Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Epidemiological Profile and Transmission TRANS Dynamics of COVID-19 in the Philippines

    Authors: Nel Jason Ladiao Haw; Jhanna Uy; Karla Therese L. Sy

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.15.20154336 Date: 2020-07-20 Source: medRxiv

    The Philippines confirmed local transmission TRANS of COVID-19 on 7 March 2020. We described the characteristics and epidemiological time-to-event distributions for laboratory- confirmed cases TRANS in the Philippines. The median age TRANS of 8,212 cases was 46 years (IQR: 32-61), with 46.2% being female TRANS and 68.8% living in the National Capital Region. Health care workers represented 24.7% of all detected infections. Mean length of hospitalization for those who were discharged or died were 16.00 days (95% CI: 15.48, 16.54) and 7.27 days (95% CI: 6.59, 8.24). Mean duration of illness was 26.66 days (95% CI: 26.06, 27.28) and 12.61 days (95% CI: 11.88, 13.37) for those who recovered or died. Mean serial interval TRANS was 6.90 days (95% CI: 5.81, 8.41). Epidemic doubling time pre-quarantine (11 February and 19 March) was 4.86 days (95% CI: 4.67, 5.07) and the reproductive number TRANS was 2.41 (95% CI: 2.33, 2.48). During quarantine (March 20 to April 9), doubling time was 12.97 days (95% CI: 12.57, 13.39) and the reproductive number TRANS was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.02).

    Joint CBC-ICT Interpretation for the pre-surgical screening of COVID 19 asymptomatic TRANS cases: A cross-sectional study

    Authors: Tanzeel Imran; Humera Altaf Naz; Hamza Khan; Ali Haider Bangash; Laraib Bakhtiar Khan; Haroon Khan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20138354 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: medRxiv

    Background On 26th, February 2020, first cases of COVID 19 were confirmed in Pakistan. Since then, surgeries were halted in a bid to prevent transmission TRANS. However, since such a long halt is infeasible, a general protocol of screening the carriers TRANS, especially asymptomatic TRANS carries, is a dire need of time. The objective of our study is to propose an economically feasible protocol of COVID 19 screening. Simple but effective screening strategies can help to restore the workings of hospital surgical departments. Methods We analyzed the clinical data of patients turning up for elective surgeries at the Rawal General Hospital (RGH), Islamabad from the 24th of March to the 15th of May, 2020. Asymptomatic TRANS patients with negative COVID 19 contact and travel TRANS histories were screened with COVID 19 Immunochromatography (ICT) IgM / IgG Ab Test. Complete blood SERO count (CBC) was done and interpreted in conjunction with the ICT results. Results 39 patients with a mean age TRANS of 49 years were studied. The result of ICT for COVID-19 was positive in 9 cases (23%). The entire positive ICT patients population expressed significantly lower lymphocyte count (p<0.01); 8 patients had high monocyte count (p<0.05) whereas only 4 patients had a combined high neutrophil and monocyte count (P<0.05). All of these four patients with high neutrophil count were females TRANS. The combined interpretation of CBC and ICT IgM / IgG Ab Test had a high accuracy in diagnosing asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 carriers TRANS that were later confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Conclusion We propose that joint CBC-ICT interpretation should be adopted on a large scale to help in the diagnoses of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS as both tests are simple and inexpensive and thus suit the developing countries limited health budget. Future research projects should be adopted in order to assess the accuracy of the proposed protocol on a large scale. Keywords: COVID-19, Surgery, Asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS, ICT, CBC.

