Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (8)

Pneumonia (6)

Cough (5)

Fatigue (3)

Lymphopenia (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    COVID-19 pandemic in Djibouti: epidemiology and the response strategy followed to contain the virus during the first two months, 17 March to 16 May 2020

    Authors: Mohamed Elhakim; Saleh Banoita Tourab; Ahmed Zouiten

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167692 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: First cases of COVID-19 were reported from Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and it progressed rapidly. On 30 January, WHO declared the new disease as a PHEIC, then as a Pandemic on 11 March. By mid-March, the virus spread widely; Djibouti was not spared and was hit by the pandemic with the first case detected on 17 March. Djibouti worked with WHO and other partners to develop a preparedness and response plan, and implemented a series of intervention measures. MoH together with its civilian and military partners, closely followed WHO recommended strategy based on four pillars: testing, isolating, early case management, and contact tracing TRANS. From 17 March to 16 May, Djibouti performed the highest per capita tests in Africa and isolated, treated and traced the contacts TRANS of each positive case, which allowed for a rapid control of the epidemic. Methods: COVID-19 data included in this study was collected through MoH Djibouti during the period from 17 March to 16 May 2020. Results: A total of 1,401 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 were included in the study with 4 related deaths (CFR: 0.3%) and an attack rate TRANS of 0.15%. Males TRANS represented (68.4%) of the cases, with the age group TRANS 31-45 years old (34.2%) as the most affected. Djibouti conducted 17,532 tests, and was considered as a champion for COVID-19 testing in Africa with 18.2 tests per 1000 habitant. All positive cases were isolated, treated and had their contacts traced TRANS, which led to early and proactive diagnosis of cases and in turn yielded up to 95-98% asymptomatic TRANS cases. Recoveries reached 69% of the infected cases with R0 TRANS (0.91). The virus was detected in 4 regions in the country, with the highest percentage in the capital (83%). Conclusion: Djibouti responded to COVID-19 pandemic following an efficient and effective strategy, using a strong collaboration between civilian and military health assets that increased the response capacities of the country. Partnership, coordination, solidarity, proactivity and commitment were the pillars to confront COVID-19 pandemic.

    Joint CBC-ICT Interpretation for the pre-surgical screening of COVID 19 asymptomatic TRANS cases: A cross-sectional study

    Authors: Tanzeel Imran; Humera Altaf Naz; Hamza Khan; Ali Haider Bangash; Laraib Bakhtiar Khan; Haroon Khan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20138354 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: medRxiv

    Background On 26th, February 2020, first cases of COVID 19 were confirmed in Pakistan. Since then, surgeries were halted in a bid to prevent transmission TRANS. However, since such a long halt is infeasible, a general protocol of screening the carriers TRANS, especially asymptomatic TRANS carries, is a dire need of time. The objective of our study is to propose an economically feasible protocol of COVID 19 screening. Simple but effective screening strategies can help to restore the workings of hospital surgical departments. Methods We analyzed the clinical data of patients turning up for elective surgeries at the Rawal General Hospital (RGH), Islamabad from the 24th of March to the 15th of May, 2020. Asymptomatic TRANS patients with negative COVID 19 contact and travel TRANS histories were screened with COVID 19 Immunochromatography (ICT) IgM / IgG Ab Test. Complete blood SERO count (CBC) was done and interpreted in conjunction with the ICT results. Results 39 patients with a mean age TRANS of 49 years were studied. The result of ICT for COVID-19 was positive in 9 cases (23%). The entire positive ICT patients population expressed significantly lower lymphocyte count (p<0.01); 8 patients had high monocyte count (p<0.05) whereas only 4 patients had a combined high neutrophil and monocyte count (P<0.05). All of these four patients with high neutrophil count were females TRANS. The combined interpretation of CBC and ICT IgM / IgG Ab Test had a high accuracy in diagnosing asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 carriers TRANS that were later confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Conclusion We propose that joint CBC-ICT interpretation should be adopted on a large scale to help in the diagnoses of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS as both tests are simple and inexpensive and thus suit the developing countries limited health budget. Future research projects should be adopted in order to assess the accuracy of the proposed protocol on a large scale. Keywords: COVID-19, Surgery, Asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS, ICT, CBC.

