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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Variation across population subgroups of COVID-19 antibody testing SERO performance SERO

    Authors: Halley L Brantley; Richard M Yoo; Glen I Jones; Marel A Stock; Peter J Park; Natalie E Sheils; Isaac S Kohane; Mariya Lytvyn; María Isabel Guillén; David Sanz-Rosa; Daniel Martín-Pérez; Cristina Sanchez-Ramos; Ricardo Garcia; Juan Antonio Bernal; Sijia Tao; Tristan R Horton; Elizabeth N Beagle; Ernestine A Mahar; Michelle YH Lee; Joyce Cohen; Sherrie Jean; Jennifer S Wood; Fawn Connor-Stroud; Rachelle L Stammen; Olivia M Delmas; Shelly Wang; Kimberly A Cooney; Michael N Sayegh; Lanfang Wang; Daniela Weiskopf; Peter D Filev; Jesse Waggoner; Anne Piantadosi; Sudhir P Kasturi; Hilmi Al-Shakhshir; Susan P Ribeiro; Rafick P Sekaly; Rebecca D Levit; Jacob D Estes; Thomas H Vanderford; Raymond F Schinazi; Steven E Bosinger; Mirko Paiardini

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.14.20191833 Date: 2020-09-16 Source: medRxiv

    Understanding variations in the performance SERO of serological tests SERO for SARS-CoV-2 across varying demographics is relevant to clinical interpretations and public policy derived from their results. Appropriate use of serological assays SERO to detect anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO requires estimation of their accuracy over large populations and an understanding of the variance in performance SERO over time and across demographic groups. In this manuscript we focus on anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA, and IgM antibody SERO tests approved under emergency use authorizations and determine the recall SERO of the serological tests SERO compared to RT-PCR tests by Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINCs). Variability in test performance SERO was further examined over time and by demographics. The recall SERO of the most common IgG assay (LOINC 94563-4) was 91.2% (95% CI: 90.5%, 91.9%). IgA (LOINC 94562-6) and IgM (94564-2) assays performed significantly worse than IgG assays with estimated recall SERO rates of 20.6% and 27.3%, respectively. A statistically significant difference in recall SERO (p = 0.019) was observed across sex with a higher recall SERO in males TRANS than females TRANS, 92.1% and 90.4%, respectively. Recall SERO also differed significantly by age group TRANS, with higher recall SERO in those over 45 compared to those under 45, 92.9% and 88.0%, respectively (p < 0.001). While race was unavailable for the majority of the individuals, a significant difference was observed between recall SERO in White individuals and Black individuals (p = 0.007) and White individuals and Hispanic individuals (p=0.001). The estimates of recall SERO were 89.3%, 95.9%, and 94.2% for White, Black, and Hispanic individuals respectively.

    Antibody SERO Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Coronavirus Diseases MESHD 2019 Patients with Different Severity

    Authors: Ekasit Kowitdamrong; Thanyawee Puthanakit; Watsamon Jantarabenjakul; Eakachai Prompetchara; Pintip Suchartlikitwong; Opass Putcharoen; Nattiya Hirankarn; Ke Lan; Yu Chen; Huabin Zhao

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.06.20189480 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: More understanding of antibody SERO responses in the SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD population is useful for vaccine development. Aim: To investigate SARS-CoV-2 IgA MESHD and IgG among COVID-19 Thai patients with different severity. Methods: We used plasma SERO from 118 adult TRANS patients who have confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and 49 patients under investigation without infection MESHD, 20 patients with other respiratory infections MESHD, and 102 healthy controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO from Euroimmun. The optical density ratio cut off for positive test was 1.1 for IgA and 0.8 for IgG. The association of antibody SERO response with the severity of diseases and the day of symptoms was performed. Results: From Mar 10 to May 31, 2020, 289 participants were enrolled, and 384 samples were analyzed. Patients were categorized by clinical manifestations to mild (n=59), moderate (n=27) and severe (n=32). The overall sensitivity SERO of IgA and IgG from samples collected after day 7 is 87.9% (95% CI 79.8-93.6) and 84.8% (95% CI 76.2-91.3), respectively. The severe group had a significantly higher level of specific IgA and IgG to S1 antigen compared to the mild group. All moderate to severe patients have specific IgG while 20% of the mild group did not have any IgG detected after two weeks. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 IgG level was significantly higher in males TRANS compared to females TRANS among the severe group (p=0.003). Conclusion: The serologic test SERO for SARS-CoV-2 has high sensitivity SERO after the second week after onset of illness. Serological response differs among patients with different severity and different sex.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO in District Srinagar, northern India - a cross-sectional study

