (SD 16). The main pre-admission comorbidities were arterial 94 hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (6,030, 50%), hyperlipidemia HP hyperlipidemia MESHD (4,741, 39.4%) and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (2,309, 19.2%). The 95 average number of days from COVID-19 symptom onset TRANS to hospital admission was 6.7 days (SD 7). 96 The triad of fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD was present almost uniformly in all 4 clinical phenotypes 97 identified by clustering. Cluster C1 (8,737 patients, 72.4%) was the largest, and comprised patients 98 with the triad alone. Cluster C2 (1,196 patients, 9.9%) also presented with ageusia and anosmia MESHD anosmia HP; 99 cluster C3 (880 patients, 7.3%) also had arthromyalgia, headache HP headache MESHD, and sore throat; and cluster C4 100 (1,253 patients, 10.4%) also manifested with diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, vomiting HP vomiting MESHD, and abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD. Compared to 101 each other, cluster C1 presented the highest in-hospital mortality (24.1% vs. 4.3% vs. 14.7% vs. 102 18.6%; p<0.001). The multivariate study identified phenotypic clusters as an independent factor for 103 in-hospital death. (4) Conclusion: The present study identified 4 phenotypic clusters in patients with 104 COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, which predicted the in-hospital prognosis of clinical outcomes.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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