    Asymptomatic TRANS people with SARS-CoV-2 as unseen carriers TRANS of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Gopiram Syangtan; Shrijana Bista; Prabin Dawadi; Binod Rayamajhee; Lok Bahadur Shrestha; Reshma Tuladhar; Dev Raj Joshi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39512/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The asymptomatic TRANS patients with SARS-CoV-2 can act as an unseen carrier TRANS for magnifying the transmission TRANS of COVID-19.Aims This study was designed to appraise the burden of asymptomatic TRANS individuals and estimate their occurrence among different age groups TRANS and gender TRANS by reviewing the existing published data on asymptomatic TRANS people with COVID-19.Methods Three electronic databases: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science (WoS) were used to search studies as per the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) and the search was limited to English language. The study population of this review includes asymptomatic TRANS individuals infected by COVID-19. All original articles which have reported cases of the COVID-19 patients with no symptoms until 31 April 2020 were included in the study. Random effects model was applied to analyze pooled data on the prevalence SERO of symptomless cases among total COVID-19 infected MESHD patients and also on different age groups TRANS and gender TRANS.Results In the meta-analysis of 16 studies, comprising 2,788 COVID-19 infected MESHD patients, the pooled prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS cases was 48.2% (95% CI, 30%-67%). Among the asymptomatic TRANS patients, 55.5% (95% CI, 43.6%-66.8%) were female TRANS and 49.6% (95% CI, 20.5%-79.1%) were children TRANS.Conclusion About half of the COVID-19 infected MESHD patients were asymptomatic TRANS cases. Children TRANS and females TRANS were more apparent to be asymptomatic TRANS patient of COVID-19 and could act as unseen carrier TRANS of SARS-CoV-2. Symptom based screening only, might fail to identify all SARS-CoV-2 infections escalating MESHD the threat of global spread of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, mass surveillance system tracking asymptomatic TRANS cases is a pressing need of public health, paying special attention to female TRANS and young children TRANS, which could aid in prevention and containment of this unprecedented pandemic.

    Clinical course and potential predicting factors of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD of adult TRANS patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): A retrospective observational analysis of 193 confirmed cases TRANS in Thailand

    Authors: Wannarat A Pongpirul; Surasak Wiboonchutikul; Lantharita Charoenpong; Nayot Panitantum; Apichart Vachiraphan; Sumonmal Uttayamakul; Krit Pongpirul; Weerawat Manosuthi; Wisit Prasithsirikul

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.24.20139642 Date: 2020-06-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Clinical spectrum of COVID-19 has been unclear, especially with regard to the presence of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. We aimed to present clinical course of all laboratory-confirmed adult TRANS COVID-19 patients and to identify potential predicting factors of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study among adult TRANS patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand, regardless of their disease severity, between January 8 and April 16, 2020. We described the full picture of COVID-19, defined definite outcomes and evaluated factors associated with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Results: One-hundred-and-ninety-three patients were included. The median (IQR) age TRANS was 37.0 (29.0-53.0) years, and 58.5% were male TRANS. Of whom, 189 (97.9%) recovered and 4 (2.1%) died. More than half (56%) of the patients were mild, 22% were moderate, 14% were severe, and 3% were critically ill. Asymptomatic TRANS infection MESHD was found in 5%. The overall incidence of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD was 39%. Bilateral was more prevalent than unilateral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (65% vs. 35%). Increasing age TRANS (OR 2.60 for every 10-year increase from 30 years old; 95% CI, 1.68 to 3.97; p<0.001), obesity HP obesity MESHD (OR 9.17; 95% CI, 2.11 to 39.89; p=0.003), and higher temperature at presentation (OR 4.66 per one-degree Celsius increase from 37.2 degree Celsius; 95% CI, 2.32 to 9.34; p<0.001) were potential predicting factors of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Severe cases had a longer viral RNA shedding duration than the non-severe cases. The longest observed duration of viral RNA shedding was 45 days. Conclusion: Across different disease severities, most patients with COVID-19 in Thailand had a good prognosis. COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD was found in one-third of the hospitalized patients. Potential predicting factors included old age TRANS, obesity HP obesity MESHD, fever HP fever MESHD at presentation.