    Authors: S Muhammad Salim Khan; Mariya Amin Qurieshi; Inaamul Haq; Sabhiya Majid; Arif Akbar Bhat; Sahila Nabi; Nisar Ahmad Ganai; Nazia Zahoor; Auqfeen Nisar; Iqra Nisar Chowdri; Tanzeela Bashir Qazi; Rafiya Kousar; Abdul Aziz Lone; Iram Sabah; Shahroz Nabi; Ishtiyaq Ahmad Sumji; Misbah Ferooz Kawoosa; Shifana Ayoub; Ozden Hatirnaz Ng; Sezer Akyoney; Ilayda Sahin; Ugur Ozbek; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.282640 Date: 2020-09-04 Source: bioRxiv

    BackgroundPrevalence of IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD provides essential information for deciding disease prevention and mitigation measures. We estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO in District Srinagar. Methods2906 persons >18 years of age TRANS selected from hospital visitors across District Srinagar participated in the study. We tested samples for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay SERO-based serologic test SERO. ResultsAge- and gender TRANS-standardized seroprevalence SERO was 3.6% (95% CI 2.9% to 4.3%). Age TRANS 30-69 years, a recent history of symptoms of an influenza-like-illness, and a history of being placed under quarantine were significantly related to higher odds of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO. The estimated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections during the two weeks preceding the study, adjusted for test performance SERO, was 32602 with an estimated (median) infection-to-known-case ratio of 46 (95% CI 36 to 57). ConclusionsThe seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO is low in the District. A large proportion of the population is still susceptible to the infection. A sizeable number of infections remain undetected, and a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 are not tested.

    Performance SERO of Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, and Euroimmun Assays in Detecting Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection

    Authors: Shiwani Mahajan; Carrie A Redlich; Adam V Wisnewski; Louis E Fazen; Lokinendi V Rao; Karthik Kuppusamy; Albert I Ko; Harlan M Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164343 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Several serological assays SERO have been developed to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO, but evidence about their comparative performance SERO is limited. We sought to assess the sensitivity SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO ( ELISA SERO) in individuals with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods: We obtained sera from 36 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD between March and May 2020. We evaluated samples collected at around 21 days ({+/-}14 days) after their initial PCR test using 3 commercially available ELISA assays SERO, two anti-spike (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Vitros, and Euroimmun) and one anti-nucleocapsid (Abbott Architect), and a Yale-developed anti-spike ELISA SERO test. We determined the sensitivity SERO of the tests and compared their results. The Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO had an equivocal and indeterminate category, which were considered as both negative and positive. Results: Among the 36 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, mean age TRANS was 43 ({+/-}13) years and 19 (53%) were female TRANS. The sensitivities SERO of the tests were not significantly different (Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, Euroimmmun, and Yale assays: 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71-95), 94% (95% CI, 81-99), 86% (95% CI, 71-95), and 94% (95% CI, 81-99), respectively; p-value=0.464). The sensitivities SERO of the Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO tests increased when the equivocal/indeterminate results were considered positive (97% [95% CI, 85-100] and 100% [95% CI, 90-100], respectively), but were not significantly different from other tests (p=0.082). The cross-correlation coefficient ranged from 0.85-0.98 between three anti-spike protein assays (Ortho Vitros, Euroimmun, Yale) and was 0.58-0.71 between the three anti-spike protein assays and the anti-nucleocapsid assay (Abbott). Conclusion: The sensitivities SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 protein assays did not significantly differ, although the sample size was small. Sensitivity SERO also depended on the interpretation of equivocal and indeterminate results. The strongest correlations were present for the three anti-spike proteins assays. These findings suggest that individual test characteristics and the correlation between different tests should be considered when comparing or aggregating data across different populations studies for serologic surveillance of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in Kenyan blood SERO donors