    Emergency high ligation in a suspected COVID-19 pediatric patient with incarcerated inguinal hernia MESHD inguinal hernia HP: a case report

    Authors: Munawir Makkadafi; Aditya Rifqi Fauzi; Amsyar Praja; Kemala Athollah; . Marcellus; . Gunadi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40812/v1 Date: 2020-07-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background SARS-Cov-2 infects MESHD not only adults TRANS, but also children TRANS, including pediatric surgery patients with acute abdomen. Here, we report a pediatric surgery case with incarcerated inguinal hernia MESHD inguinal hernia HP and suspected COVID-19.Case presentation: A 11-month-old male TRANS was brought to our emergency department with the main complaint of recurrent yellowish-green vomiting HP vomiting MESHD that was experienced from one day before admission. High fever MESHD fever HP and shortness of breath MESHD were also reported. This patient was also suffering from moderate dehydration HP dehydration MESHD. Neither history of contact with a confirmed case TRANS of COVID-19 nor traveling TRANS from any local transmission TRANS area were found. However, a SARS-CoV-2 rapid antibody test SERO revealed a positive result. A lump in the left scrotum that persisted during admission was found. Fluid resuscitation and nasogastric tube placement for decompression was performed. Manual reduction was attempted but failed to reduce the lump. Accordingly, we decided to perform an emergency high ligation using tertiary protection regulations, i.e., full personal protective equipment (PPE) for COVID-19. Intraoperatively, we found a small intestine loop trapped in the scrotum and stuck in the inguinal canal. Postoperatively, the baby was continued to be managed as a patient with COVID-19 while waiting for the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results.Conclusions During the COVID-19 pandemic, surgeons should always be aware of the possibility of cross- transmission TRANS from the patient, since children TRANS are also susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. When and wherever possible, surgeons should perform the procedure in the quickest and most effective manner to shorten exposure time with patient and anesthetic aerosols as well as using appropriate PPE.

    Asymptomatic TRANS people with SARS-CoV-2 as unseen carriers TRANS of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Gopiram Syangtan; Shrijana Bista; Prabin Dawadi; Binod Rayamajhee; Lok Bahadur Shrestha; Reshma Tuladhar; Dev Raj Joshi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39512/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The asymptomatic TRANS patients with SARS-CoV-2 can act as an unseen carrier TRANS for magnifying the transmission TRANS of COVID-19.Aims This study was designed to appraise the burden of asymptomatic TRANS individuals and estimate their occurrence among different age groups TRANS and gender TRANS by reviewing the existing published data on asymptomatic TRANS people with COVID-19.Methods Three electronic databases: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science (WoS) were used to search studies as per the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) and the search was limited to English language. The study population of this review includes asymptomatic TRANS individuals infected by COVID-19. All original articles which have reported cases of the COVID-19 patients with no symptoms until 31 April 2020 were included in the study. Random effects model was applied to analyze pooled data on the prevalence SERO of symptomless cases among total COVID-19 infected MESHD patients and also on different age groups TRANS and gender TRANS.Results In the meta-analysis of 16 studies, comprising 2,788 COVID-19 infected MESHD patients, the pooled prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS cases was 48.2% (95% CI, 30%-67%). Among the asymptomatic TRANS patients, 55.5% (95% CI, 43.6%-66.8%) were female TRANS and 49.6% (95% CI, 20.5%-79.1%) were children TRANS.Conclusion About half of the COVID-19 infected MESHD patients were asymptomatic TRANS cases. Children TRANS and females TRANS were more apparent to be asymptomatic TRANS patient of COVID-19 and could act as unseen carrier TRANS of SARS-CoV-2. Symptom based screening only, might fail to identify all SARS-CoV-2 infections escalating MESHD the threat of global spread of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, mass surveillance system tracking asymptomatic TRANS cases is a pressing need of public health, paying special attention to female TRANS and young children TRANS, which could aid in prevention and containment of this unprecedented pandemic.

