Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (25)

Fever (11)

Cough (10)

Hypertension (6)

Lymphopenia (5)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 25
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    Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors and Predictive Value of COVID-19 Pneumonia HP: A Retrospective Study of 173 Patients in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Yang Zhang; Jun Xue; Mi Yan; Jing Chen; Hai Liu; Shao-Bo Wang; Jian-Xing Luo; Fang Yang; Jian-Yuan Tang; Xiao-Yu Hu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76134/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 is a globally emerging infectious disease MESHD. As the global epidemic continues to spread, the risk of COVID-19 transmission TRANS and diffusion in the world will also remain. Currently, several studies describing its clinical characteristics have focused on the initial outbreak, but rarely to the later stage. Here we described clinical characteristics, risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from Wuhan. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD admitted to Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 13 to March 8, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome and establish predictive models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the predictive value of above models.Results: 106 (61.3%) of the patients were female TRANS. The mean age TRANS of study populations was 62.0 years, of whom 73 (42.2%) had underlying comorbidities mainly including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (24.9%). The most common symptoms on admission were fever HP fever MESHD (67.6%) and cough HP (60.1%), digestive symptoms (22.0%) was also very common. Older age TRANS (OR: 3.420; 95%Cl: 1.415-8.266; P=0.006), diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD (OR: 0.143; 95%Cl: 0.033-0.611; P=0.009) and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD (OR: 4.769; 95%Cl: 2.019-11.266; P=0.000) were associated with severe illness on admission; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of predictive model were 0.860 (95%CI: 0.802-0.918; P=0.000). Older age TRANS (OR: 0.309; 95%Cl: 0.142-0.674; P=0.003), leucopenia (OR: 0.165; 95%Cl: 0.034-0.793; P=0.025), increased lactic dehydrogenase (OR: 0.257; 95%Cl: 0.100-0.659; P=0.005) and interleukins-6 levels (OR: 0.294; 95%Cl: 0.099-0.872; P=0.027) were associated with poor in-hospital outcome; AUC of predictive model were 0.752 (95%CI: 0.681-0.824; P=0.000).Conclusion: Older patients with diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD need early identification and timely intervention to prevent the progression to severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. However, older patients with leucopenia, increased lactic dehydrogenase and interleukins-6 levels are at a high risk for poor in-hospital outcome.Trial registration: ChiCTR2000029549

    Clinical Characteristics of Severe Covid Pneumonia HP: Exploring New Trends in ICU

    Authors: Aftab Akhtar; Sheher Bano; Ahtesham Iqbal; Moazma Ramzan; Aayesha Qadeer; Syed Waqar Hussain; Anam Saleem; Omair-ul-Haq Lodhi; Sana Zubair; Abdul Hameed kiani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-69224/v1 Date: 2020-08-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In late December 2019, Covid-19 emerged as clusters of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD of unknown cause in a province of china, Wuhan. Etiological agent was identified as novel coronavirus that resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) MESHD and has zoonotic transmission TRANS. Covid pneumonia HP can remain asymptomatic TRANS, present as mild infection, severe HP infection, severe MESHD pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD or respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD. Diagnosis is based on rRT-PCR carried out on respiratory secretions. Covid related mortality exceeds 50% once patient requires ICU admission. Objective: To study the characteristics of ICU population admitted to ICU of Shifa International hospital.Results: we prospectively analysed 74 patients which included 43.3% females TRANS and 56.7% males TRANS. Commonest symptoms were shortness of breath MESHD (94.5%), fever HP fever MESHD (74.3%) and cough HP (74.3%). Most of our study population consisted of non-smokers (79.7%) and had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (59.4%) followed by diabetes MESHD (47.2%). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin combination is superior to hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline in reducing mortality (p=0.023) whereas Doxycycline alone resulted in increased mortality (p=0.009). Those who did not require antibiotics or required only narrow spectrum antibiotics had increased survival and reduced requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (p=< 0.0001). in our study population, (44.9%) developed acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD, 2.7% needed re-intubations 10.8% developed surgical emphysema HP emphysema MESHD and 2.7 % thromboembolic MESHD events despite full anticoagulation. ICU mortality was 41.8% and was higher in females TRANS (59.4%, p=0.008), those who had SOFA score > 3.5 at time of admission, raised D-Dimers > 931 ng/ml, NLR > 9.2. It was further high in those who required invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support (58.1% mortality p=< 0.001). ICU stay was more prolonged in those requiring invasive mechanical ventilation as compared to those who did not. (23 days vs 6 days, p=0.001). Mean plateau pressure was 19.6 ± 7.6; mean Driving pressures 14.4 ± 4.6; mean PaO2/FiO2 150.7 ± 73.9; mean SPO2/FiO2 173.9 ± 106.9; mean PEEP was 8.2 ±4.33.Conclusion: We concluded that severe covid pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD is common amongst males TRANS, non-smokers those who had comorbid. HCQ and azithromycin combination is superior to combination of HCQ and doxycycline or doxycycline alone and QT prolongation MESHD is a rare complication. Baseline NLR, APACHI II, SOFA, SAPS II, NUTRIC scores, D-Dimers, invasive ventilation and vasopressor support are important tools to predict ICU mortality. Invasive mechanical ventilation carries higher mortality and associated with more prolonged ICU stay. AKI is most common complication followed by shock HP and surgical emphysema HP emphysema MESHD. CRP, Ferritin levels has no impact on outcome.