    Authors: Sophie Uyoga; Ifedayo M.O. Adetifa; Henry K. Karanja; James Nyagwange; James Tuju; Perpetual Wanjiku; Rashid Aman; Mercy Mwangangi; Patrick Amoth; Kadondi Kasera; Wangari Ng'ang'a; Charles Rombo; Christine K. Yegon; Khamisi Kithi; Elizabeth Odhiambo; Thomas Rotich; Irene Orgut; Sammy Kihara; Mark Otiende; Christian Bottomley; Zonia N. Mupe; Eunice W. Kagucia; Katherine Gallagher; Anthony Etyang; Shirine Voller; John Gitonga; Daisy Mugo; Charles N. Agoti; Edward Otieno; Leonard Ndwiga; Teresa Lambe; Daniel Wright; Edwine Barasa; Benjamin Tsofa; Philip Bejon; Lynette I. Ochola-Oyier; Ambrose Agweyu; J. Anthony G. Scott; George M Warimwe

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20162693 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background There are no data on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Africa though the COVID-19 epidemic curve and reported mortality differ from patterns seen elsewhere. We estimated the anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO prevalence SERO among blood SERO donors in Kenya. Methods We measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG prevalence SERO by ELISA SERO on residual blood SERO donor samples obtained between April 30 and June 16, 2020. Assay sensitivity SERO and specificity were 83% (95% CI 59, 96%) and 99.0% (95% CI 98.1, 99.5%), respectively. National seroprevalence SERO was estimated using Bayesian multilevel regression and post-stratification to account for non-random sampling with respect to age TRANS, sex and region, adjusted for assay performance SERO. Results Complete data were available for 3098 of 3174 donors, aged TRANS 15-64 years. By comparison with the Kenyan population, the sample over-represented males TRANS (82% versus 49%), adults TRANS aged TRANS 25-34 years (40% versus 27%) and residents of coastal Counties (49% versus 9%). Crude overall seroprevalence SERO was 5.6% (174/3098). Population-weighted, test-adjusted national seroprevalence SERO was 5.2% (95% CI 3.7, 7.1%). Seroprevalence SERO was highest in the 3 largest urban Counties; Mombasa (9.3% [95% CI 6.4, 13.2%)], Nairobi (8.5% [95% CI 4.9, 13.5%]) and Kisumu (6.5% [95% CI 3.3, 11.2%]). Conclusions We estimate that 1 in 20 adults TRANS in Kenya had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO during the study period. By the median date of our survey, only 2093 COVID-19 cases and 71 deaths had been reported through the national screening system. This contrasts, by several orders of magnitude, with the numbers of cases and deaths MESHD reported in parts of Europe and America when seroprevalence SERO was similar.

    High Community SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Seroprevalence SERO in a Ski Resort Community, Blaine County, Idaho, US. Preliminary Results

    Authors: Colleen McLaughlin; Margaret K. Doll; Kathryn T Morrison; William L McLaughlin III; Terry OConnor; Anton M Sholukh; Emily L Bossard; Khamsone Phasouk; Emily S Ford; Kurt Diem; Alexis M Hlock; Keith R Jerome; Lawrence Corey

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.19.20157198 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: medRxiv

    Community-level seroprevalence SERO surveys are needed to determine the proportion of the population with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, a necessary component of COVID-19 disease surveillance. In May, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence SERO study of IgG antibodies SERO for nucleocapsid of SARS-CoV-2 among the residents of Blaine County, Idaho, a ski resort community with high COVID-19 attack rates TRANS in late March and Early April (2.9% for ages TRANS 18 and older). Participants were selected from volunteers who registered via a secure web link, using prestratification weighting to the population distribution by age TRANS and gender TRANS within each ZIP Code. Participants completed a survey reporting their demographics and symptoms; 88% of volunteers who were invited to participate completed data collection survey and had 10 ml of blood SERO drawn. Serology was completed via the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 MESHD IgG immunoassay SERO. Primary analyses estimated seroprevalence SERO and 95% credible intervals (CI) using a hierarchical Bayesian framework to account for diagnostic uncertainty. Stratified models were run by age TRANS, sex, ZIP Code, ethnicity, employment status, and a priori participant-reported COVID-19 status. Sensitivity SERO analyses to estimate seroprevalence SERO included base models with post-stratification for ethnicity, age TRANS, and sex, with or without adjustment for multi-participant households. IgG antibodies SERO to the virus that causes COVID-19 were found among 22.7% (95% CI: 20.1%, 25.5%) of residents of Blaine County. Higher levels of antibodies SERO were found among residents of the City of Ketchum 34.8% (95% CI 29.3%, 40.5%), compared to Hailey 16.8% (95%CI 13.7%, 20.3%) and Sun Valley 19.4% (95% 11.8%, 28.4%). People who self-identified as not believing they had COVID-19 had the lowest prevalence SERO 4.8% (95% CI 2.3%, 8.2%). The range of seroprevalence SERO after correction for potential selection bias was 21.9% to 24.2%. This study suggests more than 80% of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD were not reported. Although Blaine County had high levels of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, the community is not yet near the herd immunity threshold.