    Epidemiological characterization of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS of COVID-19 in Colombia

    Authors: Anibal A Teheran; Gabriel Camero; Ronald Prado de la Guardia; Carolina Hernandez; Giovanny Herrera; Luis M Pombo; Albert Avila; Carolina Florez; Esther C Barros; Luis Perez Garcia; Alberto Paniz Mondolfi; Juan David Ramirez

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.18.20134734 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS (AC) of the new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) represent an important source of spread for Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Early diagnosis of these cases is a powerful tool to control the pandemic. Our objective was to characterize patients with AC status and identify associated sociodemographic factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design and the national database of daily occurrence of COVID-19, we characterized both socially and demographically all ACs. Additional Correspondence Analysis and Logistic Regression Model were performed to identify characteristics associated with AC state (OR, 95% CI). Results: 2338 ACs (11.8%; 95% CI, 11.3-12.2%) were identified, mainly in epidemiological week 18 [EW] (3.98; 3.24-4.90). Age TRANS [≤]39 years (1.56; 1.42-1.72). Male TRANS sex (1.39; 1.26-1.53), cases imported from Argentina, Spain, Peru, Brazil, Costa Rica or Mexico (3.37; 1.47-7.71) and autochthonous cases (4.35 ; 2.12-8.93) increased the risk of identifying AC. We also identified groups of departments with moderate (3.68; 3.13-4.33) and strong (8.31; 6.10-7.46) association with AC. Discussion: Sociodemographic characteristics strongly associated with AC were identified, which may explain its epidemiological relevance and usefulness to optimize mass screening strategies and prevent person-to-person transmission TRANS.

    Healthcare Worker COVID-19 Cases in Ontario, Canada: A Cross-sectional Study

    Authors: Kevin L Schwartz; Camille Achonu; Sarah A Buchan; Kevin A Brown; Brenda Lee; Michael Whelan; Julie HC Wu; Gary Garber

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.12.20129619 Date: 2020-06-14 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) from COVID-19 is a priority to maintain a safe and functioning healthcare system. The risk of transmitting COVID-19 to family members TRANS is a source of stress for many. Objective: To describe and compare HCW and non-HCW COVID-19 cases in Ontario, Canada, as well as the frequency of COVID-19 among HCWs household members. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using reportable disease data at Public Health Ontario which captures all COVID-19 cases in Ontario, Canada, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study comparing demographic, exposure, and clinical variables between HCWs and non-HCWs with COVID-19 as of 14 May 2020. We calculated rates of infections over time and determined the frequency of within household transmissions TRANS using natural language processing based on residential address. Exposures and Outcomes: We contrasted age TRANS, gender TRANS, comorbidities, clinical presentation (including asymptomatic TRANS and presymptomatic), exposure histories including nosocomial transmission TRANS, and clinical outcomes between HCWs and non-HCWs with confirmed COVID-19. Results: There were 4,230 (17.5%) HCW COVID-19 cases in Ontario, of whom 20.2% were nurses, 2.3% were physicians, and the remaining 77.4% other specialties. HCWs were more likely to be between 30-60 years of age TRANS and female TRANS. HCWs were more likely to present asymptomatically TRANS (8.1% versus 7.0%, p=0.010) or with atypical symptoms (17.8% versus 10.5%, p<0.001). The mortality among HCWs was 0.2% compared to 10.5% of non-HCWs. HCWs commonly had exposures to a confirmed case TRANS or outbreak (74.1%), however only 3.1% were confirmed to be nosocomial. The rate of new infections MESHD was 5.5 times higher in HCWs than non-HCWs, but mirrored the epidemic curve. We identified 391 (9.8%) probable secondary household transmissions TRANS and 143 (3.6%) acquisitions. Children TRANS <19 years comprised 14.6% of secondary cases TRANS compared to only 4.2% of the primary cases TRANS. Conclusions and Relevance: HCWs represent a disproportionate number of COVID-19 cases in Ontario but with low confirmed numbers of nosocomial transmission TRANS. The data support substantial testing bias and under-ascertainment of general population cases. Protecting HCWs through appropriate personal protective equipment and physical distancing from colleagues is paramount.