    ROX Index Predicts Intubation in Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia HP and Moderate to Severe Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure MESHD Respiratory Failure HP Receiving High Flow Nasal Therapy.

    Authors: Maulin Patel; Junad Chowdhury; Nicole Mills; Robert Marron; Andrew Gangemi; Zachariah Dorey-Stein; Ibraheem Yousef; Matthew Zheng; Lauren Tragesser; Julie Giurintano; Rohit Gupta; Parth Rali; Huaqing Zhao; Nicole Patlakh; Nathaniel Marchetti; Gerard Criner; Matthew Gordon

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.30.20143867 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Use of high flow nasal therapy (HFNT) to treat COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD has been greatly debated around the world due to concern for increased healthcare worker transmission TRANS and delays in invasive mechanical Ventilation (IMV). Methods A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from March 10, 2020, to May 17, 2020 with moderate to severe respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD treated with High Flow nasal therapy (HFNT). HFNT MESHD patients were divided into two groups: HFNT only and HFNT progressed to IMV. The primary outcome was the ability of the ROX index to predict the need of IMV. Results Of the 837 patients with COVID-19, 129 met inclusion criteria. The mean age TRANS was 60.8 ({+/-}13.6) years, BMI 32.6 ({+/-}8), 58 (45 %) were female TRANS, 72 (55.8%) were African American, 40 (31%) Hispanic. 48 (37.2%) were smokers. Mean time to intubation was 2.5 days ({+/-} 3.3). ROX index of less than 5 at HFNT initiation was predictive of progression to IMV (OR = 2.137, p = 0,052). Any decrease in ROX index after HFNT initiation was predictive of intubation (OR= 14.67, p <0.0001). {Delta}ROX (<=0 versus >0), peak D-dimer >4000 and admission GFR < 60 ml/min were very strongly predictive of need for IMV (ROC = 0.86, p=). Mortality was 11.2% in HFNT only group versus 47.5% in the HFNT progressed to IMV group (p,0.0001). Mortality and need for pulmonary vasodilators were higher in the HNFT progressed to IMV group. Conclusion ROX index is a valuable, noninvasive tool to evaluate patients with moderate to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure MESHD respiratory failure HP in COVID-19 treated with HFNT. ROX helps predicts need for IMV and thus limiting morbidity and mortality associated with IMV.

    On two cases of atypical respiratory distress HP in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo months before the COVID-19 pandemic was declared: Could SARS-Cov-2 have been already spreading? Case report

    Authors: Guy-Quesney MATESO; Marius BAGUMA; Pacifique MWENE-BATU; Ghislain MAHESHE BALEMBA; Fabrice NZABARA; Samuel MAKALI; Aline BEDHA; Bonheur FURAHA; Jimmy MINANI; Christian TSHONGO MUHINDO; Espoir BWENGE MALEMBAKA; Mannix Imani MASIMANGO; Tony Akilimali SHINDANO; Justin Cirhuza CIKOMOLA; Kanigula MUBAGWA