    Clinical utility of targeted SARS-CoV-2 serology testing to aid the diagnosis and management of suspected missed, late or post-COVID-19 infection syndromes: results from a pilot service

    Authors: Nicola Sweeney; Blair Merrick; Suzanne Pickering; Rui Pedro Galao; Alina Botgros; Harry D. Wilson; Adrian W. Signell; Gilberto Betancor; Mark Kia Ik Tan; John Ramble; Neophytos Kouphou; Sam Acors; Carl Graham; Jeffrey Seow; Eithne MacMahon; Stuart J. D. Neil; Michael H. Malim; Katie Doores; Sam Douthwaite; Rahul Batra; Gaia Nebbia; Jonathan D. Edgeworth

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150540 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: Determine indications and clinical utility of SARS-CoV-2 serology testing in adults TRANS and children TRANS. Design: Prospective evaluation of initial three weeks of a daily Monday to Friday pilot SARS-CoV-2 serology service for patients. Setting: Early post 'first-wave' SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS period at single centre London teaching hospital that provides care to the local community, as well as regional and national referral pathways for specialist services. Participants: 110 (72 adults TRANS, 38 children TRANS, age TRANS range 0-83 years, 52.7% female TRANS (n=58)). Interventions: Patient serum SERO from vetted referrals tested on CE marked and internally validated lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFIA) (SureScreen Diagnostics) detecting antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO spike proteins, with result and clinical interpretation provided to the direct care team. Main outcome measures: Performance SERO characteristics, source and nature of referrals, feasibility and clinical utility of the service, particularly the benefit for clinical decision-making. Results: The LFIA was deemed suitable for clinical advice and decision making following evaluation with 310 serum samples SERO from SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patients and 300 pre-pandemic samples, giving a sensitivity SERO and specificity of 96.1% and 99.3% respectively. For the pilot, 115 referrals were received leading to 113 tests performed on 108 participants (sample not available for two participants); paediatrics (n=35), medicine (n=69), surgery (n=2) and general practice (n=2). 43.4% participants (n=49) had detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. There were three main indications for serology; new acute presentations potentially triggered by recent COVID-19 infection e.g. PIMS-TS (n=26) and pulmonary embolism HP pulmonary embolism MESHD (n=5), potential missed diagnoses in context of a recent compatible illness (n=40), and making infection control and immunosuppression treatment decisions in persistently SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR positive individuals (n=6). Conclusions: This study shows acceptable performance SERO characteristics, feasibility and clinical utility of a SARS-CoV-2 serology service using a rapid, inexpensive and portable assay for adults TRANS and children TRANS presenting with a range of clinical indications. Results correlated closely with a confirmatory in-house ELISA SERO. The study showed the benefit of introducing a serology service where there is a reasonable pre-test probability, and the result can be linked with clinical advice or intervention. Experience thus far is that the volume of requests from hospital referral routes are manageable within existing clinical and laboratory services; however, the demand from community referrals has not yet been assessed. Given recent evidence for a rapid decline in antibodies SERO, particularly following mild infection MESHD, there is likely a limited window of opportunity to realise the benefit of serology testing for individuals infected during the 'first-wave' before they potentially fall HP below a measurable threshold. Rapidly expanding availability of serology services for NHS patients will also help understand the long-term implications of serostatus and prior infection MESHD in different patient groups, particularly before emergence of any 'second-wave' outbreak or introduction of a vaccination programme.