    The validation of the original and modified Caprini score in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Sergey Tsaplin; Ilya Schastlivtsev; Kirill Lobastov; Sergey Zhuravlev; Victor Barinov; Joseph Caprini

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.22.20137075 Date: 2020-06-23 Source: medRxiv

    Objective. The study aimed to validate the original Caprini score and its modifications considering coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) as a severe prothrombotic condition MESHD in patients admitted to the hospital with confirmed infection TRANS infection MESHD. Methods. The relevant data were extracted from the electronic medical records with the implemented Caprini score and were evaluated retrospectively. The score was calculated twice: by the physician at the admission and by the investigator at discharge or after death. The second calculation at discharge, considered additional risk factors that occurred during inpatient treatment. Besides the original Caprini score (a version of 2005), the modified version added the elevation of D-dimer and specific scores for COVID-19 as follows: 2 points for asymptomatic TRANS, 3 points for symptomatic and 5 points for symptomatic infection MESHD with positive D-dimer, were evaluated in a retrospective manner. The primary endpoint was symptomatic venous thromboembolism MESHD thromboembolism HP ( VTE MESHD) confirmed by appropriate imaging testing or dissection. The secondary endpoint included the unfavorable outcome as a combination of symptomatic VTE MESHD, admission to the intensive care unit, the requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation, and death MESHD. The association of eight different versions of the Caprini score with outcomes was evaluated. Results. Totally 168 patients (83 males TRANS and 85 females TRANS at the age TRANS of 58.3{+/-}12.7 years old) were admitted to the hospital between April 30 and May 29, 2020, and were discharged or died up to the time of data analysis. The original Caprini score varied between 2-12 (5.4{+/-}1.8) at the admission and between 2-15 (5.9{+/-}2.5) at discharge or death MESHD. The presence of the virus increased these scores and resulted in an increased score with the maximal value for those including COVID-19 points (10.0{+/-}3.0). Patients received prophylactic (2.4%), intermediate (76.8%), or therapeutic (20.8%) doses of enoxaparin. Despite this, the symptomatic VTE MESHD was detected in 11 (6.5%) and unfavorable outcomes in 31 (18.5%) patients. The Caprini score of all eight versions demonstrated a significant association with VTE MESHD with the highest predictability for the original scale when assessed at discharge. Supplementation of the original score by elevated D-dimer improved predictability only at the admission. Four versions of the Caprini score calculated at the admission had a significant correlation with the unfavorable outcome with the minor advantages of specific COVID-19 points. Conclusion. The study identified a significant correlation between the Caprini score and the risk of VTE MESHD or unfavorable outcomes in COVID-19 patients. All models, including specific COVID-19 scores, showed high predictability with minor differences.

    Epidemiological characterization of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS of COVID-19 in Colombia

    Authors: Anibal A Teheran; Gabriel Camero; Ronald Prado de la Guardia; Carolina Hernandez; Giovanny Herrera; Luis M Pombo; Albert Avila; Carolina Florez; Esther C Barros; Luis Perez Garcia; Alberto Paniz Mondolfi; Juan David Ramirez

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.18.20134734 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS (AC) of the new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) represent an important source of spread for Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Early diagnosis of these cases is a powerful tool to control the pandemic. Our objective was to characterize patients with AC status and identify associated sociodemographic factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design and the national database of daily occurrence of COVID-19, we characterized both socially and demographically all ACs. Additional Correspondence Analysis and Logistic Regression Model were performed to identify characteristics associated with AC state (OR, 95% CI). Results: 2338 ACs (11.8%; 95% CI, 11.3-12.2%) were identified, mainly in epidemiological week 18 [EW] (3.98; 3.24-4.90). Age TRANS [≤]39 years (1.56; 1.42-1.72). Male TRANS sex (1.39; 1.26-1.53), cases imported from Argentina, Spain, Peru, Brazil, Costa Rica or Mexico (3.37; 1.47-7.71) and autochthonous cases (4.35 ; 2.12-8.93) increased the risk of identifying AC. We also identified groups of departments with moderate (3.68; 3.13-4.33) and strong (8.31; 6.10-7.46) association with AC. Discussion: Sociodemographic characteristics strongly associated with AC were identified, which may explain its epidemiological relevance and usefulness to optimize mass screening strategies and prevent person-to-person transmission TRANS.