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39772/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundPredictions have been made that Africa would be the most vulnerable continent to the novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Interestingly, the spread of the disease TRANS in Africa seems to have been delayed and initially slower than in many parts of the World. Here we report on two cases which make us suspect that COVID-19 might have been present in our region before the official declaration of the disease in December 2019.Case presentationThese two cases (one 55-year-old man and one 25-year-old woman) of acute respiratory distress HP secondary to atypical pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD were seen in Bukavu, in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), between September and December 2019. One patient had returned from China and the other had close contacts TRANS with travellers from China in the 2 weeks prior to the onset of symptoms TRANS. In either case, the aetiology could not be accurately determined. However, the two cases presented a clinical picture (progressive dyspnoea MESHD, preceded by dry cough MESHD cough HP and fever HP fever MESHD) and laboratory changes (procalcitonin within the normal range, slight inflammation MESHD, and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD) compatible with a viral infection MESHD. The chest X-Rays series of the first patient showed lesions (reticulations, ground glass, and nodules ≤ 6 mm) similar to those found in COVID-19. In addition, unlike the 25-year-old female TRANS patient who had no comorbidity, the 55-year-old male TRANS patient who had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD as comorbidity, developed a more severe acute respiratory distress HP which progressed to death.ConclusionThese cases bring to the attention a number of facts which make us suspect that the COVID-19 epidemic may have already been present in the region months before the official beginning of the pandemic.

    Exposure risk of patients with chronic infectious wounds during the COVID-19 outbreak and its countermeasures

    Authors: Haiying Zhou; Qianjun Jin; hui lu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-36407/v1 Date: 2020-06-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    BACKGROUND A large number of cases of pneumonia HP caused by novel β-coronavirus emerged in Hubei Province, China, at the end of 2019 and demonstrated great potential for transmission TRANS. At present, known independent risk factors include age TRANS, diabetes and other chronic diseases, which may be similar to the patients with chronic wound, thus we try to explore the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors and management recommendation of patients with chronic infective wounds during the COVID-19 epidemic period. METHODS In this single-center, retrospective observational study, we included all cases with chronic infective wounds that came to our hospital between the full outbreak of the COVID-19 in China (January 23, 2020) and the latest date prior to posting (20 April 2020). Demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory and imaging findings, consultation history and clinical outcomes (lesion cured, uncontrolled, amputated, etc. as of May 10, 2020) were collected for all individuals. Patients were subdivided into gangrene HP, traumatic infection and other types of soft tissue infection wound (including bedsores, gout HP ruptures, stab wounds and so on) according to the causes of wound and their disease-related information were compared group by group. RESULTS Among the total 81 patients with chronic infective wounds, 60% was male TRANS, with a mean age TRANS of 60.8 years (SD 18.6), including 38 (47%) patients with traumatic infection, 29 (36%) gangrene HP cases, and 14 (17%) other soft tissue infection wounds. Common comorbidities are hypertension HP (32%), diabetes (32%), cardiovascular disease (24%), and kidney injury (12%), and the patients with gangrenes HP have the most comorbidities. As of May 10, 2020, there were 78 patients discharged and their average stay time is 15.8 days(SD 14.2), while people still at the hospital is 39.7days(SD 8.7)much longer than the discharged and also has more comorbidities. But there is no significant difference in the hospitalization time of three types of wounds. And fortunately, none of all the patients were infected by coronavirus. CONCLUSION The majority of patients with chronic wounds are severely ill with high risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS and poor prognosis, therefore management of patients with chronic wounds should be improved.

    Exposure risk of patients with chronic infectious wounds during the COVID-19 outbreak and its countermeasures

    Authors: Haiying Zhou; Qianjun Jin; hui lu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-36407/v2 Date: 2020-06-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    BACKGROUND: A large number of cases of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD caused by novel β-coronavirus emerged in Hubei Province, China, at the end of 2019 and demonstrated great potential for transmission TRANS. At present, known independent risk factors include age TRANS, diabetes MESHD and other chronic diseases MESHD, which may be similar to the patients with chronic wound, thus we try to explore the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors and management recommendation of patients with chronic infective wounds during the COVID-19 epidemic period. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective observational study, we included all cases with chronic infective wounds that came to our hospital between the full outbreak of the COVID-19 in China (January 23, 2020) and the latest date prior to posting (20 April 2020). Demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory and imaging findings, consultation history and clinical outcomes (lesion cured, uncontrolled, amputated, etc. as of May 10, 2020) were collected for all individuals. Patients were subdivided into gangrene HP gangrene MESHD, traumatic infection MESHD and other types of soft tissue infection MESHD wound (including bedsores, gout HP gout MESHD ruptures, stab wounds and so on) according to the causes of wound and their disease-related information were compared group by group.RESULTS : Among the total 81 patients with chronic infective wounds, 60% were male TRANS, with a mean age TRANS of 60.8 years (SD 18.6), including 38 (47%) patients with traumatic infection MESHD, 29 (36%) gangrene HP gangrene MESHD cases, and 14 (17%) other soft tissue infection MESHD wounds. Common comorbidities are hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (32%), diabetes MESHD (32%), cardiovascular disease MESHD (24%), and kidney injury MESHD (12%), and the patients with gangrenes HP have the most comorbidities. As of May 10, 2020, there were 78 patients discharged and their average stay time is 15.8 days(SD 14.2), while people still at the hospital is 39.7days(SD 8.7)much longer than the discharged and also has more comorbidities. But there is no significant difference in the hospitalization time of three types of wounds. And fortunately, none of all the patients were infected by coronavirus.CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with chronic wounds are severely ill with high risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and poor prognosis, therefore management of patients with chronic wounds should be improved.