    Sex, age TRANS, and hospitalization drive antibody SERO responses in a COVID-19 convalescent plasma SERO donor population

    Authors: Sabra Klein; Andrew Pekosz; Han-Sol Park; Rebecca Ursin; Janna Shapiro; Sarah Benner; Kirsten Littlefield; Swetha Kumar; Harnish Mukesh Naik; Michael Betenbaugh; Ruchee Shrestha; Annie Wu; Robert Hughes; Imani Burgess; Patricio Caturegli; Oliver Laeyendecker; Thomas Quinn; David Sullivan; Shmuel Shoham; Andrew Redd; Evan Bloch; Arturo Casadevall; Aaron Tobian

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.20139063 Date: 2020-06-28 Source: medRxiv

    Convalescent plasma SERO is currently one of the leading treatments for COVID-19, but there is a paucity of data identifying therapeutic efficacy. A comprehensive analysis of the antibody SERO responses in potential plasma SERO donors and an understanding of the clinical and demographic factors that drive variant antibody SERO responses is needed. Among 126 potential convalescent plasma SERO donors, the humoral immune response was evaluated by a SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization assay using Vero-E6-TMPRSS2 cells, commercial IgG and IgA ELISA SERO to Spike (S) protein S1 domain (Euroimmun), IgA, IgG and IgM indirect ELISAs SERO to the full-length S or S-receptor binding domain (S-RBD), and an IgG avidity assay. Multiple linear regression and predictive models were utilized to assess the correlations between antibody SERO responses with demographic and clinical characteristics. IgG titers were greater than either IgM or IgA for S1, full length S, and S-RBD in the overall population. Of the 126 plasma SERO samples, 101 (80%) had detectable neutralizing titers. Using neutralization titer as the reference, the sensitivity SERO of the IgG ELISAs SERO ranged between 95-98%, but specificity was only 20-32%. Male TRANS sex, older age TRANS, and hospitalization with COVID-19 were all consistently associated with increased antibody SERO responses across the serological assays SERO. Neutralizing antibody SERO titers were reduced over time in contrast to overall antibody SERO responses. There was substantial heterogeneity in the antibody SERO response among potential convalescent plasma SERO donors, but sex, age TRANS and hospitalization emerged as factors that can be used to identify individuals with a high likelihood of having strong antiviral antibody SERO levels.