    Mortality Analysis of COVID-19 Confirmed cases TRANS in Pakistan

    Authors: Ambreen Chaudhry; Aamer Ikram; Mirza Amir Baig; Muhammad Salman; Tamkeen Ghafoor; Zakir Hussain; Mumtaz Ali Khan; Jamil Ahmad Ansari; Asif Syed; Wasif Javed; Ehsan Larik; Muhammad Mohsan Wattoo; Naveed Masood; zeeshan Iqbal Baig; Khurram Akram

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.07.20121939 Date: 2020-06-09 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: COVID-19, a novel disease, appeared in December 2019 in China and rapidly spread across the world. Till the second week of April 2020, high incidence (2.9/100,000) and cases fatality rates (1.7%) were observed in Pakistan. This study was conducted to determine the temporal and spatial distribution of the first 100 deaths attributed to COVID-19 in Pakistan and their associated demographic factors. Method: We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis of the first 100 deaths MESHD reported among RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 cases. Demographic, epidemiological, and risk factors information was obtained associated comorbidities and clinical signs and symptoms were recorded and frequencies were determined. Results: A total of 100 mortalities with overall Case Fatality Rate 1.67% (CFR) were analysed. Median age TRANS of patients was 64.5 years (IQR: 54-70) with 75% (n=75) Males TRANS. Among all deaths MESHD reported, 71 (71%) cases had one or more documented comorbidities at the time of diagnosis. Most frequently reported co-morbidities were; hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (67 %), followed by Diabetes Mellitus HP Diabetes Mellitus MESHD 945%) and Ischemic Heart Diseases MESHD (27%). First death MESHD was reported on 18 March 2020 and the most frequent presenting symptoms were shortness of breath MESHD (87%) and fever HP fever MESHD (79%). Median duration of illness was eight days (IQR: 4-11 days), the median delay reaching hospital to seek health care was three days (IQR: 0-6 days) while median duration of hospital stay was also three days (IQR: 1-7 days). Among all reported deaths MESHD, 62% were attributed to local transmission TRANS as these cases had no history of international travel TRANS. The most affected age group TRANS was 60-69 years while no death reported in age group TRANS below 20 years. Conclusion: High CFR among old age group TRANS and its association with co-morbidities (chronic disease) suggests targeted interventions such as social distancing and strict quarantine measure for elderly TRANS and morbid people. Comparative studies among deaths MESHD and recovered patients are recommended to explore further disease dynamics. Key words: COVID-19, Cases Fatality Rates, Co-morbidities, Epidemiology, Pakistan, Co-morbidities

    Containing Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Belize

    Authors: Kyle A. Habet; Diomne Habet; Gliselle Marin

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32462/v1 Date: 2020-05-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To demonstrate how Belize, a small country in Central America with limited resources, contained the spread of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).Methods:Information was gathered from official press releases from the Government of Belize. Statistics were accessed from the Ministry of Health’s website. Additional information was acquired from internet searches on Pubmed and the World Health Organization.Results:Total Cases: 18; Male TRANS to female TRANS ratio: 1:1; Deaths: 2; Total Tests Done: 1,128; Percentage of positive tests: 1.59%, New cases per day since first case to plateau: 0.812.Conclusion: Early intervention on a national level was key to preventing importation of cases and subsequent community transmission TRANS. Limiting the conglomeration of people, curfews, closures of school and universities, government-mandated social distancing, and extensive contact tracing TRANS may have mitigated the exponential spread of COVID-19. Mandatory mask-wearing in public may have helped to prevent spread between asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS to susceptible individuals. A low population density may have also contributed to containing the virus.