    Use of High Flow Nasal Therapy to Treat Moderate to Severe Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure MESHD Respiratory Failure HP in COVID-19

    Authors: Maulin Patel; Andrew Gangemi; Robert Marron; Junad Chowdhury; Ibraheem Yousef; Matthew Zheng; Nicole Mills; Lauren Tragesser; Julie Giurintano; Rohit Gupta; Matthew Gordon; Parth Rali; David Fleece; Huaqing Zhao; Nicole Patlakh; Gerard J Criner

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20109355 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Invasive mechanical has been associated with high mortality in COVID-19. Alternative therapy of High flow nasal therapy (HFNT) has been greatly debated around the world for use in COVID-19 pandemic due to concern for increased healthcare worker transmission TRANS. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from March 10, 2020, to April 24, 2020 with moderate to severe respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD treated with High Flow nasal therapy (HFNT). Primary outcome was prevention of intubation. Results Of the 445 patients with COVID-19, 104 met our inclusion criteria. The average age TRANS was 60.66 (+13.50) years, 49 (47.12 %) were female TRANS, 53 (50.96%) were African American, 23 (22.12%) Hispanic. Forty-three patients (43.43%) were smokers. SF and chest Xray scores had a statistically significant improvement from day 1 to day 7. 67 of 104 (64.42%) were able to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation in our cohort. Incidence of hospital/ventilator associated pneumonia HP was 2.9%. Overall, mortality was 14.44% (n=15) in our cohort with 13 (34.4%) in the progressed to intubation group and 2 (2.9%) in the non-intubation group. Mortality and incidence of VAP/HAP was statistically higher in the progressed to intubation group. Conclusion HFNT use is associated with a reduction in the rate of Invasive mechanical ventilation and overall mortality in patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD.

    On two cases of atypical respiratory distress HP in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo months before the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. Could SARS-Cov-2 have been already spreading? Case report

    Authors: Guy-Quesney MATESO; Marius BAGUMA; Pacifique MWENE-BATU; Ghislain MAHESHE BALEMBA; Fabrice NZABARA; Samuel MAKALI; Aline BEDHA; Bonheur FURAHA; Jimmy MINANI; Christian TSHONGO MUHINDO; Espoir BWENGE MALEMBAKA; Mannix Imani MASIMANGO; Tony Akilimali SHINDANO; Justin Cirhuza CIKOMOLA; Kanigula MUBAGWA

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29541/v1 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Predictions have been made that Africa would be the most vulnerable continent to the novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Interestingly, the spread of the disease TRANS in Africa seems to be slower than in many parts of the World. Among possible hypotheses, some parts of Africa may have undergone a “silent” COVID-19 epidemic and acquired a herd immunity before the official declaration of the disease in December 2019.Case presentation: We report two cases (one 55-year-old man and one 25-year-old woman) of acute respiratory distress HP secondary to atypical pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in Bukavu, in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) which occurred between September and December 2019, before the official beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. One patient had returned from China and the other had close contacts TRANS with travellers from China in the 2 weeks prior to the onset of symptoms TRANS. In either case, the aetiology could not be accurately determined. However, the two cases presented a clinical picture (progressive dyspnoea MESHD, preceded by dry cough MESHD cough HP and fever HP fever MESHD) and laboratory changes (procalcitonin within the normal range, slight inflammation MESHD, and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD) compatible with a viral infection MESHD. The chest X-Rays series of the first patient showed lesions (reticulations, ground glass, and nodules ≤ 6 mm) similar to those found in COVID-19. In addition, unlike the 25-year-old female TRANS patient who had no comorbidity, the 55-year-old male TRANS patient who had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD as comorbidity, developed a more severe acute respiratory distress HP which progressed to death.Conclusion: These cases bring to the attention a number of facts which make us suspect that the COVID-19 epidemic may have already been present in the region months before the official beginning of the pandemic. 