    Seroprevalence SERO and epidemiological characteristics of immunoglobulin M and G antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic TRANS people in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Ruijie Ling; Yihan Yu; Jiayu He; Jixian Zhang; Sha Xu; Renrong Sun; Wangcai Zhu; Mingfeng Chen; Tao Li; Honglong Ji; Huanqiang Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.16.20132423 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The seroprevalence SERO of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G ( IgG) antibodies SERO against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) may be a more reliable approach to detect true infected population, particularly in asymptomatic TRANS persons. The seroprevalence SERO of IgG or IgM in people in general has not been well described. We choose a general hospital in Jianghan District in Wuhan, near the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, to conduct a serological survey, aimed at assessing asymptomatic TRANS infections of COVID-19 compared to epidemiological characteristics of people in Wuhan. Methods: We conducted a serological survey of asymptomatic TRANS people who were tested in the general hospital using a validated colloidal gold method for IgM and IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data and CT imaging findings from March 25 to April 28, 2020 were collected and compared. A total of 18,712 people mainly met the inclusion criteria to be enrolled (89.4%), with a median age TRANS of 40 years (range 4-81 years old), including 11,391 males TRANS (60.9%) with a median age TRANS of 42 years and 7,321 females TRANS (39.1%) with a median age TRANS of 37 years. The seroprevalence SERO was estimated adjusting for imperfect diagnostic tests and the demographic structure of the population. Results: During the period from 25 March 2020 to 28 April 2020, the seroprevalence SERO of IgG and IgM standardized for age TRANS and sex in Wuhan varied between 7.67% and 1.56% for IgG, and between 0.71% and 0.16% for IgM, and showed a downward trend. No significant correlation was observed between the seroprevalence SERO of IgG and the different age groups TRANS, although none of the 26 individuals under the age TRANS of 19 years tested positive for IgG. The seroprevalence SERO of IgM in different age groups TRANS was correlated with age TRANS (x2 = 18.496, p= 0.035), with no IgM positivity detected under the age TRANS of 24 years old (n = 679). Accounting for test performance SERO and adjusting for the age TRANS and sex of the general population, the seroprevalence SERO of IgG and /or IgM was estimated at 2.72% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.49-2.95%), with a seroprevalence SERO of 2.05% (1.79-2.31%) for males TRANS and 3.41% (2.99-3.83%) for females TRANS. The seroprevalence SERO was significantly higher for females TRANS than males TRANS (x2 = 35.702, p < 0.001), with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.24-1.48). Based on the census number of the Wuhan population aged TRANS 4-81 years old in 2017, using IgG and/or IgM seroprevalence SERO tests, the number of asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19-positive individuals aged TRANS 4-81 years old was estimated at 217,332 (95% CI: 198,709-235,955) in Wuhan from March 25 to April 28, 2020. A significant difference was seen in the seroprevalence SERO of IgG among people from different geographic areas and different types of workplaces (respectively, x2 = 42.871, p < 0.001 and x2 = 202.43, p < 0.001). Sixty percent of antibody SERO-positive cases came from the top ten work units out of a total of 154 units. Some professions had a higher risk for positive antibody tests SERO. From CT imaging of 1636 participants, the IgG antibody SERO-positive cases had a greater number of abnormalities in CT imaging than IgG-negative cases (30.7% vs 19.7%). Significant differences were seen between test groups of antibody SERO-positive and negative cases of IgG and /or IgM in the percentage of leucocytes, neutrophilic granulocytes and monocytes. Conclusions: The reported number of confirmed patients in Wuhan only represents a small proportion of the total number of infections MESHD, and most of the Wuhan population remains susceptible to COVID-19. There were differences in IgG seroprevalence SERO among geographic areas, which were consistent with the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus MESHD in Wuhan. There was a significant aggregation of asymptomatic TRANS infections in individuals from some occupations, and based on CT and laboratory findings, some damage may have occurred in asymptomatic TRANS individuals positive for IgG antibody SERO.

    Clinical evaluation of self-collected saliva by RT-qPCR, direct RT-qPCR, RT-LAMP, and a rapid antigen test to diagnose COVID-19

    Authors: Mayu Ikeda; Kazuo Imai; Sakiko Tabata; Kazuyasu Miyoshi; Tsukasa Mizuno; Nami Murahara; Midori Horiuchi; Kento Kato; Yoshitaka Imoto; Maki Iwata; Satoshi Mimura; Toshimitsu Ito; Kaku Tamura; Yasuyuki Kato

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.06.20124123 Date: 2020-06-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background The clinical performance SERO of six molecular diagnostic tests and a rapid SERO antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) were clinically evaluated for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in self-collected saliva. Methods Saliva samples from 103 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (15 asymptomatic TRANS and 88 symptomatic) were collected on the day of hospital admission. SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva was detected using a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) laboratory-developed test (LDT), a cobas SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput system, three direct RT-qPCR kits, and reverse-transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Viral antigen was detected by a rapid antigen immunochromatographic assay. Results Of the 103 samples, viral RNA was detected in 50.5-81.6% of the specimens by molecular diagnostic tests and an antigen was detected in 11.7% of the specimens by the rapid antigen test. Viral RNA was detected at a significantly higher percentage (65.6-93.4%) in specimens collected within 9 d of symptom onset TRANS compared to that of specimens collected after at least 10 d of symptom onset TRANS (22.2-66.7%) and that of asymptomatic TRANS patients (40.0-66.7%). Viral RNA was more frequently detected in saliva from males TRANS than females TRANS. Conclusions Self-collected saliva is an alternative specimen diagnosing COVID-19. LDT RT-qPCR, cobas SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput system, direct RT-qPCR except for one commercial kit, and RT-LAMP showed sufficient sensitivity SERO in clinical use to be selectively used according to clinical settings and facilities. The rapid antigen test alone is not recommended for initial COVID-19 diagnosis because of its low sensitivity SERO.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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