    Practice and perception of Bangladeshi adults TRANS toward COVID-19: a cross-sectional study

    Authors: Md. Abdul Wadood; Lai Lee Lee; Md. Monimul Huq; ASMA Mamun; Suhaili Mohd; Md. Golam Hossain

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29364/v1 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has continued to spread across the world with increasing number of confirmed cases TRANS and death MESHD. Preventive measures have still been the only way of slowing down the transmission TRANS and prevention of the deadly disease. Practice of preventive guidelines and perception about the disease is important in this regard. We aimed to study on practice to prevent and perception toward COVID-19 among Bangladeshi adults TRANS during the rapid rise of the outbreak.Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we conducted an online survey to collect data from 320 Bangladeshi adults TRANS during the period of 10-20 April, 2020 with a self-developed questionnaire. For measuring their level of practice, a general question was asked to participants, “Are you properly following the guidelines recommended by WHO to avoid COVID-19? Four type of perceptions; (i) seriousness, (ii) susceptibility, (iii) efficacy, and (iv) carry out the measures of the disease were considered for measuring risk of perception. Frequency distribution, Chi-square (χ2) test and binary logistic regression model were utilized in this study.  Results: More than 71% of participants had good practice of always following the guidelines of the World Health Organization to prevent COVID-19. Logistic regression model demonstrated that people living in urban area (p<0.01), high education (p<0.01), rich (p<0.01) and joint family (p<0.01) had the most contributions to good practice. The average risk perception among participants was 3.05±0.75 (median, 3.00) (95% CI of mean: 2.96-3.13). More than 27% participants showed high risk perceptions. It was found that males TRANS (p<0.05), high educated (p<0.05), rich (p<0.01), service holders (0.05) and younger adults TRANS (p<0.05) had higher odds of high risk perception.Conclusions: The good practice of preventive guidelines and risk perception toward COVID-19 among Bangladeshi adults TRANS were satisfactory but not of the expected level. High socioeconomic status and education were significantly correlated with appropriate practice and perception during the peak time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Government should take step to increase the level of practice to avoid and perception toward COVID-19 among Bangladeshi people during the pandemic. 

    Epidemiological Characteristics of COVID-19 Patients in Vietnam and a Description of Disease Control and Prevention Measures in Thai Binh Province

    Authors: Van Thuan Hoang; Thi Dung Pham; Thi Loi Dao; Duc Thanh Nguyen; Van Nghiem Dang; Thanh Tung Dao; Van Luong Nguyen; Quang Huy Dang; Xuan Cap Do; Van Thom Nguyen; Van Diu Pham; Phong Tuc Vu; Nang Trong Hoang; Philippe Gautret; Duy Cuong Nguyen

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0197.v1 Date: 2020-05-11 Source: Preprints.org

    IntroductionThe aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of all COVID-19 patients in Vietnam and to describe the measures of disease control and prevention implemented. MethodsData were recovered from Wikipedia regarding the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Vietnam. The period covered was from 23 January to 20 April 2020. Descriptive analysis was stratified by gender TRANS, age TRANS, country of origin, travel TRANS history, clinical symptoms and outcome. A survey of disease control and prevention measures was conducted at the Centre for Disease Control in the Thai Binh province, which is responsible for screening and isolating individuals at high risk of COVID-19. ResultsAs of 20 April 2020, Vietnam had recorded 268 confirmed COVID-19 patients. 55.2% were female TRANS. 67.9% were aged TRANS 20-49 years and 82.5% were Vietnamese. 60.4% of cases were imported from outside Vietnam. Other cases were acquired in Vietnam by individuals in close contact TRANS with imported cases. Only one patient who had not travelled TRANS had had no known contact with a confirmed case TRANS. 63.1% of patients were asymptomatic TRANS. 75.7% of patients were discharged. No deaths were recorded. The Thai Binh CDC surveyed a total of 2,203 persons at risk of COVID-19. 336 persons (15.2%) were isolated at hospitals and 1,411 (64.0%) in dedicated isolation facilities. 16.4% reported at least one respiratory symptom. No positive cases confirmed TRANS by RT-PCR have been reported in the Thai Binh province to date. ConclusionThe effect of the systematic screening and isolation strategy made it possible to limit local transmission TRANS in Vietnam. Vietnam needs to reinforce diagnostic capacities, prevention measures and provide the necessary epidemiological data on which to base interventions. The wider use of rapid serological tests SERO is also advisable in order to be able to conduct extensive screening in the community.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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