    Epidemiological and clinical features of 201 COVID-19 patients in Changsha city, Hunan, China

    Authors: Jian Zhou; Jing-jing Sun; Zi-qin Cao; Wan-chun Wang; Kang Huang; Fang Zheng; Yuan-lin Xie; Di-xuan Jiang; Zhi-guo Zhou

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-27266/v1 Date: 2020-05-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In December 2019, a cluster of coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. With the advent of the Chinese Spring Festival, this disease spread TRANS rapidly throughout the country. The information about the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients outside of Wuhan is limited.Methods: All of the patients with confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to the First Hospital of Changsha City, the designated hospital for COVID-19 assigned by the Changsha City Government. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics, data of laboratory, radiological picture, treatment, and outcomes records of 201 COVID-19 patients were collected using electronic medical records.Results: This study population consisted of 201 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Changsha by April 28, 2020. The median age TRANS of the patients was 45 years (IQR 34–59). About half (50.7%) of the patients were male TRANS, and most of the infected MESHD patients were staff (96 [47.8%]). Concerning the epidemiologic history, the number of patients linked to Wuhan was 92 (45.8%). The most common symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD (125 [62.2%]), dry cough MESHD cough HP (118 [58.7%]), fatigue HP fatigue MESHD (65 [32.3%]), and pharyngalgia (31 [15.4%]). One hundred and forty-four (71.6%) enrolled patients showed bilateral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Fifty-four (26.9%) patients showed unilateral involvement, and three (1.5%) patients showed no abnormal signs or symptoms. The laboratory findings differed significantly between the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and non-ICU groups. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU MESHD patients had depressed MESHD white blood SERO cell (WBC), neutrocytes, lymphocytes, and prolonged prothrombin time HP (PT). Moreover, higher plasma SERO levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), alanine aminotransferase (ALA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), creatinine (CREA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected in the ICU group.Conclusions: In this single-center study of 201 COVID-19 patients in Changsha, China, 22.4% of patients were admitted to ICU. Based on our findings, we propose that the risk of cellular immune deficiency MESHD, hepatic injury MESHD, and kidney injury MESHD should be monitored. Previous reports focused on the clinical features of patients from Wuhan, China. With the global epidemic of COVID-19, we should pay more attention to the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients outside of Wuhan.

    The Epidemiology, Evolution, Transmission TRANS and Therapeutics of COVID-19 Outbreak: An Update on the Status

    Authors: Karan Singh Labana; Amit Kumar Mittal; Akash Gujral

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0525.v1 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: Preprints.org

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is an etiologic agent of the respiratory disease MESHD in humans that is known as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID19). The first outbreak of the disease was initially documented in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in late December 2019 where people had experienced SARS pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP-like symptoms with unknown etiology. Since then it has been observed that COVID-19 positive patients have been showing mild to severe upper respiratory illness symptoms MESHD. The type of virus is known to make its transfer from animals to humans and for the concerned virus; researchers have claimed its origin from bat coronavirus at whole-genome level with a 96 % sequence identity. The COVID-19 virus is very contagious and communicable in nature and has been spread throughout the globe since its first outbreak in China. On March 9, 2020, WHO declared it as a Pandemic, and within a month it was already reported to have shown its presence in 213 countries and territories or areas. As of April 29, 2020, this novel virus infected 3,218,183 people and caused 228,029 mortalities worldwide with a variable mortality rate from 3-13 % across the planet and also varied by age TRANS and gender TRANS. Diagnosis of the disease is a key component in understanding and controlling the spread of the virus and several techniques have been devised including RT-PCR, ELISA SERO, and sequencing-based approaches. To cure COVID-19 patients as of now we do not have proven to be a safe and effective treatment. Therapeutic options currently under investigation in various parts of the world. However, there are various effective therapeutic targets to repurpose the present antiviral therapy for developing potential interventions against SARS-CoV-2. Boosting the immune system can also help to prevent and spread of COVID-19 using various medication and exercises. In this review, our goal to summarize and discussed the present scientific advancements to fight against this novel pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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