    Healthcare Worker COVID-19 Cases in Ontario, Canada: A Cross-sectional Study

    Authors: Kevin L Schwartz; Camille Achonu; Sarah A Buchan; Kevin A Brown; Brenda Lee; Michael Whelan; Julie HC Wu; Gary Garber

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.12.20129619 Date: 2020-06-14 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) from COVID-19 is a priority to maintain a safe and functioning healthcare system. The risk of transmitting COVID-19 to family members TRANS is a source of stress for many. Objective: To describe and compare HCW and non-HCW COVID-19 cases in Ontario, Canada, as well as the frequency of COVID-19 among HCWs household members. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using reportable disease data at Public Health Ontario which captures all COVID-19 cases in Ontario, Canada, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study comparing demographic, exposure, and clinical variables between HCWs and non-HCWs with COVID-19 as of 14 May 2020. We calculated rates of infections over time and determined the frequency of within household transmissions TRANS using natural language processing based on residential address. Exposures and Outcomes: We contrasted age TRANS, gender TRANS, comorbidities, clinical presentation (including asymptomatic TRANS and presymptomatic), exposure histories including nosocomial transmission TRANS, and clinical outcomes between HCWs and non-HCWs with confirmed COVID-19. Results: There were 4,230 (17.5%) HCW COVID-19 cases in Ontario, of whom 20.2% were nurses, 2.3% were physicians, and the remaining 77.4% other specialties. HCWs were more likely to be between 30-60 years of age TRANS and female TRANS. HCWs were more likely to present asymptomatically TRANS (8.1% versus 7.0%, p=0.010) or with atypical symptoms (17.8% versus 10.5%, p<0.001). The mortality among HCWs was 0.2% compared to 10.5% of non-HCWs. HCWs commonly had exposures to a confirmed case TRANS or outbreak (74.1%), however only 3.1% were confirmed to be nosocomial. The rate of new infections MESHD was 5.5 times higher in HCWs than non-HCWs, but mirrored the epidemic curve. We identified 391 (9.8%) probable secondary household transmissions TRANS and 143 (3.6%) acquisitions. Children TRANS <19 years comprised 14.6% of secondary cases TRANS compared to only 4.2% of the primary cases TRANS. Conclusions and Relevance: HCWs represent a disproportionate number of COVID-19 cases in Ontario but with low confirmed numbers of nosocomial transmission TRANS. The data support substantial testing bias and under-ascertainment of general population cases. Protecting HCWs through appropriate personal protective equipment and physical distancing from colleagues is paramount.

    Clinical severity and epidemiological spectrum of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 in children TRANS – comparison with influenza

    Authors: Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak; Ewa Talarek; Jolanta Popielska; Karolina Nowicka; Agnieszka Ołdakowska; Konrad Zawadka; Barbara Kowalik-Mikołajewska; Anna Tomasik; Anna Dobrzeniecka; Marta Lipińska; Beata Krynicka-Czech; Urszula Coupland; Aleksandra Stańska-Perka; Małgorzata Ludek; Magdalena Marczyńska

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32960/v1 Date: 2020-06-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Data on the novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in children TRANS are limited, and studies from Europe are scarce. We analyzed the clinical severity and epidemiologic aspects of COVID-19 in consecutive children TRANS aged TRANS 0 – 18 years, referred with a suspicion of COVID-19 between February 1, and April 15, 2020. RT-PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab was used to confirm COVID-19. 319 children TRANS met the criteria of a suspected case. COVID-19 was diagnosed in 15/319 (4.7%) patients (8 male TRANS; mean age TRANS 10.5 years). All of them had household contact TRANS with an infected relative. Five (33.3%) patients were asymptomatic TRANS. In 9/15 (60.0%) children TRANS, the course of the disease was mild, and in 1/15 (6.7%), it was moderate, with the following symptoms: fever HP fever MESHD (46.7%), cough HP (40%), diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD (20%), vomiting HP vomiting MESHD (13.3%), rhinitis HP rhinitis MESHD (6.7%), and shortness of breath MESHD (6.7%). In the COVID-19-negative patients, other infections were confirmed TRANS infections were confirmed MESHD, including influenza in 32/319 (10%). The clinical course of COVID-19 and influenza differed significantly based on the clinical presentation. In conclusion, the clinical course of COVID-19 in children TRANS is usually mild or asymptomatic TRANS. In children TRANS suspected of having COVID-19, other infections should not be overlooked. The main risk factor for COVID-19 in children TRANS is household contact TRANS with an infected relative.

    COVID-19 :Determinants of Hospitalization, ICU and Death among 20,293 reported cases in Portugal

    Authors: Vasco Ricoca Peixoto; Andre Vieira; Pedro Aguiar; Paulo Sousa; Carlos Carvalho; Daniel Rhys Thomas; Alexandre Abrantes; Carla Nunes

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.29.20115824 Date: 2020-05-30 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Determinants of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death MESHD are still unclear for Covid-19 and only a few studies have adjusted for confounding for different clinical outcomes including all reported cases in a country in the analysis. We used routine surveillance data from Portugal to identify risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes, in order to support risk stratification, clinical and public health interventions, and to improve scenarios to plan health care resources. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study including 20,293 laboratory confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 in Portugal to 28 April 2020, electronically through the National Epidemic Surveillance System of the Directorate-General of Health( DGS MESHD). We calculated absolute risks, relative risks (RR) and adjusted relative risks (aRR) to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with hospitalization, admission to ICU and death MESHD using Poisson regressions. Results Increasing age TRANS after 60 years was the greatest determinant for all outcomes. Assuming 0-50 years as reference, being aged TRANS 80-89 years was the strongest determinant of hospital admission (aRR-5.7), 70-79 years for ICU(aRR-10.4) and >90 years for death MESHD(aRR-226.8) with an aRR of 112.7 in those 70-79 . Among comorbidites, Immunodeficiency HP Immunodeficiency MESHD, cardiac disease MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, and neurologic disease MESHD were independent risk factors for hospitalization (aRR 1.83, 1.79, 1.56, 1.82), for ICU these were cardiac, Immunodeficiency HP Immunodeficiency MESHD, kidney and lung disease (aRR 4.33, 2.76, 2.43, 2.04), and for death MESHD they were kidney, cardiac and chronic neurological disease MESHD (aRR: 2.9, 2.6, 2.0) Male TRANS gender TRANS was a risk factor for all outcomes. There were statistically significant differences for the 3 outcomes between regions. Discussion and Conclusions Older age TRANS stands out as the strongest risk factor for all outcomes specially for death MESHD as absolute is risk was small for those younger than 50. These findings have implications in terms of risk stratified public health measures that should prioritize protecting older people. Epidemiologic scenarios and clinical guidelines may consider the estimated risks, even though under-ascertainment of mild and asymptomatic TRANS cases should be considered in different age groups TRANS.

    Containing Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Belize

    Authors: Kyle A. Habet; Diomne Habet; Gliselle Marin

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32462/v1 Date: 2020-05-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To demonstrate how Belize, a small country in Central America with limited resources, contained the spread of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).Methods:Information was gathered from official press releases from the Government of Belize. Statistics were accessed from the Ministry of Health’s website. Additional information was acquired from internet searches on Pubmed and the World Health Organization.Results:Total Cases: 18; Male TRANS to female TRANS ratio: 1:1; Deaths: 2; Total Tests Done: 1,128; Percentage of positive tests: 1.59%, New cases per day since first case to plateau: 0.812.Conclusion: Early intervention on a national level was key to preventing importation of cases and subsequent community transmission TRANS. Limiting the conglomeration of people, curfews, closures of school and universities, government-mandated social distancing, and extensive contact tracing TRANS may have mitigated the exponential spread of COVID-19. Mandatory mask-wearing in public may have helped to prevent spread between asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS to susceptible individuals. A low population density may have also contributed to containing the virus.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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